Turnhout

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Turnhout
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Coat of arms
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Turnhout
Location in Belgium
Location of Turnhout in the province of Antwerp
TurnhoutLocatie.png
Coordinates: 51°19′N04°57′E / 51.317°N 4.950°E / 51.317; 4.950 Coordinates: 51°19′N04°57′E / 51.317°N 4.950°E / 51.317; 4.950
Country Belgium
Community Flemish Community
Region Flemish Region
Province Antwerp
Arrondissement Turnhout
Government
  MayorEric Vos (T.I.M.)
  Governing party/ies CD&V, SP.A, Groen!, T.I.M.
Area
  Total56.06 km2 (21.64 sq mi)
Population
(1 January 2017) [1]
  Total43,467
  Density780/km2 (2,000/sq mi)
Postal codes
2300
Area codes 014
Website www.turnhout.be

Turnhout (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈtʏrnɦʌut] ) is a Belgian municipality located in the Flemish province of Antwerp. The municipality comprises only the city of Turnhout proper. On January 1, 2015, Turnhout had a total population of 42,637. The total area is 56.06 km² which gives a population density of 835.5 inhabitants per km². [2] The agglomeration, however, is much larger, accounting up to 81,473 inhabitants. [3] Turnhout is known for its playing card industry, as it houses the head office of the world's largest manufacturer of playing cards, Cartamundi. Turnhout is also the capital of the administrative district with the same name. The Turnhout city council often promotes the city as "the capital of the Kempen area". This designation is entirely unofficial, since the Kempen area is far larger than the Turnhout district and does not form an administrative unit.

Belgium Federal constitutional monarchy in Western Europe

Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, and the North Sea to the northwest. It covers an area of 30,688 square kilometres (11,849 sq mi) and has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; other major cities are Antwerp, Ghent, Charleroi and Liège.

Flemish Region Region of Belgium

The Flemish Region is one of the three regions of the Kingdom of Belgium—alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region. Colloquially, it is usually simply referred to as Flanders. It occupies the northern part of Belgium and covers an area of 13,522 km2. It is one of the most densely populated regions of Europe with around 480 inhabitants per square kilometer.

Provinces of Belgium subdivision of Belgium

The country of Belgium is divided into three regions. Two of these regions, the Flemish Region or Flanders, and Walloon Region, or Wallonia, are each subdivided into five provinces. The third region, the Brussels-Capital Region, is not divided into provinces, as it was originally only a small part of a province itself.

Contents

Turnhout serves as the economic and cultural center for other communities in the immediate vicinity with more than 40 schools. There is also an important services sector with two hospitals, a two-stage theatre, an eight-screen cinema and one of the largest cultural centres of Belgium.

Turnhout is located at about 51.3 North and 4.9 East, 42 km from the centre of Antwerp, 30 km from Breda and Tilburg, 40 km from Eindhoven. The football club of the city is K.V. Turnhout.

Antwerp Municipality in Flemish Community, Belgium

Antwerp is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders. With a population of 520,504, it is the most populous city proper in Belgium, and with 1,200,000 the second largest metropolitan region after Brussels.

Breda City and municipality in North Brabant, Netherlands

Breda is a city and municipality in the southern part of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Brabant. The name derived from brede Aa and refers to the confluence of the rivers Mark and Aa.

Tilburg City and municipality in North Brabant, Netherlands

Tilburg is a city in the Netherlands, in the southern province of North Brabant. With a population of 217,595, it is the second largest municipality in North Brabant, and the sixth largest in the Netherlands.

History

Turnhout originated on the crossroads of two major trade routes and in the protection of the hunting castle of the Dukes of Brabant that seems to have existed since 1110 or earlier. This hunting past is still reflected in the city's coat of arms. The small community that developed obtained its Libertas as a "free city" from Henry I, Duke of Brabant in about 1212. In 1338, the privilege of organizing a market on Saturday was granted, a tradition that still holds today. In 1466, a traveler described the well-built houses and paved roads, and counted five churches.

The Duke of Brabant was formally the ruler of the Duchy of Brabant since 1183/1184. The title was created by the German Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in favor of Henry I of the House of Reginar, son of Godfrey III of Leuven. The Duchy of Brabant was a feudal elevation of the since 1085/1086 existing title of Landgrave of Brabant. This was an Imperial fief which was assigned to Count Henry III of Leuven shortly after the death of the preceding Count of Brabant, Count Palatine Herman II of Lotharingia. Although the corresponding county was quite small its name was applied to the entire country under control of the Dukes from the 13th century on. In 1190, after the death of Godfrey III, Henry I also became Duke of Lotharingia. Formerly Lower Lotharingia, this title was now practically without territorial authority, but was borne by the later Dukes of Brabant as an honorific title.

Coat of arms unique heraldic design on a shield or escutcheon

A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters, crest, and motto. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to an individual person, family, state, organization or corporation.

Henry I, Duke of Brabant Duke of Brabant (from 1183) and Duke of Lower Lotharingia (from 1190)

Henry I of Brabant, named "The Courageous", was a member of the House of Reginar and first Duke of Brabant from 1183/84 until his death.

Castle of the Dukes of Brabant in Turnhout Kasteel van de Hertogen van Brabant.jpg
Castle of the Dukes of Brabant in Turnhout

By the 16th century, Turnhout had become a wealthy commercial center. Unfortunately, the end of the century brought war, fire, confiscations and epidemics. Suppression and inquisition made many progressive citizens to take refuge in the Dutch Republic, leaving the land of Turnhout impoverished. The further history of Turnhout consists of a series of ups and downs. Many times, the city and surroundings were the playground of armies, resulting in two major battles named after Turnhout: one in 1597 and one in 1789 are referred to as Battle of Turnhout.

War Organised and prolonged violent conflict between states

War is a state of armed conflict between states, governments, societies and informal paramilitary groups, such as mercenaries, insurgents and militias. It is generally characterized by extreme violence, aggression, destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces. Warfare refers to the common activities and characteristics of types of war, or of wars in general. Total war is warfare that is not restricted to purely legitimate military targets, and can result in massive civilian or other non-combatant suffering and casualties.

Fire rapid oxidation of a material

Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products. Slower oxidative processes like rusting or digestion are not included by this definition.

Confiscation is a legal form of seizure by a government or other public authority. The word is also used, popularly, of spoliation under legal forms, or of any seizure of property as punishment or in enforcement of the law.

In 1830, Belgium became independent, and Turnhout fell just south of the new border with the Netherlands. The period of peace between 1831 and 1914 saw the digging of the canal (1846) and the construction of the railroad (1855).

Netherlands Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Europe

The Netherlands is a country located mainly in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian.

Canal man-made channel for water

Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.

In the late Middle Ages, Turnhout was a well-known center for the weaving of bedding articles and of the linen trade. At the start of the 19th century, these trades were replaced by industries based on the use of paper. Pieter Corbeels and Philippus Jacobus Brepols are considered to be the founders of this industry. Turnhout retains much of this industry today. Numerous graphics companies are located in the region, such as Brepols, Group Joos, Proost International Book Production, Van Genechten Packaging, and last but not least Cartamundi, the world market leader of the playing card industry. In addition, the Belgian Centre for the Graphics Industry, and the Flemish Innovation Center for Graphic Communication (Campus Blairon) are located in Turnhout. Soudal, whose headquarters is located in Turnhout, is one of the leading companies in sealants.

Middle Ages Period of European history from the 5th through the 15th centuries

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.

Weaving technology for the production of textiles

Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. Other methods are knitting, crocheting, felting, and braiding or plaiting. The longitudinal threads are called the warp and the lateral threads are the weft or filling. The method in which these threads are inter-woven affects the characteristics of the cloth. Cloth is usually woven on a loom, a device that holds the warp threads in place while filling threads are woven through them. A fabric band which meets this definition of cloth can also be made using other methods, including tablet weaving, back strap loom, or other techniques without looms.

Linen textile made from spun flax fiber

Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant. Linen is laborious to manufacture, but the fiber is very strong, absorbent and dries faster than cotton. Garments made of linen are valued for their exceptional coolness and freshness in hot and humid weather.

Postal history

The Turnhout post office opened before 1830. It used postal code 122 with bars (before 1864), and 367 with points before 1874. [4]

Postal code since 1969: 2300. [5]

Sights

Architectural sights worth visiting are the 12th century castle of the Dukes of Brabant, the gothic church of St. Peter, the beguinage (begijnhof) dating from the 13th century, the 14th century gothic chapel of Theobald and the Taxandria museum housed in a prestigious renaissance mansion. Of particular interest is the Museum of the Playing Card. This is located in an old factory building downtown and houses a beautifully restored steam engine.

The beguinage was recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 1998.

Events

Turnhout is host to the biannual comic festival Strip Turnhout, the oldest comic festival of Flanders, and one of the largest.

Every year, there is also the film festival MOOOV (the former Open Doek) which promotes cultural movies. During the summer months, the "Vrij-dagen" are organised. For a certain period, every Friday (vrijdag in Dutch) two artists or bands give a live performance. The event is completely free (vrij in Dutch) and attracts large crowds, strongly benefitting the local economy. Due to budgetary issues however, the "Vrij-dagen" have been discontinued since 2009, when the last edition was held.

Notable residents

Twin cities

Related Research Articles

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Arendonk Municipality in Flemish Community, Belgium

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Vosselaar Municipality in Flemish Community, Belgium

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Lier, Belgium Municipality in Flemish Community, Belgium

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Brabantian or Brabantish, also Brabantic or Brabantine, is a dialect group of the Dutch language. It is named after the historical Duchy of Brabant, part of the Duchy of Burgundy, which corresponded mainly to the Dutch provinces of North Brabant and southern Gelderland, the Belgian provinces of Antwerp and Flemish Brabant as well as the Brussels-Capital Region and the province of Walloon Brabant. Brabantian expands into small parts in the west of Limburg, and its strong influence on the Flemish dialects in East Flanders weakens toward the west. In a small area in the northwest of North Brabant (Willemstad), Hollandic is spoken. Conventionally, the South Guelderish dialects are distinguished from Brabantian but for objective reason other than geography.

Campine region in Belgium and the Netherlands

The Campine (French) or De Kempen (Dutch) is a natural region situated chiefly in north-eastern Belgium and parts of the south-eastern Netherlands which once consisted mainly of extensive moors, tracts of sandy heath, and wetlands. It encompasses a large northern and eastern portion of Antwerp province and adjacent parts of Limburg in Belgium, as well as portions of the Dutch province of North Brabant and Dutch Limburg around Weert.

Duchy of Brabant State of the Holy Roman Empire

The Duchy of Brabant was a State of the Holy Roman Empire established in 1183. It developed from the Landgraviate of Brabant and formed the heart of the historic Low Countries, part of the Burgundian Netherlands from 1430 and of the Habsburg Netherlands from 1482, until it was partitioned after the Dutch revolt.

Pieter Corbeels was a Belgian book printer and resistance leader. He was a founder of the Belgian based publishing company Brepols. He commanded part of the Brabantine forces during a revolt against the French Revolutionary regime known as the Boerenkrijg. For his role in the war he was executed.

Brepols is a Belgian publishing house. It was once one of the largest printing companies of the world and one of the main employers in Turnhout (Belgium). Besides its printing business, Brepols is also active as a publisher. Formerly well known for its missals, the company is now better known for its specialization in historical studies and editions of classical authors, including the Corpus Christianorum.

Philippus Jacobus Brepols Belgian businessman

Philippus Jacobus Brepols was a Belgian businessman and founder of the Brepols printing family-business in Turnhout, Belgium.

Van Genechten Packaging is a Belgian printing company, located in Turnhout. It is one of the companies of the printing valley located around Turnhout, Belgium.

Biermans was a Belgian printing company, located in Turnhout, Belgium. It was one of several companies located in the printing valley of Turnhout.

The Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen was a university college where students could obtain a professional bachelor's degree in several domains. There was also the opportunity to study for a master's degree in engineering in agriculture (bioscience) or an engineering degree in electronics. In 2012 the institution fused with Lessius Mechelen and Lessius Antwerp under a new name: Thomas More University College.

Jaak van Wijck Dutch painter

Jacobus Johannes Wilhelmus (Jaak) van Wijck was a Dutch landscape painter of locations on the Kalmthoutse Heide close to Antwerp, and also at Ginneken, a village close to Breda, where he painted the river De Mark along with other landmarks.

Strategic Plan Campine is a non-profit organisation located in Turnhout, Belgium. Its aim is to promote the social and economic development of the Campine region of the province of Antwerp. The organisation runs the PLATO-program for the support of Small and medium enterprises in the region and developed a strategic plan for the development of the Campine region.

The Campus Blairon is a business incubator, education site, local government site, medical post and a seminar centre located in Turnhout in the campine region of the Antwerp province (Belgium). Both the Artesis Hogeschool Antwerpen and the Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen are located on the Campus.

Pieter Scheemaeckers Flemish artist

Pieter Scheemaeckers, Pieter Scheemackers, Pieter Scheemaeckers I or Pieter Scheemaeckers the Elder was a Flemish sculptor who played an important role in the development of Baroque church sculpture in the Southern Netherlands.

Joost M. A. Caen is a Flemish independent artist and glass conservator since 1982. In his workshop, he creates contemporary stained-glass windows for churches and secular buildings. In 2003 he was one of the first stained-glass artists who incorporate solar cells into a glass creation. This work can be seen in the entrance hall of the District House at Deurne, Belgium. Caen also conserves stained-glass panels and windows, mainly for museums and collectors.

References

  1. Population per municipality as of 1 January 2017 (XLS; 397 KB)
  2. http://www.citypopulation.de/Belgium-Mun.html
  3. http://www.citypopulation.de/php/belgium-agglo.php
  4. Catalogue Spécialisé des Oblitérations Belges, 1849-1910, Nationale en Internationale Postzegelmanifestaties Antwerpen (NIPA), Antwerp, 1999.
  5. Liste des Numéros Postaux, Administration des Postes, Bruxelles 1969.