Tuva in World War II

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Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on the entry of Tuva into the USSR as an autonomous oblast, 1944. Ukaz o vhozhdenii Tuvy v sostav SSSR.jpg
Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on the entry of Tuva into the USSR as an autonomous oblast, 1944.

The Tuvan People’s Republic entered World War II on the side of the Allied Powers, shortly after the invasion of the Soviet Union.

Allies of World War II Grouping of the victorious countries of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945). The Allies promoted the alliance as a means to control German, Japanese and Italian aggression.

Contents

The Tuva volunteer forces took part in the battles on the eastern front as part of the formations of the Workers and Peasants Red Army. On October 14, 1944, the Tuva People's Republic became part of the Soviet Union, becoming the Tuva Autonomous Region. From that moment on, the Tuvans participated in hostilities until the end of the Second World War as citizens of the Soviet Union.

Eastern Front (World War II) theatre of World War II - war between Germany and USSR 1941-1945

The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.), Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945. It has been known as the Great Patriotic War in the former Soviet Union and modern Russia, while in Germany it was called the Eastern Front, or the German-Soviet War by outside parties.

Red Army Soviet army and air force from 1917–1946

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established immediately after the 1917 October Revolution. The Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; taking the official name of "Soviet Army", until its dissolution in December 1991. The former official name Red Army continued to be used as a nickname by both sides throughout the Cold War.

Background

Formation of the Tuvan People's Republic

Until 1912, Tuva, at that time known as the “Tannu-Uryankhai”, was ruled by the Qing dynasty. After the Xinhai Revolution in China, which ended in 1913, Tuvan noyons repeatedly appealed to Russian Emperor Nicholas II to establish a Russian protectorate over Tuva. On April 4, 1914, the emperor gave official consent to accept the Tuvan territories into the Russian Empire as a protectorate, after which Tuva, called the Uryankhay Krai, was annexed to the Yenisei province. [1]

Xinhai Revolution revolution in China that overthrew the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China

The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty and established the Republic of China (ROC). The revolution was named Xinhai (Hsin-hai) because it occurred in 1911, the year of the Xinhai stem-branch in the sexagenary cycle of the Chinese calendar.

Uryankhay Krai

Uryankhay Krai was the name of what is today Tuva and was a short-lived protectorate of the Russian Empire that was proclaimed on 17 April 1914, created from the Urjanchai Republic which had recently proclaimed its independence in the Mongolian Revolution of 1911. After the February Revolution and abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, Uryankhay Krai recognizes the new Russian Republic and reaffirmed its status as a Russian protectorate in 1917.

In a short period during which Tuva was part of the Russian Empire, the tsarist government pursued an extremely cautious policy on its territory, as in other national regions of Eastern Siberia, in order to avoid aggravation of Chinese, Japanese and Mongolian influence in them. [1]

Russian Empire former country, 1721–1917

The Russian Empire was an empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

In 1919, at the height of the Civil War, the Bolshevik leadership categorically forbade parts of the Red Army to be on the territory of the Uryankhay Krai, which was already not only ordered to remain autonomous, but also planned to be declared independent if pro-Bolshevik-minded forces came to power. [2] On August 1921, after the remnants of the Asian division of Baron von Ungern-Sternberg was defeated by the forces of the Red Army, the people's revolution in Tuva occurred, warmly welcomed and supported by Soviet Russia. And from August 13 to August 16, the All-Tuvan Constituent Khural of nine kozhuuns took place in the village of Sug-Bazhy Tyndaskin, proclaiming the formation of the Tuvan People's Republic and adopted the first Tuvan constitution. [1]

Russian Civil War multi-party war in the former Russian Empire, November 1917-October 1922

The Russian Civil War was a multi-party civil war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the two Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future. The two largest combatant groups were the Red Army, fighting for the Bolshevik form of socialism led by Vladimir Lenin, and the loosely allied forces known as the White Army, which included diverse interests favouring political monarchism, economic capitalism and alternative forms of socialism, each with democratic and anti-democratic variants. In addition, rival militant socialists and non-ideological Green armies fought against both the Bolsheviks and the Whites. Eight foreign nations intervened against the Red Army, notably the former Allied military forces from the World War and the pro-German armies. The Red Army eventually defeated the White Armed Forces of South Russia in Ukraine and the army led by Admiral Alexander Kolchak to the east in Siberia in 1919. The remains of the White forces commanded by Pyotr Wrangel were beaten in Crimea and evacuated in late 1920. Lesser battles of the war continued on the periphery for two more years, and minor skirmishes with the remnants of the White forces in the Far East continued well into 1923. The war ended in 1923 in the sense that Bolshevik communist control of the newly formed Soviet Union was now assured, although armed national resistance in Central Asia was not completely crushed until 1934. There were an estimated 7,000,000–12,000,000 casualties during the war, mostly civilians.

Roman von Ungern-Sternberg Austrian anti-communist general

Baron Roman Fyodorovich Ungern-Sternberg, better known as Roman von Ungern-Sternberg, was an Austrian-born, Russian Empire's Baltic German anti-Bolshevik lieutenant general in the Russian Civil War and then an independent warlord whose Asiatic Cavalry Division wrested control of Mongolia from the Republic of China in 1921 after its occupation. He was often referred to as Baron Ungern, or simply Ungern.

Soviet-Tuvan relations

Despite the de jure political independence of the Tuvan People's Republic, the country was largely dependent on the Russian SFSR. Thus, the Soviet delegation, which was present at the All-Tuva Constituent Khural, which proclaimed the republic, insisted on fixing in a special resolution the provision according to which in the sphere of foreign policy of the Tuvan People's Republic should act "under the patronage of the Russian SFSR". [1]

In January 1923, the Soviet-Tuvan border was finally defined. In the same year, the Red Army division, which was present on the Tuvan territory, was withdrawn beyond its borders according to an agreement concluded between the governments of both countries in 1921. [3]

In the summer of 1925, the “Agreement between the RSFSR and the Tuvan People’s Republic on the Establishment of Friendly Relationships” was signed between the USSR and the TNR, which strengthened the allied relations between the states. The initiator of the contract was the USSR. The treaty stated that the Soviet government "does not consider Tannu-Tuva as its territory and has no views on it." In addition, in connection with mutual economic interest, the USSR granted Tuvinian citizens a number of benefits in the areas of movement, trade and residence on Soviet territory, and Tuvans living in the USSR — facilitated border crossing on strictly established areas. [3]

In the late 1920s and early 1930s, the first wave of political repression swept across Tuva. Subsequently, these took place throughout the decade. According to the prosecutor's office of the Republic of Tuva, in the 1930s, 1,286 people were repressed in the TNR, and according to another version, their number reached 1,700 people. Among those subjected to repression, as in the USSR, were many prominent statesmen of Tuva, including the first chairman of the Council of Ministers of the TNR, Mongush Buyan-Badyrgy, and the former chairman of the Presidium of the Small Khural Donduk Kuular. They were accused as spy for Japan and preparing a counter-revolutionary coup. The first secretary of the Central Committee of the Tuvinian Revolutionary People’s Party, Salchak Toka, which enjoyed the sympathy of the Soviet leadership, acted as the main initiator of political purges in Tuva.

Armed forces of Tuva

In the 1930's, the Empire of Japan undertook several aggressive actions against China. This included the invasion of Manchuria and creation of the puppet state Manchukuo, and culminating in full-scale war against China in 1937. The Tuvan government undertook measures to strengthen their army and the 11th Congress of the TPRP, held in November 1939, instructed the Central Committee to fully equip the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Army in the next 2-3 years and to further raise combat readiness. The Ministry of Military Affairs was created in late February 1940 and immediately started equipping the army with new weapons and equipment, as well as improving training of officers and army units. [4] The Soviet Union assisted Tuva's with significant assistance in materiel and technical development. The middle and high command of the Tuvan Army were trained in Soviet military academies, including the M.V. Frunze Military Academy and the General Staff Academy. [4]

The War

As Germany and other Axis powers launched their invasion of the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, the 10th Great Khural of Tuva declared that:

"The Tuvan people, led by the entire revolutionary party and government, not sparing their lives, are ready by any means to participate in the struggle of the Soviet Union against the fascist aggressor until their final victory over it" [5]

It is sometimes written that Tuva declared war on Germany on 25 June 1941, but the sources are dubious. [6] Nevertheless, helped the Soviet Union in substantial ways, transferring its entire gold reserve of ~20,000,000 rubles to the Soviet Union, with additional extracted Tuvan gold worth around 10,000,000 rubles annually. [7] Between June 1941 and October 1944 Tuva supplied the Soviet Red Army with 700,000 livestock, of which almost 650,000 were donated. Almost every Tuvan family donated 10-100 animals (in Tuvan and Mongol families, the average number of livestock for personal use was about at least 130). In the spring of 1944 alone, 27,500 Tuvan cows were presented to the liberated Ukraine. A telegram from the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR to Tuva noted that "The Ukrainian people, like all the peoples of the USSR, deeply appreciate and will never forget the help to the front and the liberated areas that the working people of the Tuvan People's Republic fraternally render ..." [7]

In addition, 50,000 war horses, 52,000 pairs of skis, 10,000 winter coats, 19,000 pairs of gloves, 16,000 boots and 67,000 tons of sheep wool as well as several hundreds tons of meats, grain, carts, sledges, horse tacks and other goods totaling 66,500,000 rubles. Up to 90% was donated. [6] [7] In March 1943, 10 Yakovlev Yak-7 fighters were build with funds raised by Tuvans and placed at the disposal of the Soviet Air Forces. [8]

In March 1943 Tuva mustered volunteer tankers, 11 people joined the Red Army in May 1943 as part of the 25th separate tank regiment of the 52nd Army of the 2nd Ukrainian Front. [9] [10]

Tuva also mustered a volunteer squadron of 208 people in September 1943 to serve in the Soviet cavalry. On November 8, 177 of these were transferred to the 31st Guards Cavalry Regiment of the 8th Guards Cavalry Division and sent to Ukraine in December 1943, where they fought in during 1944. Of the volunteers, 165 men returned home and 17 were awarded the Order of Glory for courage. [11] [7]

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Tuvan language Turkic language in Russia

Tuvan, also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan or Tuvin, is a Turkic language spoken in the Republic of Tuva in south-central Siberia in Russia. The language has borrowed a great number of roots from the Mongolian language, Tibetan and the Russian language. There are small diaspora groups of Tuvan people that speak distinct dialects of Tuvan in the People's Republic of China and in Mongolia.

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Tuvan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic autonomous soviet socialist republic of a union republic of the Soviet Union

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Tuvan Autonomous Oblast

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Bay-Tayginsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the seventeen in the Tuva Republic, Russia. It is located in the west of the republic. The area of the district is 7,922.82 square kilometers (3,059.02 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Teeli. Population: 10,803 (2010 Census); 12,321 ; 13,401 (1989 Census). The population of Teeli accounts for 31.4% of the district's total population.

Chedi-Kholsky District District in Tuva Republic, Russia

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Erzinsky District District in Tuva Republic, Russia

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Piy-Khemsky District District in Tuva Republic, Russia

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Todzhinsky District District in Tuva Republic, Russia

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1929 Tuvan coup détat

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References

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 Bondarenko, T.A. (2009). "История создания города в центре Азии. К 95-летию Белоцарска - Урянхайска - Красного - Кызыла" [The history of the city in the center of Asia. 95 years of Belotsarsk - Uriankhai - Krasnogo - Kyzyl]. tuva.asia (in Russian). Retrieved December 10, 2018.
  2. Mollerov, Nikolai Mikhailovich (2009). "Народная революция в Туве: где миф и где реальность?" [The people's revolution in Tuva: where is the myth and where is the reality?] (in Russian). New Studies of Tuva. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
  3. 1 2 Minaev, А. (October 14, 2009). "Тува далёкая и близкая" [Tuva : distant and close] (in Russian). Red Star.
  4. 1 2 Mongush, B.B. (May 12, 2010). "К истории создания Тувинской Народно-Революционной Армии (1921-1944)". Tuvan Online. Archived from the original on 2010-05-15.
  5. Выставка «Тувинская Народная Республика – все для общей Победы!» откроется в Москве
  6. 1 2 Denys J. Voaden: Mongolian and Tuvan aid to wartime Russia, in: M. Gervers/U. Bulag/G. Long (eds.): History and society in Central and Inner Asia, Toronto 2007, pp. 273–277 (here: p. 276).
  7. 1 2 3 4 Baliev, Alexey. "Мал союзник, да дорог: Почему замалчивался вклад Тувы в разгром фашизма". stoletie.ru. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  8. Baliev, Alexey. "The fate of the "Tuva Ten"". airaces.narod.ru. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  9. Dagba Damyrak. "38 thousand Tuvan arats in a letter to Stalin declared "We are together. This is our war"". tuvaonline.ru. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  10. "To the 60th anniversary of the Great Victory. Tuvan contribution". tuva.asia. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  11. Воскобойников, Г. Л. (2007). Казачество и кавалерия в годы Великой Отечественной войны 1941-1945. Терра Принт. pp. 114–122.