|Japanese Twelfth Army|
|Active||November 7, 1938 - August 15, 1945|
|Country||Empire of Japan|
|Branch||Imperial Japanese Army|
The Japanese 12th Army(第12軍Dai-jyūni gun) was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Corps is a term used for several different kinds of organisation. A military innovation by Napoleon, the formation was first named as such in 1805.
The Imperial Japanese Army was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945. It was controlled by the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office and the Ministry of the Army, both of which were nominally subordinate to the Emperor of Japan as supreme commander of the army and the navy. Later an Inspectorate General of Aviation became the third agency with oversight of the army. During wartime or national emergencies, the nominal command functions of the emperor would be centralized in an Imperial General Headquarters (IGHQ), an ad-hoc body consisting of the chief and vice chief of the Army General Staff, the Minister of the Army, the chief and vice chief of the Naval General Staff, the Inspector General of Aviation, and the Inspector General of Military Training.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945. It began with the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937 in which a dispute between Japanese and Chinese troops escalated into a battle. Some sources in the modern People's Republic of China date the beginning of the war to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931. It is known as the War of Resistance in China.
The Japanese 12th Army was formed on November 7, 1938 under the North China Area Army as a garrison force for the occupation the provinces North China. It served primary as a training and reserve unit, and participated in counter-insurgency operations.
North China is a geographical region of China, consisting of the provinces of Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia. It lies north of the Qinling Huaihe Line, with its heartland in the North China Plain.
A counter-insurgency or counterinsurgency (COIN) is defined by the United States Department of State as "comprehensive civilian and military efforts taken to simultaneously defeat and contain insurgency and address its root causes". An insurgency is a rebellion against a constituted authority when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents. It is "the organized use of subversion and violence to seize, nullify or challenge political control of a region. As such, it is primarily a political struggle, in which both sides use armed force to create space for their political, economic and influence activities to be effective."
The 59th division famous for its wartime atrocities was attached to the Twelfth Army from February 1942 till May 1945.
The 59th Division was an infantry division of the Imperial Japanese Army. Its call sign was the Robe Division. It was formed on 2 February 1942 at Jinan as a security division, simultaneously with 58th and 60th divisions. The nucleus for the formation was the 10th Independent Mixed Brigade. As a security division, the 59th Division's backbone consisted of independent infantry battalions, and it did not include an artillery regiment. Its men were drafted from Chiba Prefecture, with reinforcements office located in Kashiwa. The division was initially assigned to the 12th army
The 12th Army was demobilized at Zhengzhou, Henan Province on the surrender of Japan.
Demobilization or demobilisation is the process of standing down a nation's armed forces from combat-ready status. This may be as a result of victory in war, or because a crisis has been peacefully resolved and military force will not be necessary. The opposite of demobilization is mobilization. Forceful demobilization of a defeated enemy is called demilitarization.
Zhengzhou is the capital and largest city of Henan Province in the central part of the People's Republic of China. It is one of the National Central Cities in China, the centre of Central Plains area and serves as the political, economic, technological, and educational center of the province, as well as a major transportation hub in China. The Zhengzhou metropolitan area is the core area of the Central Plains Economic Zone.
The surrender of Imperial Japan was announced by Hirohito on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close. By the end of July 1945, the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) was incapable of conducting major operations and an Allied invasion of Japan was imminent. Together with the British Empire and China, the United States called for the unconditional surrender of the Japanese armed forces in the Potsdam Declaration on July 26, 1945—the alternative being "prompt and utter destruction". While publicly stating their intent to fight on to the bitter end, Japan's leaders were privately making entreaties to the publicly neutral Soviet Union to mediate peace on terms more favorable to the Japanese. While maintaining a sufficient level of diplomatic engagement with the Japanese to give them the impression they might be willing to mediate, the Soviets were covertly preparing to attack Japanese forces in Manchuria and Korea in fulfillment of promises they had secretly made to the United States and the United Kingdom at the Tehran and Yalta Conferences.
|1||Lieutenant General Kamezo Suetaka||9 November 1938||12 September 1939|
|2||Lieutenant General Sadataka Iida||12 September 1939||1 March 1941|
|3||Lieutenant General Ichiji Dobashi||1 March 1941||1 March 1943|
|4||Lieutenant General Seiichi Kita||1 March 1943||7 February 1944|
|5||Lieutenant General Eitaro Uchiyama||5 February 1944||7 April 1945|
|6||Lieutenant General Takashi Takamori||7 April 1945||15 August 1945|
|1||Lt. General Asasaburo Kobayashi||9 November 1938||1 December 1939|
|2||Lt. General Yoshio Hongo||1 December 1939||2 December 1940|
|3||Lt. General Masafumi Yamauchi||2 December 1940||15 October 1941|
|4||Major General Etsujiro Kono||15 October 1941||10 December 1942|
|5||Major General Tadao Teragaki||10 December 1942||16 October 1944|
|6||Lt. General Makoto Nakayama||16 October 1944||1 September 1945|
Sino-Japanese War usually refers to:
The Eighth Route Army, officially known as the 18th Group Army of the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China, was a group army under the command of the Chinese Communist Party, nominally within the structure of the Chinese military headed by the Chinese Nationalist Party during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of Changsha was Japan's second attempt at taking the city of Changsha, China, the capital of Hunan Province, as part of the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The China Expeditionary Army was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1939 to 1945.
The Battle of Nanchang was a military campaign fought around Nanchang, Jiangxi between the Chinese National Revolutionary Army and the Japanese Imperial Japanese Army in the Second Sino-Japanese War. It was the first major conflict to occur following the Battle of Wuhan.
The Battle of South Shanxi, also known as the Battle of Jinnan and Zhongtiao Mountains campaign by the Chinese and as the Chungyuan Operation by the Japanese, was one of the 22 major engagements between the National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945).
The Battle of West Henan–North Hubei was one of the 22 major engagements between the National Revolutionary Army and Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War. It was fought in March–May 1945 in northern Hubei and western Henan. While it was a tactical stalemate, the battle was an operational victory for the Japanese forces, who seized control of local airbases, denying Chinese forces any localized air support.
Masakazu Kawabe was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army. He held important commands in the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War, and during World War II in the Burma Campaign and defense of the Japanese homeland late in the war. He was also the elder brother of General Torashirō Kawabe.
The Battle of Lanfeng (兰封会战) was part of the larger campaign for Northern and Eastern Henan and was occurring at the same time as the Battle of Xuzhou.
Kiyoshi Katsuki was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army in the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Cai Tingkai was a Chinese general.
The Japanese 1st Army was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army. It was raised and demobilized on three separate occasions.
The China Garrison Army was formed 1 June 1901 as the Chinese Empire Garrison Army, as part of Japan's contribution to the international coalition in China during the Boxer Rebellion. It took the name China Garrison Army from 14 April 1912 and onward, though was typically referred to as the Tianjin Garrison.
The Japanese North China Area Army was a field army of the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Liu Ruming, Liu Ju-ming, 刘汝明, (1895–1975) Chinese general during the Warlord Era, Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War.
The 6th Division was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army. Its call sign was the Bright Division.
The Mongolia Garrison Army was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.
The army groupsof the National Revolutionary Army were the largest conventional mobile formations in the organization of the army of the Republic of China during the Second Sino-Japanese War. The first army groups were established immediately after the Japanese attack at Marco Polo Bridge on 7 July 1937, and new army groups continued to be formed throughout the war.
The Japanese Sixth Area Army was a field army of the Imperial Japanese Army during both the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II.
The Japanese 20th Army was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.