Tyne and Wear

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Tyne and Wear
Angel of the North 2-10-14.png
Souter Lighthouse - geograph.org.uk - 2859840.jpg
Tyne Bridge - Newcastle Upon Tyne - England - 2004-08-14.jpg
The Angel of the North, Souter Lighthouse in Whitburn, and the River Tyne between Gateshead and Newcastle.
Tyne and Wear UK locator map 2010.svg
Tyne and Wear within England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region North East
Established by Local Government Act 1972
Preceded byParts of County Durham
Parts of Northumberland
Time zone UTC±00:00 (Greenwich Mean Time)
  Summer (DST) UTC+01:00 (British Summer Time)
Members of Parliament
Police Northumbria Police
Largest city Newcastle upon Tyne
Ceremonial county
Lord Lieutenant Lucy Winskell
High Sheriff Sarah Stewart [1] (2020–21)
Area538 km2 (208 sq mi)
  Ranked 44th of 48
Population (2021)1,136,371
  Ranked 16th of 48
Density2,105/km2 (5,450/sq mi)
Ethnicity2011: [2]
91.49% White British
4.10% Asian
1.98% Other White
0.97% Mixed
0.78% Black
0.67% Other
Record high °C (°F)16.7
Mean daily maximum °C (°F)6.9
Daily mean °C (°F)4.1
Mean daily minimum °C (°F)1.3
Record low °C (°F)−17.2
Average precipitation mm (inches)51.8
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 60.984.4121.7160.8187.1167.1174.3167.3135.398.964.657.61,480
Source 1: Met Office [11] [12] [13]
Source 2: Durham Weather UK [14]

Green belt

Tyne and Wear contains green belt interspersed throughout the county, mainly on the fringes of the Tyneside/Wearside conurbation. There is also an inter-urban line of belt helping to keep the districts of South Tyneside, Gateshead, and Sunderland separated. It was first drawn up from the 1950s. All the county's districts contain some portion of belt.


Although Tyne and Wear County Council was abolished in 1986, several joint bodies exist to run certain services on a county-wide basis. Most notable is the Tyne and Wear Passenger Transport Authority, which co-ordinates transport policy. Through its passenger transport executive, known as Nexus, it owns and operates the Tyne and Wear Metro light rail system, and the Shields ferry service and the Tyne Tunnel, linking communities on either side of the River Tyne. Also through Nexus, the authority subsidises socially necessary transport services (including taxis) and operates a concessionary fares scheme for the elderly and disabled. Nexus has been an executive body of the North East Joint Transport Committee since November 2018.

Other joint bodies include the Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Service and Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums, which was created from the merger of the Tyne and Wear Archives Service and Tyne and Wear Museums. These joint bodies are administered by representatives of all five of the constituent councils. In addition the Northumbria Police force covers Northumberland and Tyne and Wear.

There have been occasional calls for Tyne and Wear to be abolished and the traditional border between Northumberland and County Durham to be restored. [15] [16]

Tyne and Wear is divided into 12 Parliamentary constituencies. Historically, the area has been a Labour stronghold; South Shields is the only Parliamentary constituency that has never returned a Conservative Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons since the Reform Act of 1832.

General Election 2019 : Tyne and Wear
LabourLiberal DemocratsConser­vativeBrexitOthersGreenTurnout
Overall Number of seats as of 2019
LabourLiberal DemocratsConser­vativeBNPUKIPOthersGreen

At the level of local government, all of the region's five unitary authorities were controlled by Labour in 2019.

Newcastle and Sunderland are known for declaring their election results early on election night. [17] Therefore, they frequently give the first indication of nationwide trends. An example of this was at the 2016 European Union referendum. Newcastle was the first large city to declare, and 50.6% of voters voted to Remain; this proportion was far lower than predicted by experts. Sunderland declared soon after and gave a 62% vote to Leave, much higher than expected. These two results were seen as an early sign that the United Kingdom had voted to Leave.


Commuter rail services in the region Tyne and Wear and Tees Rail Map.svg
Commuter rail services in the region

Italics indicate the district centre.For a complete list of all villages, towns and cities see the list of places in Tyne and Wear.

Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead Gateshead

Low Fell
Rowlands Gill
Sheriff Hill

Gateshead Metropolitan Borough Council
City of Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne – city centre

North Kenton
West Moor

Newcastle upon Tyne City Council
Metropolitan Borough of North Tyneside Wallsend

Forest Hall
North Shields
Whitley Bay

North Tyneside Metropolitan Borough Council Archived 23 September 2020 at the Wayback Machine
Metropolitan Borough of South Tyneside South Shields


South Tyneside Metropolitan Borough Council
City of Sunderland Sunderland

Hylton Red House
Shiney Row
South Hylton
Springwell Village
Warden Law

Sunderland City Council



Two campuses of Sunderland University are in Sunderland, while Newcastle contains the two campuses of Northumbria University as well as the Newcastle University main campus.


Places of interest

Sunderland Marina panorama - geograph.org.uk - 2193626.jpg
Sunderland Marina
AP Icon.svg Abbey/Priory/Cathedral
UKAL icon.svg Accessible open space
Themepark uk icon.png Amusement/Theme Park
CL icon.svg Castle
Country parks.svg Country Park
EH icon.svg English Heritage
Forestry Commission
HR icon.svg Heritage railway
HH icon.svg Historic House
AP Icon.svg Places of Worship
Museum icon.svg
Museum icon (red).svg
Museum (free/not free)
NTE icon.svg National Trust
Drama-icon.svg Theatre
Zoo icon.jpg Zoo


Newcastle Brown Ale - the yen an anny (which means "the one and only" in Tyneside dialect.) Bottle of Newcastle Brown Ale poured.jpg
Newcastle Brown Ale – the yen an anny (which means "the one and only" in Tyneside dialect.)

Offshore Group Newcastle make oil platforms. Sage Group, who produce accounting software, are based at Hazlerigg at the northern end of the Newcastle bypass. Northern Rock, which became a bank in 1997 and was taken over by Virgin Money in November 2011, and the Newcastle Building Society are based in Gosforth. The Gosforth-based bakery Greggs now has over 1,500 shops. The Balliol Business Park in Longbenton contains Procter & Gamble research and global business centres and a tax credits call centre for HMRC, and is the former home of Findus UK. The Government National Insurance Contributions Office in Longbenton, demolished and replaced in 2000, had a 1 mile (1.6 km) long corridor.[ citation needed ]

Be-Ro and the Go-Ahead Group bus company are in central Newcastle. Nestlé use the former Rowntrees chocolate factory on the east of the A1. BAE Systems Land & Armaments in Scotswood, formerly Vickers-Armstrongs, is the main producer of British Army tanks such as the Challenger 2. A Rolls-Royce apprentice training site is next door. [18] Siemens Energy Service Fossil make steam turbines at the CA Parsons Works in South Heaton. Sir Charles Parsons invented the steam turbine in 1884, and developed an important local company. Domestos, a product whose main ingredient is sodium hypochlorite, was originated in Newcastle in 1929 by William Handley, and was distributed from the area for many years.

Clarke Chapman is next to the A167 in Gateshead. The MetroCentre, the largest shopping centre in Europe, is in Dunston. Scottish & Newcastle was the largest UK-owned brewery until it was bought by Heineken and Carlsberg in April 2008, and produced Newcastle Brown Ale at the Newcastle Federation Brewery in Dunston until production moved to Tadcaster in September 2010. At Team Valley are De La Rue, with their largest banknote printing facility, and Myson Radiators, the second largest in the UK market. Petards make surveillance equipment including ANPR cameras, and its Joyce-Loebl division makes electronic warfare systems and countermeasure dispensing systems such as the AN/ALE-47. Sevcon, an international company formed from a part of Smith Electric, is a world leader in electric vehicle controls. AEI Cables and Komatsu UK construction equipment at Birtley.

J. Barbour & Sons make outdoor clothing in Simonside, Jarrow. SAFT Batteries make primary lithium batteries on the Tyne in South Shields. Bellway plc houses is in Seaton Burn in North Tyneside. Cobalt Business Park, the largest office park in the UK, is at Wallsend, on the former site of Atmel, and is the home of North Tyneside Council. Swan Hunter until 2006 made ships in Wallsend, and still designs ships. Soil Machine Dynamics in Wallsend on the Tyne makes Remotely operated underwater vehicles, and its Ultra Trencher 1 is the world's largest submersible robot.[ citation needed ]

Nissan UK off the A19 near Sunderland Nissan Motor Works from the Air - geograph.org.uk - 486110.jpg
Nissan UK off the A19 near Sunderland

The car dealership Evans Halshaw is in Sunderland. The car factory owned by Nissan Motor Manufacturing UK between North Hylton and Washington is the largest in the UK. Grundfos, the world's leading pump manufacturer, builds pumps in Sunderland. Calsonic Kansei UK, formerly Magna, make automotive instrument panels and car trim at the Pennywell Industrial Estate. Gestamp UK make automotive components. Smith Electric Vehicles originated in Washington. The LG Electronics microwave oven factory opened in 1989, closed in May 2004, and later became the site of the Tanfield Group. Goodyear Dunlop had their only UK car tyre factory next to the Tanfield site until its 2006 closure. BAE Systems Global Combat Systems moved to a new £75 million factory at the former Goodyear site in 2011, where they make large calibre ammunition for tanks and artillery.

The government's child benefit office is in Washington. Liebherr build cranes next to the Wear at Deptford. The outdoor clothing company Berghaus is in Castletown. Vaux Breweries, who owned Swallow Hotels, closed in 1999. ScS Sofas are on Borough Road. There are many call centres in Sunderland, notably EDF Energy at the Doxford International Business Park, which is also the home of the headquarters of the large international transport company Arriva and Nike UK. Rolls-Royce planned to move their production of fan and turbine discs to BAE Systems' new site in 2016.[ needs update ]

See also

Related Research Articles

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Tyneside</span> Metropolitan borough in England

South Tyneside is a metropolitan borough in the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear, England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">North Tyneside</span> Metropolitan borough in England

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tyne and Wear Metro</span> Rapid-transit rail network in north-east England

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tyneside</span> Built-up area in England

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54°58′26″N1°36′48″W / 54.974°N 1.6132°W / 54.974; -1.6132