|Twenty Hungarian Folksongs|
|by Béla Bartók|
|Native name||Húsz magyar népdal|
|Publisher|| Universal Edition |
Hawkes & Son
|Scoring||Voice and piano|
Twenty Hungarian Folksongs (Hungarian : Húsz magyar népdal), Sz. 92, BB 98, is the last cycle of folksongs for voice and piano by Hungarian composer Béla Bartók.
This set of folksongs was finished in 1929, after several years of collecting and arranging folksongs, most of which were published in a book published in 1924 entitled A magyar népdal (The Hungarian Folk Song). This included most of the raw material that he worked on in many other different pieces that were also based on folk material.This was Bartók's last set of songs based on folk tunes and was put together in a seemingly random fashion, as they were grouped loosely into different categories, but not according to the date of composition of the individual pieces. However, he wrote the last five songs of the set in an uninterrupted movement.
The cycle was first performed by Maria Basilides, who also premiered the arrangement for orchestra, and Bartók at the piano, on January 30, 1930, in Budapest.It was published by Universal Edition in 1932 and again by Hawkes & Son in 1939.
This song cycle is divided into four books of unequal length, containing a total of sixteen movements, and takes more than half an hour to perform. It is scored for unspecified voice (commonly performed by a soprano or a mezzo-soprano) and piano. Bartók wrote the duration and metronome indications for each song, which was common in some of Bartók's works. According to Bartók himself, these were not meant to be taken exactly as written, but they are meant to serve "only as a guide for the executants".The movement list is as follows:
Book I: Szomorú nóták (Sad Songs)
Book II: Táncdalok (Dancing Songs)
Book III: Vegyes dalok (Diverse Songs)
Book IV: Új dalok (New Style Songs)
The last book from this set has only one untitled movement, which, in turn, contains five different songs joined attacca, thus turning it into a continuous musical texture with connecting piano passages.According to professor Michael Hicks, Bartók did not merely arrange folk music, but he rather re-composed the pieces and used repetitions, transpositions, texture economy and narrative building, which helped him "reach his ideal of making high art from the folksong of his homeland".
The lyrics were written in Bartók's native Hungarian. However, they were translated into German for their latest edition. Book I was translated by Benedikt Szabolcsiand Books II to IV by Rudolf Stefan Hoffmann.
Bartók himself also published an arrangement for voice and orchestra of songs 1, 2, 11, 14, and 12. It was entitled Five Hungarian Folksongs, Sz. 101, BB 108, and was published some years later, in 1933, to celebrate the 80th anniversary of the Budapest Philharmonic Orchestra.
The Concerto for Orchestra in F minor, Sz. 116, BB 123, is a five-movement orchestral work composed by Béla Bartók in 1943. It is one of his best-known, most popular, and most accessible works.
The Piano Concerto No. 3 in E major, Sz. 119, BB 127 of Béla Bartók is a musical composition for piano and orchestra. The work was composed in 1945 during the final months of his life, as a surprise birthday present for his second wife Ditta Pásztory-Bartók.
The Viola Concerto in A minor, Sz. 120, BB 128 was one of the last pieces written by Béla Bartók. He began composing his viola concerto while living in Saranac Lake, New York, in July 1945. The piece was commissioned by William Primrose, a respected violist who knew that Bartók could provide a challenging piece for him to perform. He said that Bartók should not "feel in any way proscribed by the apparent technical limitations of the instrument"; Bartók, though, was suffering from the terminal stages of leukemia when he began writing the viola concerto and left only sketches at the time of his death.
Béla Bartók's Violin Concerto No. 2, BB 117 was written in 1937–38. During the composer's life, it was known simply as his Violin Concerto. His other violin concerto, Violin Concerto No. 1, Sz. 36, BB 48a, was written in the years 1907–1908, but only published in 1956, after the composer's death, as "Violin Concerto No. 1, Op. posth."
Songs Without Words is a series of short lyrical piano songs by the Romantic composer Felix Mendelssohn, written between 1829 and 1845. His sister Fanny Mendelssohn and other composers also wrote pieces in the same genre.
Cantata Profana is a work for double mixed chorus and orchestra by the Hungarian composer Béla Bartók. Completed on 8 September 1930, it received its premiere in London on 25 May 1934, with the BBC Symphony Orchestra and Wireless Chorus conducted by Aylmer Buesst. Tenor Trefor Jones and baritone Frank Phillips were the featured soloists. The work was presented in an English translation by M. D. Calvocoressi.
Rhapsody No. 2, Sz. 89 and 90, BB 96, is the second of two virtuoso works for violin and piano, subsequently arranged with orchestra accompaniment, written by Béla Bartók. It was composed in 1928 and orchestrated in 1929. The orchestral version was revised in 1935, and the version with piano in 1945. It is dedicated to Hungarian violinist Zoltán Székely, who later became the first violinist of the Hungarian String Quartet in 1937, two years after the founding of the ensemble.
Fifteen Hungarian Peasant Songs, Sz. 71, BB 79 is a collection of short folk melodies arranged for piano by Hungarian composer Béla Bartók. It was composed between 1914 and 1918. In 1933, Bartók adapted and orchestrated parts of the piece as Hungarian Peasant Songs, Sz. 100, BB 107, commonly known by its Hungarian name, Magyar parasztdalok.
Zoltán Gárdonyi was a Hungarian composer and musicologist. He taught at the Franz Liszt Academy of Music for 26 years.
Mátraszentimrei dalok is a collection of songs after Hungarian folk tunes by Hungarian composer György Ligeti. They are strongly influenced by fellow composer Béla Bartók, who also used Hungarian folk songs as his basis for some of his compositions.
Magyar népdalok énekhangra és zongorára is a collection of Hungarian folk song arrangements by Béla Bartók. Bartók's Hungarian Folksongs are now much better known outside Hungary in arrangements for violin and piano, or—without voice—for piano alone. One of the most famous songs "Elindultam szép hazámból" came to be applied to Bartók himself as he assumed the role of an exile.
Four Dirges, Op. 9a, Sz. 45, BB 58 is a short collection of dirges by Hungarian composer Béla Bartók.
Three Hungarian Folksongs, Sz. 66, BB 80b is a collection of folksongs for piano by Hungarian composer Béla Bartók. It was composed between 1914 and 1918.
Nine Little Piano Pieces, Sz. 82, BB 90 is a collection of short pieces for piano by Hungarian composer Béla Bartók. It was completed in 1926.
Eight Hungarian Folksongs, Sz. 64, BB 47 is a song cycle for high voice and piano by Hungarian composer Béla Bartók. It was composed between 1907 and 1917.
Five Hungarian Folksongs, Sz. 33, BB 97, is an arrangement by Hungarian composer Béla Bartók completed around 1928 of selected songs from a previous set entitled Ten Hungarian Folksongs, Sz. 33, BB 42.
Five Songs, Op. 15, Sz. 61, BB 71 is an early song cycle for voice and piano written in 1916 by Hungarian composer Béla Bartók.
Village Scenes, Sz. 78, BB 87a, also known as Falun, Dedinské scény, or its German title, Dorfszenen, is a collection of Slovak folk songs for female voice and piano by Hungarian composer Béla Bartók. It was completed in 1924.