Tyne and Wear

Last updated

Tyne and Wear
Angel of the North 2-10-14.png
Souter Lighthouse - geograph.org.uk - 2859840.jpg
Tyne Bridge - Newcastle Upon Tyne - England - 2004-08-14.jpg
The Angel of the North, Souter Lighthouse in Whitburn, and the River Tyne between Gateshead and Newcastle.
Tyne and Wear UK locator map 2010.svg
Tyne and Wear within England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region North East
Established1974
Established by Local Government Act 1972
Preceded byParts of County Durham
Parts of Northumberland
Time zone UTC±00:00 (Greenwich Mean Time)
  Summer (DST) UTC+01:00 (British Summer Time)
Members of Parliament
Police Northumbria Police
Largest city Newcastle upon Tyne
Ceremonial county
Lord Lieutenant Lucy Winskell
High Sheriff Sarah Stewart [1] (2020–21)
Area538 km2 (208 sq mi)
  Ranked 44th of 48
Population (2021)1,136,371
  Ranked 16th of 48
Density2,105/km2 (5,450/sq mi)
Ethnicity2011: [2]
91.49% White British
4.10% Asian
1.98% Other White
0.97% Mixed
0.78% Black
0.67% Other
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)16.7
(62.1)
17.4
(63.3)
21.7
(71.1)
24.1
(75.4)
27.8
(82.0)
30.6
(87.1)
36.9
(98.4)
32.5
(90.5)
30.0
(86.0)
25.0
(77.0)
19.4
(66.9)
15.9
(60.6)
36.9
(98.4)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F)6.9
(44.4)
7.8
(46.0)
9.9
(49.8)
12.5
(54.5)
15.4
(59.7)
18.0
(64.4)
20.2
(68.4)
19.9
(67.8)
17.4
(63.3)
13.5
(56.3)
9.7
(49.5)
7.1
(44.8)
13.2
(55.8)
Daily mean °C (°F)4.1
(39.4)
4.6
(40.3)
6.2
(43.2)
8.3
(46.9)
10.9
(51.6)
13.6
(56.5)
15.8
(60.4)
15.6
(60.1)
13.3
(55.9)
10.0
(50.0)
6.6
(43.9)
4.2
(39.6)
9.5
(49.1)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F)1.3
(34.3)
1.4
(34.5)
2.5
(36.5)
4.1
(39.4)
6.5
(43.7)
9.3
(48.7)
11.3
(52.3)
11.3
(52.3)
9.2
(48.6)
6.5
(43.7)
3.6
(38.5)
1.4
(34.5)
5.7
(42.3)
Record low °C (°F)−17.2
(1.0)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−15.0
(5.0)
−11.1
(12.0)
−4.4
(24.1)
−1.1
(30.0)
1.1
(34.0)
0.6
(33.1)
−1.1
(30.0)
−5.5
(22.1)
−8.8
(16.2)
−16.6
(2.1)
−18.3
(−0.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches)51.8
(2.04)
44.6
(1.76)
41.1
(1.62)
51.2
(2.02)
44.4
(1.75)
61.0
(2.40)
60.9
(2.40)
66.5
(2.62)
56.9
(2.24)
63.4
(2.50)
73.0
(2.87)
61.0
(2.40)
675.7
(26.60)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)11.89.98.69.18.69.910.710.39.411.812.012.0124.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 60.984.4121.7160.8187.1167.1174.3167.3135.398.964.657.61,480
Source 1: Met Office [11] [12] [13]
Source 2: Durham Weather UK [14]

Green belt

Tyne and Wear contains green belt interspersed throughout the county, mainly on the fringes of the Tyneside/Wearside conurbation. There is also an inter-urban line of belt helping to keep the districts of South Tyneside, Gateshead, and Sunderland separated. It was first drawn up from the 1950s. All the county's districts contain some portion of belt.

Governance

Although Tyne and Wear County Council was abolished in 1986, several joint bodies exist to run certain services on a county-wide basis. Most notable is the Tyne and Wear Passenger Transport Authority, which co-ordinates transport policy. Through its passenger transport executive, known as Nexus, it owns and operates the Tyne and Wear Metro light rail system, and the Shields ferry service and the Tyne Tunnel, linking communities on either side of the River Tyne. Also through Nexus, the authority subsidises socially necessary transport services (including taxis) and operates a concessionary fares scheme for the elderly and disabled. Nexus has been an executive body of the North East Joint Transport Committee since November 2018.

Other joint bodies include the Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Service and Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums, which was created from the merger of the Tyne and Wear Archives Service and Tyne and Wear Museums. These joint bodies are administered by representatives of all five of the constituent councils. In addition the Northumbria Police force covers Northumberland and Tyne and Wear.

There have been occasional calls for Tyne and Wear to be abolished and the traditional border between Northumberland and County Durham to be restored. [15] [16]

Tyne and Wear is divided into 12 Parliamentary constituencies. Historically, the area has been a Labour stronghold; South Shields is the only Parliamentary constituency that has never returned a Conservative Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons since the Reform Act of 1832.

General Election 2019 : Tyne and Wear
LabourLiberal DemocratsConser­vativeBrexitOthersGreenTurnout
247,317
36,417
160,155
47,142
10,504
16,010
517,545
Overall Number of seats as of 2019
LabourLiberal DemocratsConser­vativeBNPUKIPOthersGreen
12000000

At the level of local government, all of the region's five unitary authorities were controlled by Labour in 2019.

Newcastle and Sunderland are known for declaring their election results early on election night. [17] Therefore, they frequently give the first indication of nationwide trends. An example of this was at the 2016 European Union referendum. Newcastle was the first large city to declare, and 50.6% of voters voted to Remain; this proportion was far lower than predicted by experts. Sunderland declared soon after and gave a 62% vote to Leave, much higher than expected. These two results were seen as an early sign that the United Kingdom had voted to Leave.

Settlements

Commuter rail services in the region Tyne and Wear and Tees Rail Map.svg
Commuter rail services in the region

Italics indicate the district centre.For a complete list of all villages, towns and cities see the list of places in Tyne and Wear.

Borough/CityLocalityAuthority
Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead Gateshead

Birtley
Blaydon
Low Fell
Rowlands Gill
Ryton
Sheriff Hill
Whickham

Gateshead Metropolitan Borough Council
City of Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne – city centre

Byker
Blakelaw
Elswick
Fenham
Gosforth
Jesmond
Heaton
Newburn
North Kenton
Throckley
Walbottle
Walker
Westerhope
West Moor

Newcastle upon Tyne City Council
Metropolitan Borough of North Tyneside Wallsend

Annitsford
Backworth
Benton
Cullercoats
Dudley
Earsdon
Fordley
Forest Hall
Killingworth
Longbenton
Monkseaton
North Shields
Preston
Tynemouth
Whitley Bay
Wideopen

North Tyneside Metropolitan Borough Council Archived 23 September 2020 at the Wayback Machine
Metropolitan Borough of South Tyneside South Shields

Boldon
Cleadon
Harton
Hebburn
Jarrow
Westoe
Whitburn

South Tyneside Metropolitan Borough Council
City of Sunderland Sunderland

Castletown
Fulwell
Hendon
Herrington
Hetton-le-Hole
Houghton-le-Spring
Hylton Red House
Newbottle
Penshaw
Rainton
Ryhope
Seaburn
Shiney Row
Silksworth
South Hylton
Southwick
Springwell Village
Warden Law
Washington

Sunderland City Council

Education

Higher

Two campuses of Sunderland University are in Sunderland, while Newcastle contains the two campuses of Northumbria University as well as the Newcastle University main campus.

Further

Places of interest

Sunderland Marina panorama - geograph.org.uk - 2193626.jpg
Sunderland Marina
Key
AP Icon.svg Abbey/Priory/Cathedral
UKAL icon.svg Accessible open space
Themepark uk icon.png Amusement/Theme Park
CL icon.svg Castle
Country parks.svg Country Park
EH icon.svg English Heritage
Forestry Commission
HR icon.svg Heritage railway
HH icon.svg Historic House
AP Icon.svg Places of Worship
Museum icon.svg
Museum icon (red).svg
Museum (free/not free)
NTE icon.svg National Trust
Drama-icon.svg Theatre
Zoo icon.jpg Zoo

Businesses

Newcastle Brown Ale - the yen an anny (which means "the one and only" in Tyneside dialect.) Bottle of Newcastle Brown Ale poured.jpg
Newcastle Brown Ale – the yen an anny (which means "the one and only" in Tyneside dialect.)

Offshore Group Newcastle make oil platforms. Sage Group, who produce accounting software, are based at Hazlerigg at the northern end of the Newcastle bypass. Northern Rock, which became a bank in 1997 and was taken over by Virgin Money in November 2011, and the Newcastle Building Society are based in Gosforth. The Gosforth-based bakery Greggs now has over 1,500 shops. The Balliol Business Park in Longbenton contains Procter & Gamble research and global business centres and a tax credits call centre for HMRC, and is the former home of Findus UK. The Government National Insurance Contributions Office in Longbenton, demolished and replaced in 2000, had a 1 mile (1.6 km) long corridor.[ citation needed ]

Be-Ro and the Go-Ahead Group bus company are in central Newcastle. Nestlé use the former Rowntrees chocolate factory on the east of the A1. BAE Systems Land & Armaments in Scotswood, formerly Vickers-Armstrongs, is the main producer of British Army tanks such as the Challenger 2. A Rolls-Royce apprentice training site is next door. [18] Siemens Energy Service Fossil make steam turbines at the CA Parsons Works in South Heaton. Sir Charles Parsons invented the steam turbine in 1884, and developed an important local company. Domestos, a product whose main ingredient is sodium hypochlorite, was originated in Newcastle in 1929 by William Handley, and was distributed from the area for many years.

Clarke Chapman is next to the A167 in Gateshead. The MetroCentre, the largest shopping centre in Europe, is in Dunston. Scottish & Newcastle was the largest UK-owned brewery until it was bought by Heineken and Carlsberg in April 2008, and produced Newcastle Brown Ale at the Newcastle Federation Brewery in Dunston until production moved to Tadcaster in September 2010. At Team Valley are De La Rue, with their largest banknote printing facility, and Myson Radiators, the second largest in the UK market. Petards make surveillance equipment including ANPR cameras, and its Joyce-Loebl division makes electronic warfare systems and countermeasure dispensing systems such as the AN/ALE-47. Sevcon, an international company formed from a part of Smith Electric, is a world leader in electric vehicle controls. AEI Cables and Komatsu UK construction equipment at Birtley.

J. Barbour & Sons make outdoor clothing in Simonside, Jarrow. SAFT Batteries make primary lithium batteries on the Tyne in South Shields. Bellway plc houses is in Seaton Burn in North Tyneside. Cobalt Business Park, the largest office park in the UK, is at Wallsend, on the former site of Atmel, and is the home of North Tyneside Council. Swan Hunter until 2006 made ships in Wallsend, and still designs ships. Soil Machine Dynamics in Wallsend on the Tyne makes Remotely operated underwater vehicles, and its Ultra Trencher 1 is the world's largest submersible robot.[ citation needed ]

Nissan UK off the A19 near Sunderland Nissan Motor Works from the Air - geograph.org.uk - 486110.jpg
Nissan UK off the A19 near Sunderland

The car dealership Evans Halshaw is in Sunderland. The car factory owned by Nissan Motor Manufacturing UK between North Hylton and Washington is the largest in the UK. Grundfos, the world's leading pump manufacturer, builds pumps in Sunderland. Calsonic Kansei UK, formerly Magna, make automotive instrument panels and car trim at the Pennywell Industrial Estate. Gestamp UK make automotive components. Smith Electric Vehicles originated in Washington. The LG Electronics microwave oven factory opened in 1989, closed in May 2004, and later became the site of the Tanfield Group. Goodyear Dunlop had their only UK car tyre factory next to the Tanfield site until its 2006 closure. BAE Systems Global Combat Systems moved to a new £75 million factory at the former Goodyear site in 2011, where they make large calibre ammunition for tanks and artillery.

The government's child benefit office is in Washington. Liebherr build cranes next to the Wear at Deptford. The outdoor clothing company Berghaus is in Castletown. Vaux Breweries, who owned Swallow Hotels, closed in 1999. ScS Sofas are on Borough Road. There are many call centres in Sunderland, notably EDF Energy at the Doxford International Business Park, which is also the home of the headquarters of the large international transport company Arriva and Nike UK. Rolls-Royce planned to move their production of fan and turbine discs to BAE Systems' new site in 2016.[ needs update ]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">North East England</span> Region of England

North East England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of ITL for statistical purposes. The region has three current administrative levels below the region level in the region: combined authority, unitary authority or metropolitan borough, and civil parishes. They are also multiple divisions without administrative functions; ceremonial county, emergency services, built-up areas and historic county. The largest settlements in the region are Newcastle upon Tyne, Middlesbrough, Sunderland, Gateshead, Darlington, Hartlepool and Durham.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Tyneside</span> Metropolitan borough in England

South Tyneside is a metropolitan borough in the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear, England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">North Tyneside</span> Metropolitan borough in England

North Tyneside is a metropolitan borough in the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear, England. It forms part of the greater Tyneside conurbation. North Tyneside Council is headquartered at Cobalt Park, Wallsend.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tyne and Wear Metro</span> Rapid-transit rail network in north-east England

The Tyne and Wear Metro is an overground and underground light rail rapid transit system serving Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, North Tyneside, South Tyneside, and the City of Sunderland. The network opened in stages from August 1980 and now serves a total of 60 stations, with two lines covering 77.5 km (48.2 mi) of track. The Metro can be accessed from a mixture of underground and above-ground stations. It has been described as the "first modern light rail system in the United Kingdom". The system is currently owned and operated by the Tyne and Wear Passenger Transport Executive, thus is fully under public ownership and operation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tyneside</span> Built-up area in England

Tyneside is a built-up area across the banks of the River Tyne in Northern England. Residents of the area are commonly referred to as Geordies. The whole area is surrounded by the North East Green Belt.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">North Tyneside (UK Parliament constituency)</span> Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, 1997 onwards

North Tyneside is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2010 by Mary Glindon of the Labour Party.

The Northern Football Alliance is a football league based in the North East, England. It has four divisions headed by the Premier Division, which sits at step 7 of the National League System.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Service</span> Fire and rescue service in England

Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Service, formerly known as the Tyne and Wear Metropolitan Fire Brigade, is the fire and rescue service (FRS) for the metropolitan boroughs of Newcastle Upon Tyne, Gateshead, North Tyneside, South Tyneside and Sunderland, serving a population of 1.14 million people across an area of 208 square miles (540 km2). Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Authority is responsible for the running of the service, as well as the publication of performance indicators in accordance with its legal obligations. In April 2017, Chris Lowther was appointed chief fire officer.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Transport in Tyne and Wear</span> Overview of transport in Tyne and Wear

Tyne and Wear is a metropolitan area covering the cities of Newcastle upon Tyne and Sunderland, as well as North and South Tyneside, Gateshead and Washington.

The geology of Tyne and Wear in northeast England largely consists of a suite of sedimentary rocks dating from the Carboniferous and Permian periods into which were intruded igneous dykes during the later Palaeogene Period.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tyneside Passenger Transport Executive</span>

The Tyneside Passenger Transport Executive was the operations arm of the Tyneside Passenger Transport Authority, created by the Transport Act 1968. and came into operation on 1 January 1970.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">North East Combined Authority</span> Local government body in northern England

The North East Combined Authority, abbreviated to NECA, is one of three combined authorities in North East England. It was created in 2014, and currently consists of the City of Sunderland; Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead, South Tyneside; and Durham County local authorities.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">North East Green Belt</span>

The North East Green Belt, also known as the Tyne & Wear Green Belt, is a non-statutory green belt environmental and planning policy that regulates the rural space in part of the North East region of England. It is centred on the county of Tyne and Wear, with areas of belt extending into Northumberland and County Durham. The belt functions to protect surrounding towns and villages outside the Tyneside/Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Wearside/Sunderland conurbations from further convergence. It is managed by local planning authorities on guidance from central government.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1973 Tyne and Wear County Council election</span> Election

The 1973 Tyne and Wear County Council election was held on 12 April 1973 as part of the first elections to the new local authorities established by the Local Government Act 1972 in England and Wales. 104 councillors were elected from 95 electoral divisions across the region's five boroughs. Each division returned either one or two county councillors each by First-past-the-post voting for a four-year term of office. The election took place ahead of the elections to the area's metropolitan borough councils, which followed on 10 May 1973.

The county of Northumberland has returned four MPs to the UK Parliament since 1983. Under the Local Government Act 1972, which came into effect on 1 April 1974, the boundaries of the historic/administrative county were significantly altered with the south-east of the county, comprising more than half the electorate, being transferred to the new metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear. These changes were reflected in the following redistribution of parliamentary seats which did not come into effect until the 1983 general election, resulting in a reduction in the county's representation from 10 to 4 MPs.

The ceremonial county of Tyne and Wear has returned 12 MPs to the UK Parliament since 2010. It was created under the Local Government Act 1972, which came into effect on 1 April 1974, comprising the urban areas around the mouths of the Rivers Tyne and Wear, previously parts of the historic counties of Northumberland and Durham.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">North East Mayoral Combined Authority</span> Planned combined authority in North East England

The North East Mayoral Combined Authority (NEMCA) is a planned mayoral combined authority area in the North East of England. It will cover the counties of Northumberland and Tyne and Wear, as well as the County Durham council area, but will exclude the Teesside boroughs which also form part of the North East region. It will consist of eight members: the directly-elected Mayor for the North East and an appointed representative from the seven constituent councils of the combined authority area.

References

  1. "No. 62943". The London Gazette . 13 March 2020. p. 5161.
  2. "2011 census: Ethnic group (detailed)". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 20 May 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
  3. "The Venerable Bede – England's first great historian". British Heritage. 29 October 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  4. "Five of England's less-visited counties for days out and short breaks". Guardian. 6 March 2021. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  5. London Gazette, 10 May 1935
  6. Local Government in the Tyneside Area (Cmd.5402)
  7. Government of Tyneside : a Regional Council. The Times. 19 March 1937.
  8. Local Government on Tyneside. Sir K. Wood and Report of Commission. The Times. 22 September 1937.
  9. Hansard, 6 July 1972, column 909
  10. "Tynemouth climate information". Met Office. Archived from the original on 28 April 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
  11. "Durham (Durham) UK climate averages". Met Office. 1991–2020. Retrieved 1 January 2022.
  12. "Exceptional warmth, December 2015". Met Office. 27 January 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
  13. Kendon, Mike; McCarthy, Mark; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Legg, Tim (2015). "State of the UK Climate 2015" (PDF). Met Office . Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  14. "North East England Climate : Durham Weather". Durham Weather UK. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  15. "Call to return the county to its historic status". Northumberland Gazette . 19 March 2016.
  16. Henderson, Tony (3 January 2019). "Are there signs that our traditional county boundaries are set to return?". Evening Chronicle .
  17. Rodger, James (8 June 2017). "Why Sunderland and Newcastle always declare election results first". birminghammail.
  18. "RRTEC". Rrnetc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2012.

54°58′26″N1°36′48″W / 54.974°N 1.6132°W / 54.974; -1.6132