Twenty-Four Histories

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Sima Qian Chinese historian and writer (c. 145 – c. 86 BC)

Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty. He is considered the father of Chinese historiography for his Records of the Grand Historian, a general history of China covering more than two thousand years beginning from the rise of the legendary Yellow Emperor and the formation of the first Chinese polity to the reigning sovereign of Sima Qian's time, Emperor Wu of Han. As the first universal history of the world as it was known to the ancient Chinese, the Records of the Grand Historian served as a model for official history-writing for subsequent Chinese dynasties and the Chinese cultural sphere up until the 20th century.

Xia dynasty First dynasty in traditional Chinese history

The Xia dynasty is the first dynasty in traditional Chinese historiography. According to tradition, the Xia dynasty was established by the legendary Yu the Great, after Shun, the last of the Five Emperors, gave the throne to him. In traditional historiography, the Xia was later succeeded by the Shang dynasty.

<i>Records of the Grand Historian</i> Monumental history of ancient China written in the 1st century BC

The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Western Han Dynasty historian Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court. The work covers the world as it was then known to the Chinese and a 2,500-year period from the age of the legendary Yellow Emperor to the reign of Emperor Wu of Han in the author's own time.

Zhao (surname) Surname list

Zhao is a Chinese surname, means “walk quickly” and “jump” in ancient Chinese, and is the 1st surname in the famous Hundred Family Surnames – the traditional list of all Chinese surnames – because it was the emperor's surname of the Song Dynasty (960–1279) when the list was compiled. The first line of the poem is in the line 趙錢孫李. Zhao is now ranking as the 7th most common surname in China and carried mainly by people of Mandarin-speaking regions.

<i>Zizhi Tongjian</i> Chinese historical record published in 1084, covering Chinese history from 403 BC to 959 AD

Zizhi Tongjian is a pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography, published in 1084 AD during the Song dynasty in the form of a chronicle recording Chinese history from 403 BC to 959 AD, covering 16 dynasties and spanning almost 1400 years. The main text is arranged into 294 scrolls totaling about 3 million Chinese characters.

Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history. From the inauguration of dynastic rule by Yu the Great in circa 2070 BC to the abdication of the Xuantong Emperor on 12 February 1912 in the wake of the Xinhai Revolution, China was ruled by a series of successive dynasties. Dynasties of China were not limited to those established by ethnic Han—the dominant Chinese ethnic group—and its predecessor, the Huaxia tribal confederation, but also included those founded by non-Han peoples.

Lu (state) Zhou dynasty vassal

Lu was a vassal state during the Zhou dynasty of ancient China located around modern Shandong province. Founded in the 11th century BC, its rulers were from a cadet branch of the House of Ji (姬) that ruled the Zhou dynasty. The first duke was Boqin, a son of the Duke of Zhou, who was brother of King Wu of Zhou and regent to King Cheng of Zhou.

Sima Zhou (227–283), courtesy name Zijiang, was an imperial prince and military general of the Jin dynasty of China. He previously served in the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period.

Hancheng County-level & Sub-prefectural city in Shaanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Hancheng is a city in Shaanxi Province, People's Republic of China, about 125 miles northeast of Xi'an, at the point where the south-flowing Yellow River enters the Guanzhong Plain. It is a renowned historic city, containing numerous historic mansions and streets as well as over 140 protected historical sites that range from the Tang to the Qing dynasties. As of 2005, it has a population of around 385,000 people.

Empress Nara Empress of the Qing dynasty of China

Empress of the Nara clan was the wife and second empress consort of Hongli, the Qianlong Emperor. She was Empress consort of Qing from 1750 until her death in 1766.

Sima Tan was a Chinese astrologer and historian during the Western Han dynasty. His work Records of the Grand Historian was completed by his son Sima Qian, who is considered the founder of Chinese historiography.

The Draft History of Qing is a draft of the official history of the Qing dynasty compiled and written by a team of over 100 historians led by Zhao Erxun who were hired by the Beiyang government of the Republic of China. The draft was published in 1928, but the Chinese Civil War caused a lack of funding for the project and it was put to an end in 1930. The two sides of the Chinese civil war, the People's Republic of China and Republic of China have attempted to complete it.

The History of Liao, or Liao Shi, is a Chinese historical book compiled officially by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), under the direction of the historian Toqto'a (Tuotuo), and finalized in 1344. Based on Khitan's primary sources and other previous official Chinese records, it details the Khitan people, Khitan's tribal life and traditions, as well as the official histories of the Liao dynasty and its successor, the Western Liao dynasty.

Dai Yi is a Chinese historian who primarily focuses on the Qing dynasty's history. He is a professor at Renmin University of China. He is also the honorary director of the university's Qing dynasty's history institute as well as a doctoral student supervisor. Additionally, he is a member of the Communist Party of China.

Tong is a Chinese surname. Tong as transcribed in English however represents of a number of different Chinese surnames.

Han Weiji, courtesy name Zhenzi, was a Chinese official who lived in the Qing dynasty. Han was born in Xiaotian Village, Zichuan County, Shandong Province, China. Han was a tong jinshi who obtained the third highest position in his class in the imperial examination. During the reign of the Kangxi Emperor, Han served as a county magistrate in Wenxi County, Shanxi and Boye County, Zhili.

Chen Weisong Qing dynasty poet

Chen Weisong (陈维崧), also called Chen Qinian (其年) or Chen Jialing (迦陵), lived 1626 January 7-1682 June 13, was the first of the great Ci and Pianwen poets during the Qing dynasty. He was the leader and founder of the Yangxian poetry school.



  1. Ch 49, "Standard Histories," in Endymion Wilkinson. Chinese History: A New Manual. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, Harvard-Yenching Institute Monograph Series, 2012). ISBN   9780674067158. Also see "Standard Histories" link to the Googlebook of the 2000 edition of Wilkinson.
  2. Hill, John E. (2009) Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries CE. BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina. ISBN   978-1-4392-2134-1.
  3. Xu Elina-Qian, p. 23.
  4. 台灣版《清史》一年速成 筆墨官司幾上幾下 . (in Chinese). Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  5. 1 2 Chen, Hsi-yuan (2004). "Last chapter unfinished: The making of the official Qing History and the crisis of Traditional Chinese Historiography". Historiography East and West. 2 (2): 173–204. doi:10.1163/157018606779068306. ISSN   1570-1867. S2CID   153377177 .
  6. Wilkinson, Endymion (2012). Chinese history: a new manual. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Asia Center. pp. 834–5. ISBN   978-0674067158.
  7. Huáiràng, Yuè (3 April 2019). 新修《清史》已进入稿件通读阶段,预计今年出版问世. Péngpài Xīnwén澎湃新闻 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 13 April 2019.
  8. Mao, Liping; Ma, Zhao (2012). ""Writing History in the Digital Age": The New Qing History Project and the Digitization of Qing Archives". History Compass. 10 (5): 367–374. doi:10.1111/j.1478-0542.2012.00841.x.
  9. Chéng, Chóngdé (3 January 2021). 戴逸先生与清史纂修前的准备工作. Guangming光明 (in Chinese).{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  10. 中新社网站 (26 August 2003). 两岸学者聚京共商清史纂修大计 预计10年完成. 新浪军事 (in Chinese).
  11. Rèn, Mǐn (18 December 2013). Sòng, Yǔchéng (ed.). "Guójiā Qīngshǐ Biānzuǎn Gōngchéng yǐ wánchéng chūgǎo" 国家清史编纂工程已完成初稿 [The first draft of the National Qing History Compilation Project has been completed]. Běijīng Xīnwén北京新闻 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 19 December 2013.
  12. Guo, Fei (21 April 2020). Ma, Yuhong (ed.). "Dai Yi speaks on Qing history national compilation project". Chinese Social Sciences Today. Archived from the original on 14 September 2021.
  13. Xu Elina-Qian, p. 19.
  14. "二十四史全译 - 图书".
  15. The Grand Scribe's Records (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994- )


Twenty-Four Histories
Chinese 二十四史