|Tyne and Wear|
|Metropolitan and Ceremonial county|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Region||North East England|
(Local Government Act 1972) Created from the five county boroughs within Northumberland (North of Tyne) and County Durham (South of Tyne)
|Lord Lieutenant||Susan Winfield|
|High Sheriff||Mrs Sarah Stewart (2020–21)|
|Area||538 km2 (208 sq mi)|
|• Ranked||44th of 48|
|Population (mid-2018 est.)||1,136,371|
|• Ranked||16th of 48|
|Density||2,105/km2 (5,450/sq mi)|
91.49% White British
1.98% Other White
|Area||538 km2 (208 sq mi)|
Districts of Tyne and Wear
|Members of Parliament|
|Time zone||Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)|
|• Summer (DST)||British Summer Time (UTC+1)|
Tyne and Wear ( / ... / ) is a metropolitan county in the North East region of England around the mouths of the rivers Tyne and Wear. It came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. It consists of the five metropolitan boroughs of South Tyneside, North Tyneside, City of Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead and City of Sunderland. It is bounded on the east by the North Sea, and has borders with Northumberland to the north and County Durham to the south.
Prior to the 1974 reforms, the territory now covered by the county of Tyne and Wear straddled the border between the counties of Northumberland and Durham, the border being marked by the river Tyne; that territory also included five county boroughs.
Tyne and Wear County Council, based at Sandyford House, was abolished in 1986 along with the other metropolitan county councils in England by the Local Government Act 1985, and so its districts (the metropolitan boroughs) have since functioned effectively as unitary authorities. However, the metropolitan county continues to exist in law and as a geographic frame of reference,and as a ceremonial county.
The Local Government Act 1888 constituted Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead and Sunderland as county boroughs (Newcastle had "county corporate" status as the "County and Town of Newcastle upon Tyne" since 1400). Tynemouth joined them in 1904. Between the county boroughs, various other settlements also formed part of the administrative counties of Durham and of Northumberland.
The need to reform local government on Tyneside was recognised by the government as early as 1935, when a Royal Commission to Investigate the Conditions of Local Government on Tyneside was appointed.The three commissioners were to
examine the system of local government in the areas of local government north and south of the river Tyne from the sea to the boundary of the Rural District of Castle Ward and Hexham in the County of Northumberland and to the Western boundary of the County of Durham, to consider what changes, if any, should be made in the existing arrangements with a view to securing greater economy and efficiency, and to make recommendations.
The report of the Royal Commission, published in 1937,recommended the establishment of a Regional Council for Northumberland and Tyneside (to be called the "Northumberland Regional Council") to administer services that needed to be exercised over a wide area, with a second tier of smaller units for other local-government purposes. The second-tier units would form by amalgamating the various existing boroughs and districts. The county boroughs in the area would lose their status. Within this area, a single municipality would be formed covering the four county boroughs of Newcastle, Gateshead, Tynemouth, South Shields and other urban districts and boroughs.
A minority report proposed amalgamation of Newcastle, Gateshead, Wallsend, Jarrow, Felling, Gosforth, Hebburn and Newburn into a single "county borough of Newcastle-on-Tyneside". The 1937 proposals never came into operation: local authorities could not agree on a scheme and the legislation of the time did not allow central government to compel one.
Tyneside (excluding Sunderland) was a Special Review Area under the Local Government Act 1958. The Local Government Commission for England came back with a recommendation to create a new county of Tyneside based on the review area, divided into four separate boroughs. This was not implemented. The Redcliffe-Maud Report proposed a Tyneside unitary authority, again excluding Sunderland, which would have set up a separate East Durham unitary authority.
The White Paper that led to the Local Government Act 1972 proposed as "area 2" a metropolitan county including Newcastle and Sunderland, extending as far south down the coast as Seaham and Easington, and bordering "area 4" (which would become Cleveland). The Bill as presented in November 1971 pruned back the southern edge of the area, and gave it the name "Tyneside". The name "Tyneside" proved controversial on Wearside, and a government amendment changed the name to "Tyne and Wear" at the request of Sunderland County Borough Council.
|Metropolitan county||Metropolitan borough||County boroughs||Non-county boroughs||Urban districts||Rural districts|
|Gateshead||Gateshead||-||Blaydon • Felling • Ryton • Whickham||Chester-le-Street|
|Newcastle upon Tyne||Newcastle upon Tyne||-||Gosforth • Newburn||Castle Ward|
|North Tyneside||Tynemouth||Wallsend • Whitley Bay||Longbenton • Seaton Valley||-|
|South Tyneside||South Shields||Jarrow||Boldon • Hebburn||-|
|Sunderland||Sunderland||-||Washington • Houghton-le-Spring • Hetton-le-Hole||Easington|
Although Tyne and Wear County Council was abolished in 1986, several joint bodies exist to run certain services on a county-wide basis. Most notable is the Tyne and Wear Passenger Transport Authority, which co-ordinates transport policy. Through its passenger transport executive, known as Nexus, it owns and operates the Tyne and Wear Metro light rail system, and the Shields ferry service and the Tyne Tunnel, linking communities on either side of the River Tyne. Also through Nexus, the authority subsidises socially necessary transport services (including taxis) and operates a concessionary fares scheme for the elderly and disabled. Nexus has been an executive body of the North East Joint Transport Committee since November 2018.
Other joint bodies include the Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Service and Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums, which was created from the merger of the Tyne and Wear Archives Service and Tyne and Wear Museums. These joint bodies are administered by representatives of all five of the constituent councils. In addition the Northumbria Police force covers Northumberland and Tyne and Wear.
Tyne and Wear either has or closely borders two official Met Office stations, neither located in one of the major urban centres. The locations for those are in marine Tynemouth where Tyne meets the North Sea east of Newcastle and inland Durham in County Durham around 20 kilometres (12 mi) south-west of Sunderland. There are some clear differences between the stations temperature and precipitation patterns even though both have a cool-summer and mild-winter oceanic climate.
|Climate data for Tynemouth 33m asl, 1981–2010|
|Average high °C (°F)||7.2|
|Average low °C (°F)||2.2|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||45.5|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||61.1||81.6||117.7||149.9||191.7||183.0||185.7||174.9||174.1||106.2||70.4||51.9||1,515|
|Source: Met Office|
|Climate data for Durham, elevation: 102 m (335 ft), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1850–present|
|Record high °C (°F)||16.7|
|Average high °C (°F)||6.6|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||3.8|
|Average low °C (°F)||0.9|
|Record low °C (°F)||−17.2|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||52.3|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||11.4||9.3||9.7||9.5||9.2||9.7||9.0||9.6||9.3||11.3||12.3||11.7||122.0|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||58.6||80.3||115.5||150.3||181.7||164.8||172.3||167.3||134.5||102.8||66.4||51.2||1,445.4|
|Source #1: Met Office|
|Source #2: NEForum|
Tyne and Wear contains green belt interspersed throughout the county, mainly on the fringes of the Tyneside/Wearside conurbation. There is also an inter-urban line of belt helping to keep the districts of South Tyneside, Gateshead, and Sunderland separated. It was first drawn up from the 1950s. All the county's districts contain some portion of belt.
Tyne and Wear is divided into 12 Parliamentary constituencies. Historically, the area has been a Labour stronghold; South Shields is the only Parliamentary constituency that has never returned a Conservative Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons since the Reform Act of 1832.
|General Election 2010 : Tyne and Wear|
|Labour||Liberal Democrats||Conservative||BNP||UKIP||Others||Green||National Front||Trade Union & Socialist||Christian Party||Turnout|
|Overall Number of seats as of 2010|
|Labour||Liberal Democrats||Conservative||BNP||UKIP||Others||Green||National Front||Trade Union & Socialist||Christian Party|
At the level of local government, all of the region's five unitary authorities were controlled by Labour in 2019.
Newcastle and Sunderland are known for declaring their election results early on election night.Therefore, they frequently give the first indication of nationwide trends. An example of this was at the 2016 European Union referendum. Newcastle was the first large city to declare, and 50.6% of voters voted to Remain; this proportion was far lower than predicted by experts. Sunderland declared soon after and gave a 62% vote to Leave, much higher than expected. These two results were seen as an early sign that the United Kingdom had voted to Leave.
Italics indicate the district centre.For a complete list of all villages, towns and cities see the list of places in Tyne and Wear.
|Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead|| Gateshead ||Gateshead Metropolitan Borough Council|
|City of Newcastle upon Tyne|| Newcastle upon Tyne |
Newcastle upon Tyne - city centre
|Newcastle upon Tyne City Council|
|Metropolitan Borough of North Tyneside|| Wallsend ||North Tyneside Metropolitan Borough Council|
|Metropolitan Borough of South Tyneside|| South Shields ||South Tyneside Metropolitan Borough Council|
|City of Sunderland|| Sunderland |
|Sunderland City Council|
North East England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It covers Northumberland, County Durham, Tyne and Wear, and the area of the former county of Cleveland in North Yorkshire. The region is home to three large conurbations: Teesside, Wearside, and Tyneside, the last of which is the largest of the three and the eighth most populous conurbation in the United Kingdom. There are three cities in the region: Newcastle upon Tyne, the largest, with a population of just under 280,000 but a metro area population of 809,000 Sunderland, also in the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear; and Durham. Other significant towns include Barnard Castle, Berwick Upon Tweed, Darlington, Gateshead, Hartlepool, Hexham, Middlesbrough, South Shields, Stockton-on-Tees, Washington and Yarm.
Gateshead is a town in Tyne and Wear, England, on the southern bank of the River Tyne opposite Newcastle upon Tyne. Gateshead and Newcastle are joined by seven bridges across the Tyne, including the Gateshead Millennium Bridge. The town is known for its architecture, including the Sage Gateshead, the Angel of the North and the Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art. Residents of Gateshead are known as Gatesiders but, like the rest of Tyneside, are usually referred to as Geordies. Gateshead's town population in 2011 was 120,046.
South Tyneside is a metropolitan borough in Tyne and Wear in North East England.
The Metropolitan Borough of North Tyneside is a metropolitan borough of Tyne and Wear, in North East England, and is part of the Tyneside conurbation. The borough council's main office is at Cobalt Business Park in Wallsend. The local authority is North Tyneside Council.
The counties of England are areas used for different purposes, which include administrative, geographical, cultural and political demarcation. The term 'county' is defined in several manners and can apply to similar or the same areas used by each of these demarcation structures. These different types of county each have a more formal name but are commonly referred to just as 'counties'. The current arrangement is the result of incremental reform.
Tyneside is a conurbation on the banks of the River Tyne in North East England which includes Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, Tynemouth, Wallsend, South Shields, and Jarrow. The population at the 2011 census was 774,891.
County Durham is a county in North East England. The county town is Durham, a cathedral city.
The Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead is a metropolitan borough in Tyne and Wear, in North East England. The borough forms the south west part of the county. It is named after its largest town, Gateshead, but also spans the towns of Rowlands Gill, Whickham, Blaydon and Ryton; suburban areas include Felling, Pelaw, Dunston and Low Fell.
Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are one of the four levels of subdivisions of England used for the purposes of local government outside Greater London and the Isles of Scilly. As originally constituted, the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties each consisted of multiple districts, had a county council and were also the counties for the purposes of Lieutenancies. Later changes in legislation during the 1980s and 1990s have allowed counties without county councils and 'unitary authority' counties of a single district. Counties for the purposes of Lieutenancies are now defined separately, based on the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties.
Heworth is a residential area in Gateshead, located around 3 miles (4.8 km) from Newcastle upon Tyne, 11 miles (18 km) from Sunderland, and 17 miles (27 km) from Durham. In 2011, Census data for the Gateshead Metropolitan Borough Council ward of Heworth and Pelaw recorded a total population of 9,100.
Tyne and Wear is a metropolitan area covering the cities of Newcastle upon Tyne and Sunderland, as well as North and South Tyneside, Gateshead and Washington.
Scouting in North East England refers to Scouting in the official region of North East England. It is largely represented by the Scout Association of the United Kingdom and some groups of traditional Scouting, including the Baden-Powell Scouts' Association.
Wardley is a residential area in Gateshead, located around 4 miles (6.4 km) from Newcastle upon Tyne, 10 miles (16 km) from Sunderland, and 15 miles (24 km) from Durham. In 2011, Census data for the Gateshead Metropolitan Borough Council ward of Wardley and Leam Lane recorded a total population of 8,327.
The geology of Tyne and Wear in northeast England largely consists of a suite of sedimentary rocks dating from the Carboniferous and Permian periods into which were intruded igneous dykes during the later Palaeogene Period.
The Tyneside Passenger Transport Executive was the operations arm of the Tyneside Passenger Transport Authority, created by the Transport Act 1968.and came into operation on 1 January 1970.
Tyne and Wear County Council was the county council of the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear in north east England. It came into its powers on 1 April 1974 and was abolished on 1 April 1986. The county council was based at Sandyford House in Newcastle upon Tyne. It was replaced with five authorities: Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead, Newcastle City Council, North Tyneside Council, South Tyneside Council and Sunderland City Council.
The North East Combined Authority is a combined authority that covers part of the North East region of England. It was established by statutory instrument under the Local Democracy, Economic Development and Construction Act 2009 on 15 April 2014. It is a strategic authority with powers over transport, economic development and regeneration. At its first meeting on 15 April 2014, Simon Henig, Leader of Durham County Council, was elected as its chair. The functions, property, rights and liabilities of the former Tyne and Wear Integrated Transport Authority were inherited by the North East Combined Authority, forming an executive body within the new authority as the Tyne and Wear Passenger Transport Executive.
The North East Green Belt, also known as the Tyne & Wear Green Belt, is a non-statutory green belt environmental and planning policy that regulates the rural space in part of the North East region of England. It is centred on the county of Tyne and Wear, with areas of belt extending into Northumberland and County Durham. The belt functions to protect surrounding towns and villages outside the Tyneside/Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Wearside/Sunderland conurbations from further convergence. It is managed by local planning authorities on guidance from central government.
The 1973 Tyne and Wear County Council election was held on 12 April 1973 as part of the first elections to the new local authorities established by the Local Government Act 1972 in England and Wales.104 councillors were elected from 95 electoral divisions across the region's five boroughs. Each division returned either one or two county councillors each by first-past-the-post voting for a four-year term of office. The election took place ahead of the elections to the area's metropolitan borough councils, which followed on 10 May 1973.
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