The Tuvan People’s Republic entered World War II on the side of the Allied Powers, shortly after the invasion of the Soviet Union.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945). The Allies promoted the alliance as a means to control German, Japanese and Italian aggression.
The Tuva volunteer forces took part in the battles on the eastern front as part of the formations of the Workers and Peasants Red Army. On October 14, 1944, the Tuva People's Republic became part of the Soviet Union, becoming the Tuva Autonomous Region. From that moment on, the Tuvans participated in hostilities until the end of the Second World War as citizens of the Soviet Union.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.), Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945. It has been known as the Great Patriotic War in the former Soviet Union and modern Russia, while in Germany it was called the Eastern Front, or the German-Soviet War by outside parties.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established immediately after the 1917 October Revolution. The Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; taking the official name of "Soviet Army", until its dissolution in December 1991. The former official name Red Army continued to be used as a nickname by both sides throughout the Cold War.
Until 1912, Tuva, at that time known as the “Tannu-Uryankhai”, was ruled by the Qing dynasty. After the Xinhai Revolution in China, which ended in 1913, Tuvan noyons repeatedly appealed to Russian Emperor Nicholas II to establish a Russian protectorate over Tuva. On April 4, 1914, the emperor gave official consent to accept the Tuvan territories into the Russian Empire as a protectorate, after which Tuva, called the Uryankhay Krai, was annexed to the Yenisei province.
The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty and established the Republic of China (ROC). The revolution was named Xinhai (Hsin-hai) because it occurred in 1911, the year of the Xinhai stem-branch in the sexagenary cycle of the Chinese calendar.
Uryankhay Krai was the name of what is today Tuva and was a short-lived protectorate of the Russian Empire that was proclaimed on 17 April 1914, created from the Urjanchai Republic which had recently proclaimed its independence in the Mongolian Revolution of 1911. After the February Revolution and abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, Uryankhay Krai recognizes the new Russian Republic and reaffirmed its status as a Russian protectorate in 1917.
In a short period during which Tuva was part of the Russian Empire, the tsarist government pursued an extremely cautious policy on its territory, as in other national regions of Eastern Siberia, in order to avoid aggravation of Chinese, Japanese and Mongolian influence in them.
The Russian Empire was an empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
In 1919, at the height of the Civil War, the Bolshevik leadership categorically forbade parts of the Red Army to be on the territory of the Uryankhay Krai, which was already not only ordered to remain autonomous, but also planned to be declared independent if pro-Bolshevik-minded forces came to power.On August 1921, after the remnants of the Asian division of Baron von Ungern-Sternberg was defeated by the forces of the Red Army, the people's revolution in Tuva occurred, warmly welcomed and supported by Soviet Russia. And from August 13 to August 16, the All-Tuvan Constituent Khural of nine kozhuuns took place in the village of Sug-Bazhy Tyndaskin, proclaiming the formation of the Tuvan People's Republic and adopted the first Tuvan constitution.
The Russian Civil War was a multi-party civil war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the two Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future. The two largest combatant groups were the Red Army, fighting for the Bolshevik form of socialism led by Vladimir Lenin, and the loosely allied forces known as the White Army, which included diverse interests favouring political monarchism, economic capitalism and alternative forms of socialism, each with democratic and anti-democratic variants. In addition, rival militant socialists and non-ideological Green armies fought against both the Bolsheviks and the Whites. Eight foreign nations intervened against the Red Army, notably the former Allied military forces from the World War and the pro-German armies. The Red Army eventually defeated the White Armed Forces of South Russia in Ukraine and the army led by Admiral Alexander Kolchak to the east in Siberia in 1919. The remains of the White forces commanded by Pyotr Wrangel were beaten in Crimea and evacuated in late 1920. Lesser battles of the war continued on the periphery for two more years, and minor skirmishes with the remnants of the White forces in the Far East continued well into 1923. The war ended in 1923 in the sense that Bolshevik communist control of the newly formed Soviet Union was now assured, although armed national resistance in Central Asia was not completely crushed until 1934. There were an estimated 7,000,000–12,000,000 casualties during the war, mostly civilians.
Baron Roman Fyodorovich Ungern-Sternberg, better known as Roman von Ungern-Sternberg, was an Austrian-born, Russian Empire's Baltic German anti-Bolshevik lieutenant general in the Russian Civil War and then an independent warlord whose Asiatic Cavalry Division wrested control of Mongolia from the Republic of China in 1921 after its occupation. He was often referred to as Baron Ungern, or simply Ungern.
Despite the de jure political independence of the Tuvan People's Republic, the country was largely dependent on the Russian SFSR. Thus, the Soviet delegation, which was present at the All-Tuva Constituent Khural, which proclaimed the republic, insisted on fixing in a special resolution the provision according to which in the sphere of foreign policy of the Tuvan People's Republic should act "under the patronage of the Russian SFSR".
In January 1923, the Soviet-Tuvan border was finally defined. In the same year, the Red Army division, which was present on the Tuvan territory, was withdrawn beyond its borders according to an agreement concluded between the governments of both countries in 1921.
In the summer of 1925, the “Agreement between the RSFSR and the Tuvan People’s Republic on the Establishment of Friendly Relationships” was signed between the USSR and the TNR, which strengthened the allied relations between the states. The initiator of the contract was the USSR. The treaty stated that the Soviet government "does not consider Tannu-Tuva as its territory and has no views on it." In addition, in connection with mutual economic interest, the USSR granted Tuvinian citizens a number of benefits in the areas of movement, trade and residence on Soviet territory, and Tuvans living in the USSR — facilitated border crossing on strictly established areas.
In the late 1920s and early 1930s, the first wave of political repression swept across Tuva. Subsequently, these took place throughout the decade. According to the prosecutor's office of the Republic of Tuva, in the 1930s, 1,286 people were repressed in the TNR, and according to another version, their number reached 1,700 people. Among those subjected to repression, as in the USSR, were many prominent statesmen of Tuva, including the first chairman of the Council of Ministers of the TNR, Mongush Buyan-Badyrgy, and the former chairman of the Presidium of the Small Khural Donduk Kuular. They were accused as spy for Japan and preparing a counter-revolutionary coup. The first secretary of the Central Committee of the Tuvinian Revolutionary People’s Party, Salchak Toka, which enjoyed the sympathy of the Soviet leadership, acted as the main initiator of political purges in Tuva.
In the 1930's, the Empire of Japan undertook several aggressive actions against China. This included the invasion of Manchuria and creation of the puppet state Manchukuo, and culminating in full-scale war against China in 1937. The Tuvan government undertook measures to strengthen their army and the 11th Congress of the TPRP, held in November 1939, instructed the Central Committee to fully equip the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Army in the next 2-3 years and to further raise combat readiness. The Ministry of Military Affairs was created in late February 1940 and immediately started equipping the army with new weapons and equipment, as well as improving training of officers and army units.The Soviet Union assisted Tuva's with significant assistance in materiel and technical development. The middle and high command of the Tuvan Army were trained in Soviet military academies, including the M.V. Frunze Military Academy and the General Staff Academy.
As Germany and other Axis powers launched their invasion of the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, the 10th Great Khural of Tuva declared that:
"The Tuvan people, led by the entire revolutionary party and government, not sparing their lives, are ready by any means to participate in the struggle of the Soviet Union against the fascist aggressor until their final victory over it"
It is sometimes written that Tuva declared war on Germany on 25 June 1941, but the sources are dubious.Nevertheless, helped the Soviet Union in substantial ways, transferring its entire gold reserve of ~20,000,000 rubles to the Soviet Union, with additional extracted Tuvan gold worth around 10,000,000 rubles annually. Between June 1941 and October 1944 Tuva supplied the Soviet Red Army with 700,000 livestock, of which almost 650,000 were donated. Almost every Tuvan family donated 10-100 animals (in Tuvan and Mongol families, the average number of livestock for personal use was about at least 130). In the spring of 1944 alone, 27,500 Tuvan cows were presented to the liberated Ukraine. A telegram from the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian SSR to Tuva noted that "The Ukrainian people, like all the peoples of the USSR, deeply appreciate and will never forget the help to the front and the liberated areas that the working people of the Tuvan People's Republic fraternally render ..."
In addition, 50,000 war horses, 52,000 pairs of skis, 10,000 winter coats, 19,000 pairs of gloves, 16,000 boots and 67,000 tons of sheep wool as well as several hundreds tons of meats, grain, carts, sledges, horse tacks and other goods totaling 66,500,000 rubles. Up to 90% was donated.In March 1943, 10 Yakovlev Yak-7 fighters were build with funds raised by Tuvans and placed at the disposal of the Soviet Air Forces.
In March 1943 Tuva mustered volunteer tankers, 11 people joined the Red Army in May 1943 as part of the 25th separate tank regiment of the 52nd Army of the 2nd Ukrainian Front.
Tuva also mustered a volunteer squadron of 208 people in September 1943 to serve in the Soviet cavalry. On November 8, 177 of these were transferred to the 31st Guards Cavalry Regiment of the 8th Guards Cavalry Division and sent to Ukraine in December 1943, where they fought in during 1944. Of the volunteers, 165 men returned home and 17 were awarded the Order of Glory for courage.
The Tuvan People's Republic (TPR); Tuvan: Тыва Арат Республик, romanized: Tıwa Arat Respublik; Uniform Turkic Alphabet: Tьʙа Arat Respuʙlik, IPA: [tʰɯˈʋa aˈɾatʰ resˈpʰuplik], until 1926 known as the Tannu Tuva People's Republic, was a partially recognized puppet state of the Soviet Union between 1921 and 1944. The country was located in the same territory as the former Tuvan protectorate of Imperial Russia known as Uryankhay Krai.
The Tuvans or Tuvinians are a Turkic ethnic group native to Tuva. They speak Tuvan, a Siberian Turkic language. They are also regarded in Mongolia as one of the Uriankhai peoples.
Kyzyl is the capital city of the Tuva Republic, Russia. The name of the city means "red" or "crimson" in Tuvan. Population: 109,918 (2010 Census); 104,105 (2002 Census); 84,641 (1989 Census).
Tuvan, also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan or Tuvin, is a Turkic language spoken in the Republic of Tuva in south-central Siberia in Russia. The language has borrowed a great number of roots from the Mongolian language, Tibetan and the Russian language. There are small diaspora groups of Tuvan people that speak distinct dialects of Tuvan in the People's Republic of China and in Mongolia.
Tuva or Tyva, officially the Tyva Republic, is a federal subject of Russia.
The Tuvan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, or the Tuvan ASSR, was an autonomous republic of the Russian SFSR. It was created on 10 October 1961 from the Tuvan Autonomous Oblast. On 31 March 1992, its successor, the Tuva Republic, became a constituent member of the Russian Federation.
The Tuvan Autonomous Oblast was an autonomous oblast of the Soviet Union created on 11 October 1944 following the incorporation of the Tuvan People's Republic by the Soviet Union. On 10 October 1961 it was transformed into the Tuvan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
Khertek Amyrbitovna Anchimaa-Toka was a Tuvan/Soviet politician who in 1940–44 was the Chairwoman of Little Khural of the Tuvan People's Republic, and the first non-hereditary female head of state or government.
Salchak Kalbakkhorekovich Toka was a Tuvan politician. He was General Secretary of the Tuvinian department of the CPSU from 1944 to 1973; previously, he was the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party and was the supreme ruler of the Tuvan People's Republic from 1932 until its annexation by the Soviet Union in 1944.
Bay-Tayginsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the seventeen in the Tuva Republic, Russia. It is located in the west of the republic. The area of the district is 7,922.82 square kilometers (3,059.02 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Teeli. Population: 10,803 (2010 Census); 12,321 ; 13,401 (1989 Census). The population of Teeli accounts for 31.4% of the district's total population.
Chedi-Kholsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the seventeen in the Tuva Republic, Russia. It is located in the center of the republic. The area of the district is 3,707 square kilometers (1,431 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Khovu-Aksy. Population: 7,685 (2010 Census); 8,081. The population of Khovu-Aksy accounts for 47.8% of the district's total population.
Erzinsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the seventeen in the Tuva Republic, Russia. It is located in the south and southeast of the republic. The area of the district is 11,081.45 square kilometers (4,278.57 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Erzin. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 8,280, with the population of Erzin accounting for 38.5% of that number.
Piy-Khemsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the seventeen in the Tuva Republic, Russia. It is located in the north of the republic. The area of the district is 9,200 square kilometers (3,600 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Turan, Tuva Republic. Population: 10,092 (2010 Census); 11,431 ; 14,236 (1989 Census). The population of Turan accounts for 49.4% of the district's total population.
Tere-Kholsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the seventeen in the Tuva Republic, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the republic. Its administrative center is the rural locality of Kungurtug. Population: 1,882 (2010 Census); 1,835. The population of Kungurtug accounts for 77.9% of the district's total population.
Todzhinsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the seventeen in the Tuva Republic, Russia. It is located in the northeast of the republic. The area of the district is 44,800 square kilometers (17,300 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Toora-Khem. Population: 6,020 (2010 Census); 5,931 ; 6,448 (1989 Census). The population of Toora-Khem accounts for 39.7% of the district's total population.
Ulug-Khemsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the seventeen in the Tuva Republic, Russia. It is located in the center of the republic and borders Krasnoyarsk Krai in the north, Kyzylsky and Chedi-Kholsky Districts in the east, Ovyursky and Tes-Khemsky Districts in the south, and Chaa-Kholsky District in the west. The area of the district is 5,335.40 square kilometers (2,060.01 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Shagonar. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 19,266, with the population of Shagonar accounting for 56.9% of that number.
The 1929 Tuvan coup d'état took place in the Tuvan People's Republic. It occurred in January after the Tuvan government under Prime Minister Donduk Kuular attempted to implement nationalist, religious and anti-Soviet policies, including making Tibetan Buddhism the official religion. With support from the Soviet Union, five Tuvan youths successfully overthrew the government, and one of them, Salchak Toka, became supreme ruler as General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party. They quickly reversed Donduk's policies and brought the republic closer to the Soviet Union. The Tuvan People's Republic later joined the Soviet Union in 1944.
The national emblem of the Tuvan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was adopted in 1962 by the government of the Tuvan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The emblem is identical to the emblem of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.