Darwin's rhea (Rhea pennata garleppi) photographed at the Tika Uta ranch, Turco Municipality
|Created||February 15, 1957|
|• Total||1,534 sq mi (3,973 km2)|
|Elevation||12,660 ft (3,860 m)|
Turco Municipality is the second municipal section of the Sajama Province in the Oruro Department in Bolivia, and was founded on February 15, 1957. km west of Oruro at an altitude of 3,860 m. The municipality covers an area of 3,973 km², not taking into account the area of Laca Laca Canton.Its seat is Turco, situated 154
It is bordered to the north by the Curahuara de Carangas Municipality and San Pedro de Totora Province, to the south by the Litoral and Sabaya Provinces, to the west by Chile and to the east by the Carangas Province (Qhurqhi (Corque) and Chuqi Quta (Choquecota) Municipalities).
The most important rivers are Sajama, Cosapa, Lauca, K'uwiri and Qullpa Jawira (also named río Turco, Turco River) .
A couple of volcanoes and mountains of the Bolivian Western Mountain Range like Uqi Uqini and the volcanic complex of Kimsa Chata, a group of three mountains named Umurata, Acotango and Capurata in the west of the municipality are making up the natural border of Turco Municipality with Chile. Other mountains are listed below:
The municipality is divided into four cantons and nine ayllus.
|Asunción Laca Laca||December 21, 1962||342|
|Chachakumani||August 30, 1957||374|
|Cosapa||November 11, 1950||918|
|Turco||July 27, 1951||2,526|
Part of Cosapa Canton is situated within Sajama National Park.This park was created to conserve the rare woods of the queñua species Polylepis tarapacana and to protect species of wild flora and fauna like yareta (Azorella compacta), Andean hairy armadillo (Chaetophractus nationi), Darwin's rhea (Pterocnemia pennata), vicuña (Vicugna vicugna), taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis), Andean mountain cat (Felis jacobita) and cougar or puma (Felis concolor), all of them occurring in the municipality, as well as their habitat.
The region has a rich diversity of native plants which are both useful for the inhabitants and the animals. The most important species are:
|Common name||Scientific name||Usability|
|Añawaya||Adesmia spinosissima||forage for llamas|
|Waylla||Stipa obtusa||forage for llamas|
|Ichu||Stipa ichu||forage, handicraft|
|Iru ichu||Festuca orthophylla||forage, handicraft|
|Qanlli kiska||Tetraglochin cristatum||forage|
|Chillka||Senecio pampae||forage, medical plant|
|Yarita, yareta||Azorella asorella||medical plant, heating material|
|Tara tara||Fabiana densa||medical plant, heating material|
|Ñaka thula||Baccharis incarum||medical plant, heating material|
|Supu thula||Parastrephya lepidophylla||medical plant, heating material|
|Ayrampu||Opuntia soehrensii / Tunilla soehrensii||medical plant, forage|
|Muña muña||Satureja ovata||medical plant, forage|
|Itapallu||Cajophora horrida||medical plant, forage|
|Kinwa, queñua||Polylepis tarapacana||forage, heating material, ornamental|
|Chachakuma||Escallonia resinosa||medical plant|
|Llapa, pasto bandera||Boutelova simplex||forage|
|Yawarilla, cebadilla común||Bromus unioloides||forage|
|Cebadilla de montaña||Agrostis breviculmis||forage|
|Chiji blanco||Distichlis humilis||forage|
|Chiji negro||Mulenbergia fastigiata||forage|
|Lampaya||Lampaya medicinalis||medical plant, forage, heating material|
Most of the people in the municipality are of Aymara descent known as Carangas. They are mostly bilingual. According to census 2001 the main languages spoken are Spanish (3,544 speakers) and Aymara (3,259 speakers).
The international transit road from Oruro to Chile crosses Turco Municipality leading to Tambo Quemado situated in the Chachacomani Canton in the north-western part of the municipalityat the border between Chile and Bolivia.
Inquisivi is a province in the La Paz Department in Bolivia. During the presidency of José Ballivián it was created on November 2, 1844. The capital of the province is Inquisivi.
Loayza or José Ramón Loayza is a province in the La Paz Department, Bolivia. Its seat is Luribay.
Sabaya is a province in the central parts of the Bolivian Oruro Department. Its seat is Sabaya.
Eduardo Abaroa, also Eduardo Avaroa, or Challapata is a province in the southeastern parts of the Bolivian department of Oruro. Its seat is Challapata. The province was named after Colonel Eduardo Abaroa, Bolivia's hero of the War of the Pacific.
Sajama is a province in the northwestern parts of the Bolivian Oruro Department.
San Pedro de Totora is a province in the northern parts of the Bolivian department of Oruro.
Kuntur Ikiña is a 5,044-metre-high (16,549 ft) mountain in the Andes located in the Cordillera Occidental of Bolivia. It is situated in the Oruro Department, Sajama Province, Turco Municipality, north-east of Umurata and south of the Bolivian Route 4 that leads to Tambo Quemado on the border with Chile.
Salla Qullu is a 4,990-metre-high (16,371 ft) mountain in the Cordillera Occidental in the Andes of Bolivia. It is situated in the Oruro Department, Sajama Province, Turco Municipality, Chachacomani Canton, south-east of the mountain Capurata and the Acotango volcano and south of the Bolivian Route 4 that leads to Tambo Quemado on the border with Chile.
Wila Qullu is a 4,730-metre-high (15,518 ft) mountain in the Cordillera Occidental in the Andes of Bolivia. It is located in the Oruro Department, Sajama Province, Turco Municipality, Chachacomani Canton. The mountain is situated east of the volcanoes Capurata, Acotango and Wallatiri and north-east of the mountain Ari Qullu Phujru. It lies south of the Bolivian Route 4 that leads to Tambo Quemado on the border with Chile.
Wila Qullu may refer to:
Uqi Uqini is a 5,532-metre-high (18,150 ft) volcano in the Andes. It is situated in the Cordillera Occidental on the border of Bolivia and Chile. Uqi Uqini is located in the Arica and Parinacota Region of Chile and in the Oruro Department of Bolivia, in the Sajama Province, Turku Municipality, Chachakumani Canton. Uqi Uqini lies south of National Route 4 near the Chungara-Tambo Quemado pass and north of Umurata, Acotango and Capurata.
Taypi Qullu may refer to:
Wankarani is a mountain in the Andes of Bolivia, about 4,980 metres (16,339 ft) high. It lies in the Oruro Department, Sajama Province, in the north of the Turco Municipality. Wankarani is situated south-west of the Kimsa Chata group, north-east of the mountain Yaritani and south-east of the mountains Ch'iyar Jaqhi and Surani.
Jisk'a Kunturiri is a mountain in the Andes of Bolivia which rises up to 5,488 metres (18,005 ft). It is situated in the Oruro Department, Sajama Province, Curahuara de Carangas Municipality, Sajama Canton, north-west of the extinct Sajama volcano. Kunturi lies south-west of the mountains Jach'a Kunturiri and Pumuta, north-east of Patilla Pata and the small lake named Ch'iyar Quta and east of the mountain Kunturiri.
Ari Qullu Phujru is a 4,974-metre-high (16,319 ft) mountain in the Cordillera Occidental in the Andes of Bolivia. It is situated in the Oruro Department, Sajama Province, Turco Municipality, Chachacomani Canton, south-east of the volcanic complex of Kimsa Chata.
Chachakumani is a 4,712-metre-high (15,459 ft) mountain in the Cordillera Occidental in the Andes of Bolivia. It is situated in the Oruro Department, Sajama Province, in the west of the Turco Municipality. Chachakumani lies south of Muru Qullu, northeast of Umurata and Kuntur Ikiña and southeast of Uqi Uqini. The Jaruma River flows between Muru Qullu and Chachakumani. It is a tributary of the Sajama River.
Janq'u Jaqhi is a mountain in the Andes of Bolivia which reaches a height of approximately 4,520 metres (14,829 ft). It is located in the Oruro Department, Sajama Province, at the border of the municipalities of Curahuara de Carangas and Turco. Janq'u Jaqhi lies southwest of Chilli Qhata.
Kimsa Misa is a mountain in the Andes of Bolivia which reaches a height of approximately 4,800 m (15,700 ft). It is located in the Oruro Department, Sajama Province, at the border of the municipalities of Curahuara de Carangas and Turco. Kimsa Misa lies north of Wayna Potosí.
Janq'u Willk'i is a mountain in the Andes of Bolivia which reaches a height of approximately 4,900 m (16,100 ft). It is located in the Oruro Department, Sajama Province, Turco Municipality. Janq'u Willk'i lies southwest of Ch'iyar Jaqhi.
Ch'iyar Jaqhi is a 4,620-metre-high (15,160 ft) mountain in the Andes of Bolivia. It is located in the Oruro Department, Sajama Province, Turco Municipality. Ch'iyar Jaqhi lies east of Qhapaqa and Killaqa.