Turco Municipality

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Turco Municipality

Turku
Municipality
Suri 1.JPG
Darwin's rhea (Rhea pennata garleppi) photographed at the Tika Uta ranch, Turco Municipality
Bolivia adm location map.svg
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Turco Municipality
Location of the Turco Municipality within Bolivia
Coordinates: 18°10′S68°11′W / 18.167°S 68.183°W / -18.167; -68.183 Coordinates: 18°10′S68°11′W / 18.167°S 68.183°W / -18.167; -68.183
Country Flag of Bolivia.svg Bolivia
Department Oruro Department
Province Sajama Province
Cantons 4
CreatedFebruary 15, 1957
Seat Turco
Area
  Total1,534 sq mi (3,973 km2)
Elevation
12,660 ft (3,860 m)
Population
 (2001)
  Total4,160
  Ethnicities
Aymara
Main square of Turco Vista de la plaza de turco.JPG
Main square of Turco

Turco Municipality is the second municipal section of the Sajama Province in the Oruro Department in Bolivia, and was founded on February 15, 1957. [1] Its seat is Turco, situated 154 km west of Oruro at an altitude of 3,860 m. The municipality covers an area of 3,973 km², not taking into account the area of Laca Laca Canton. [1] [2]

Contents

It is bordered to the north by the Curahuara de Carangas Municipality and San Pedro de Totora Province, to the south by the Litoral and Sabaya Provinces, to the west by Chile and to the east by the Carangas Province (Qhurqhi (Corque) and Chuqi Quta (Choquecota) Municipalities).

Geography

The most important rivers are Sajama, Cosapa, Lauca, K'uwiri and Qullpa Jawira (also named río Turco, Turco River) .

A couple of volcanoes and mountains of the Bolivian Western Mountain Range like Uqi Uqini and the volcanic complex of Kimsa Chata, a group of three mountains named Umurata, Acotango and Capurata in the west of the municipality are making up the natural border of Turco Municipality with Chile. Other mountains are listed below: [3]

Subdivision

The municipality is divided into four cantons and nine ayllus.

CantonCreated [1] Inhabitants (2001) [4]
Asunción Laca LacaDecember 21, 1962342
ChachakumaniAugust 30, 1957374
CosapaNovember 11, 1950918
TurcoJuly 27, 19512,526

Flora and fauna

Polylepis tarapacana near Sajama volcano Polylepis Tarapacana 1.jpg
Polylepis tarapacana near Sajama volcano
Tunilla soehrensii Tunilla soehrensii 1.jpg
Tunilla soehrensii

Part of Cosapa Canton is situated within Sajama National Park. [5] This park was created to conserve the rare woods of the queñua species Polylepis tarapacana and to protect species of wild flora and fauna like yareta (Azorella compacta), Andean hairy armadillo (Chaetophractus nationi), Darwin's rhea (Pterocnemia pennata), vicuña (Vicugna vicugna), taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis), Andean mountain cat (Felis jacobita) and cougar or puma (Felis concolor), all of them occurring in the municipality, [1] as well as their habitat.

The region has a rich diversity of native plants which are both useful for the inhabitants and the animals. The most important species are: [1]

Common nameScientific nameUsability
AñawayaAdesmia spinosissimaforage for llamas
WayllaStipa obtusaforage for llamas
Ichu Stipa ichu forage, handicraft
Iru ichuFestuca orthophyllaforage, handicraft
Qanlli kiskaTetraglochin cristatumforage
ChillkaSenecio pampaeforage, medical plant
Yarita, yaretaAzorella asorellamedical plant, heating material
Tara taraFabiana densamedical plant, heating material
Ñaka thulaBaccharis incarummedical plant, heating material
Supu thulaParastrephya lepidophyllamedical plant, heating material
AyrampuOpuntia soehrensii / Tunilla soehrensiimedical plant, forage
Muña muñaSatureja ovatamedical plant, forage
ItapalluCajophora horridamedical plant, forage
Kinwa, queñuaPolylepis tarapacanaforage, heating material, ornamental
ChachakumaEscallonia resinosamedical plant
Llapa, pasto banderaBoutelova simplexforage
Yawarilla, cebadilla comúnBromus unioloidesforage
Cebadilla de montañaAgrostis breviculmisforage
Chiji blancoDistichlis humilisforage
Chiji negroMulenbergia fastigiataforage
GarbancilloAstragalus garbancillotoxic
LampayaLampaya medicinalismedical plant, forage, heating material
QuraCajophora horridaforage
K’achuAnoda triangularisforage

The people

Most of the people in the municipality are of Aymara descent known as Carangas. They are mostly bilingual. According to census 2001 the main languages spoken are Spanish (3,544 speakers) and Aymara (3,259 speakers). [4]

Transport

Route 4 (Ruta 4) near Tambo Quemado with Sajama volcano in the background Ruta 4 (Bolivia) con el Nevado Sajama de fondo.jpg
Route 4 (Ruta 4) near Tambo Quemado with Sajama volcano in the background

The international transit road from Oruro to Chile crosses Turco Municipality leading to Tambo Quemado situated in the Chachacomani Canton in the north-western part of the municipality [1] [6] at the border between Chile and Bolivia.

See also

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Kuntur Ikiña (Sajama)

Kuntur Ikiña is a 5,044-metre-high (16,549 ft) mountain in the Andes located in the Cordillera Occidental of Bolivia. It is situated in the Oruro Department, Sajama Province, Turco Municipality, north-east of Umurata and south of the Bolivian Route 4 that leads to Tambo Quemado on the border with Chile.

Salla Qullu

Salla Qullu is a 4,990-metre-high (16,371 ft) mountain in the Cordillera Occidental in the Andes of Bolivia. It is situated in the Oruro Department, Sajama Province, Turco Municipality, Chachacomani Canton, south-east of the mountain Capurata and the Acotango volcano and south of the Bolivian Route 4 that leads to Tambo Quemado on the border with Chile.

Wila Qullu (Turco)

Wila Qullu is a 4,730-metre-high (15,518 ft) mountain in the Cordillera Occidental in the Andes of Bolivia. It is located in the Oruro Department, Sajama Province, Turco Municipality, Chachacomani Canton. The mountain is situated east of the volcanoes Capurata, Acotango and Wallatiri and north-east of the mountain Ari Qullu Phujru. It lies south of the Bolivian Route 4 that leads to Tambo Quemado on the border with Chile.

Wila Qullu may refer to:

Uqi Uqini

Uqi Uqini is a 5,532-metre-high (18,150 ft) volcano in the Andes. It is situated in the Cordillera Occidental on the border of Bolivia and Chile. Uqi Uqini is located in the Arica and Parinacota Region of Chile and in the Oruro Department of Bolivia, in the Sajama Province, Turku Municipality, Chachakumani Canton. Uqi Uqini lies south of National Route 4 near the Chungara-Tambo Quemado pass and north of Umurata, Acotango and Capurata.

Taypi Qullu may refer to:

Wankarani (Bolivia)

Wankarani is a mountain in the Andes of Bolivia, about 4,980 metres (16,339 ft) high. It lies in the Oruro Department, Sajama Province, in the north of the Turco Municipality. Wankarani is situated south-west of the Kimsa Chata group, north-east of the mountain Yaritani and south-east of the mountains Ch'iyar Jaqhi and Surani.

Jiska Kunturiri

Jisk'a Kunturiri is a mountain in the Andes of Bolivia which rises up to 5,488 metres (18,005 ft). It is situated in the Oruro Department, Sajama Province, Curahuara de Carangas Municipality, Sajama Canton, north-west of the extinct Sajama volcano. Kunturi lies south-west of the mountains Jach'a Kunturiri and Pumuta, north-east of Patilla Pata and the small lake named Ch'iyar Quta and east of the mountain Kunturiri.

Ari Qullu Phujru

Ari Qullu Phujru is a 4,974-metre-high (16,319 ft) mountain in the Cordillera Occidental in the Andes of Bolivia. It is situated in the Oruro Department, Sajama Province, Turco Municipality, Chachacomani Canton, south-east of the volcanic complex of Kimsa Chata.

Chachakumani (Oruro)

Chachakumani is a 4,712-metre-high (15,459 ft) mountain in the Cordillera Occidental in the Andes of Bolivia. It is situated in the Oruro Department, Sajama Province, in the west of the Turco Municipality. Chachakumani lies south of Muru Qullu, northeast of Umurata and Kuntur Ikiña and southeast of Uqi Uqini. The Jaruma River flows between Muru Qullu and Chachakumani. It is a tributary of the Sajama River.

Janqu Jaqhi (Oruro)

Janq'u Jaqhi is a mountain in the Andes of Bolivia which reaches a height of approximately 4,520 metres (14,829 ft). It is located in the Oruro Department, Sajama Province, at the border of the municipalities of Curahuara de Carangas and Turco. Janq'u Jaqhi lies southwest of Chilli Qhata.

Kimsa Misa

Kimsa Misa is a mountain in the Andes of Bolivia which reaches a height of approximately 4,800 m (15,700 ft). It is located in the Oruro Department, Sajama Province, at the border of the municipalities of Curahuara de Carangas and Turco. Kimsa Misa lies north of Wayna Potosí.

Janqu Willki (Sajama)

Janq'u Willk'i is a mountain in the Andes of Bolivia which reaches a height of approximately 4,900 m (16,100 ft). It is located in the Oruro Department, Sajama Province, Turco Municipality. Janq'u Willk'i lies southwest of Ch'iyar Jaqhi.

Chiyar Jaqhi (Turco)

Ch'iyar Jaqhi is a 4,620-metre-high (15,160 ft) mountain in the Andes of Bolivia. It is located in the Oruro Department, Sajama Province, Turco Municipality. Ch'iyar Jaqhi lies east of Qhapaqa and Killaqa.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Plan de desarollo municipal Municipio de Turco (Spanish)
  2. The data of the area of Laca Laca Canton were erroneously added to the Choquecota Municipality during the census of 2001.
  3. Bolivian IGM map 1:50,000 Chachacomani Hoja 5838-IV, Cerro Uyarani Hoja 5838-I, Estancia Antin Curahuara 5939-III, Estancia Agua Rica Hoja 5839-II, Estancia Laguna 5839-III, Estancia Marcarani 5939-IV, Estancia Miraflores 5838-II, Nevado Quimsachata Hoja 5738-I
  4. 1 2 Instituto Nacional de Estadistica de Bolivia (INE) (Spanish)
  5. Mireya Muñoz, El Parque Nacional Sajama: Un caso de paisaje cultural en el altiplano de Bolivia p. 194
  6. In the map below Tambo Quemado erroneously is shown as part of Lagunas Canton in the Curahuara de Carangas Municipality (Sajama Province), but actually belongs to Turco Municipality.