Tyne and Wear
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
(Local Government Act 1972) Created from the five county boroughs within Northumberland (North of Tyne) and County Durham (South of Tyne)
|Time zone||UTC±00:00 (Greenwich Mean Time)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+01:00 (British Summer Time)|
|Lord Lieutenant||Lucy Winskell|
|High Sheriff||Mrs Sarah Stewart (2020–21)|
|Area||538 km2 (208 sq mi)|
|• Ranked||44th of 48|
|Population (mid-2019 est.)||1,136,371|
|• Ranked||16th of 48|
|Density||2,105/km2 (5,450/sq mi)|
91.49% White British
1.98% Other White
|Area||538 km2 (208 sq mi)|
Districts of Tyne and Wear
Tyne and Wear ( / ... / ) is a metropolitan county in North East England,situated around the mouths of the rivers Tyne and Wear. It was created in 1974,by the Local Government Act 1972,along with five metropolitan boroughs of Gateshead,Newcastle upon Tyne,Sunderland,North Tyneside and South Tyneside. It is bordered by Northumberland to the north and Durham to the south;the county boundary was formerly split between these counties with the border as the River Tyne.
The former county council was based at Sandyford House. There is no longer county level local governance following the county council disbanding in 1986,by the Local Government Act 1985,with the metropolitan boroughs functioning separately. The county still exists as a metropolitan county and ceremonial purposes,as a geographic frame of reference.There are two combined authorities covering parts of the county area,North of Tyne and North East.
In the late 600s and into the 700s Saint Bede lived as a monk at the monastery of St. Peter and of St. Paul writing histories of the Early Middle Ages including the Ecclesiastical History of the English People.
Roughly 150 years ago,in the village of Marsden in South Shields,Souter Lighthouse was built,the first electric structure of this type.
The Local Government Act 1888 constituted Newcastle upon Tyne,Gateshead and Sunderland as county boroughs (Newcastle had "county corporate" status as the "County and Town of Newcastle upon Tyne" since 1400). Tynemouth joined them in 1904. Between the county boroughs,various other settlements also formed part of the administrative counties of Durham and of Northumberland.
The need to reform local government on Tyneside was recognised by the government as early as 1935,when a Royal Commission to Investigate the Conditions of Local Government on Tyneside was appointed.The three commissioners were to
examine the system of local government in the areas of local government north and south of the river Tyne from the sea to the boundary of the Rural District of Castle Ward and Hexham in the County of Northumberland and to the Western boundary of the County of Durham,to consider what changes,if any,should be made in the existing arrangements with a view to securing greater economy and efficiency,and to make recommendations.
The report of the Royal Commission,published in 1937,recommended the establishment of a Regional Council for Northumberland and Tyneside (to be called the "Northumberland Regional Council") to administer services that needed to be exercised over a wide area,with a second tier of smaller units for other local-government purposes. The second-tier units would form by amalgamating the various existing boroughs and districts. The county boroughs in the area would lose their status. Within this area,a single municipality would be formed covering the four county boroughs of Newcastle,Gateshead,Tynemouth,South Shields and other urban districts and boroughs.
A minority report proposed amalgamation of Newcastle,Gateshead,Wallsend,Jarrow,Felling,Gosforth,Hebburn and Newburn into a single "county borough of Newcastle-on-Tyneside". The 1937 proposals never came into operation:local authorities could not agree on a scheme and the legislation of the time did not allow central government to compel one.
Tyneside (excluding Sunderland) was a Special Review Area under the Local Government Act 1958. The Local Government Commission for England came back with a recommendation to create a new county of Tyneside based on the review area,divided into four separate boroughs. This was not implemented. The Redcliffe-Maud Report proposed a Tyneside unitary authority,again excluding Sunderland,which would have set up a separate East Durham unitary authority.
The White Paper that led to the Local Government Act 1972 proposed as "area 2" a metropolitan county including Newcastle and Sunderland,extending as far south down the coast as Seaham and Easington,and bordering "area 4" (which would become Tees Valley). The Bill as presented in November 1971 pruned back the southern edge of the area,and gave it the name "Tyneside". The name "Tyneside" proved controversial on Wearside,and a government amendment changed the name to "Tyne and Wear" at the request of Sunderland County Borough Council.
|Metropolitan county||Metropolitan borough||County boroughs||Non-county boroughs||Urban districts||Rural districts|
| ||Gateshead||Gateshead||-||Blaydon •Felling •Ryton •Whickham||Chester-le-Street|
|Newcastle upon Tyne||Newcastle upon Tyne||-||Gosforth •Newburn||Castle Ward|
|North Tyneside||Tynemouth||Wallsend •Whitley Bay||Longbenton •Seaton Valley||-|
|South Tyneside||South Shields||Jarrow||Boldon •Hebburn||-|
|Sunderland||Sunderland||-||Washington •Houghton-le-Spring •Hetton-le-Hole||Easington|
Tyne and Wear either has or closely borders two official Met Office stations,neither located in one of the major urban centres. The locations for those are in marine Tynemouth where Tyne meets the North Sea east of Newcastle and inland Durham in County Durham around 20 kilometres (12 mi) south-west of Sunderland. There are some clear differences between the stations temperature and precipitation patterns even though both have a cool-summer and mild-winter oceanic climate.
|Climate data for Tynemouth 33m asl,1981–2010|
|Average high °C (°F)||7.2|
|Average low °C (°F)||2.2|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||45.5|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||61.1||81.6||117.7||149.9||191.7||183.0||185.7||174.9||174.1||106.2||70.4||51.9||1,515|
|Record high °C (°F)||16.7|
|Average high °C (°F)||6.9|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||4.1|
|Average low °C (°F)||1.3|
|Record low °C (°F)||−17.2|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||51.8|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||11.8||9.9||8.6||9.1||8.6||9.9||10.7||10.3||9.4||11.8||12.0||12.0||124.1|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||60.9||84.4||121.7||160.8||187.1||167.1||174.3||167.3||135.3||98.9||64.6||57.6||1,480|
|Source 1: Met Office|
|Source 2: Durham Weather UK|
Tyne and Wear contains green belt interspersed throughout the county, mainly on the fringes of the Tyneside/Wearside conurbation. There is also an inter-urban line of belt helping to keep the districts of South Tyneside, Gateshead, and Sunderland separated. It was first drawn up from the 1950s. All the county's districts contain some portion of belt.
Although Tyne and Wear County Council was abolished in 1986, several joint bodies exist to run certain services on a county-wide basis. Most notable is the Tyne and Wear Passenger Transport Authority, which co-ordinates transport policy. Through its passenger transport executive, known as Nexus, it owns and operates the Tyne and Wear Metro light rail system, and the Shields ferry service and the Tyne Tunnel, linking communities on either side of the River Tyne. Also through Nexus, the authority subsidises socially necessary transport services (including taxis) and operates a concessionary fares scheme for the elderly and disabled. Nexus has been an executive body of the North East Joint Transport Committee since November 2018.
Other joint bodies include the Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Service and Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums, which was created from the merger of the Tyne and Wear Archives Service and Tyne and Wear Museums. These joint bodies are administered by representatives of all five of the constituent councils. In addition the Northumbria Police force covers Northumberland and Tyne and Wear.
There have been occasional calls for Tyne and Wear to be abolished and the traditional border between Northumberland and County Durham to be restored.
Tyne and Wear is divided into 12 Parliamentary constituencies. Historically, the area has been a Labour stronghold; South Shields is the only Parliamentary constituency that has never returned a Conservative Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons since the Reform Act of 1832.
At the level of local government, all of the region's five unitary authorities were controlled by Labour in 2019.
Newcastle and Sunderland are known for declaring their election results early on election night.Therefore, they frequently give the first indication of nationwide trends. An example of this was at the 2016 European Union referendum. Newcastle was the first large city to declare, and 50.6% of voters voted to Remain; this proportion was far lower than predicted by experts. Sunderland declared soon after and gave a 62% vote to Leave, much higher than expected. These two results were seen as an early sign that the United Kingdom had voted to Leave.
Italics indicate the district centre.For a complete list of all villages, towns and cities see the list of places in Tyne and Wear.
|Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead|| Gateshead ||Gateshead Metropolitan Borough Council|
|City of Newcastle upon Tyne|| Newcastle upon Tyne |
Newcastle upon Tyne - city centre
|Newcastle upon Tyne City Council|
|Metropolitan Borough of North Tyneside|| Wallsend ||North Tyneside Metropolitan Borough Council|
|Metropolitan Borough of South Tyneside|| South Shields ||South Tyneside Metropolitan Borough Council|
|City of Sunderland|| Sunderland |
|Sunderland City Council|
North East England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of ITL for statistical purposes. The region covers an area of 8,592 km2 and in 2019 had a recorded population of nearly 2.7 million. There are four counties in the region: County Durham; Tyne and Wear; Northumberland and part of North Yorkshire. The largest settlements are Newcastle upon Tyne, Middlesbrough, Sunderland, Gateshead, Darlington and Hartlepool. There are three conurbations in the region: Tyneside ; Wearside ; and Teesside. Only three settlements in the region have city status: Newcastle upon Tyne, Sunderland and Durham.
Gateshead is a large town in northern England. It is on the River Tyne's southern bank, opposite Newcastle to which it is joined by seven bridges. The town is famous for contemporary art and architecture such as the Millennium Bridge, The Sage, and the Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art.
South Tyneside is a metropolitan borough in the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear, North East England.
North Tyneside is a metropolitan borough in the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear, England. It forms part of the greater Tyneside conurbation. North Tyneside Council is headquartered at Cobalt Park, Wallsend.
South Shields is a coastal town in South Tyneside, Tyne and Wear, England. It is situated at the mouth of the River Tyne. Historically, it was known to Romans as Arbeia and as Caer Urfa by Early Middle Ages. According to the 2011 census, the town had a population of 75,337. It is the fourth largest settlement in Tyne and Wear; after Newcastle upon Tyne, Sunderland and Gateshead. It is roughly equidistant (approximately 3.7 miles between the border of Newcastle and the border of Sunderland.
Tyneside is a built-up area across the banks of the River Tyne in northern England. Residents of the area are commonly referred to as Geordies. The whole area is surrounded by the North East Green Belt.
County Durham, officially simply Durham, is a ceremonial county in North East England. The ceremonial county spawned from the historic County Palatine of Durham in 1853. In 1996, the county gained part of the abolished ceremonial county of Cleveland. The county town is the city of Durham. The county borders Cumbria to the west, North Yorkshire to the south, and Tyne and Wear & Northumberland to the north. Boundaries initially aligned to the historic county, stretching between the rivers Tyne and Tees. The County Borough of Teesside formed in 1968, the ceremonial boundaries adjusted while the historic boundaries remained. The Local Government Act 1972 in 1974 further separated the boundaries. The largest settlement is Darlington (92,363) followed by Hartlepool (88,855) and Stockton-on-Tees (82,729).
The Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead is a metropolitan borough in the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear, North East England. It includes Gateshead, Rowlands Gill, Whickham, Blaydon, Ryton, Felling, Pelaw, Dunston and Low Fell. The borough forms part of the Tyneside conurbation, centred on Newcastle upon Tyne.
Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Service, formerly known as the Tyne and Wear Metropolitan Fire Brigade, is the fire and rescue service (FRS) for the metropolitan boroughs of Newcastle Upon Tyne, Gateshead, North Tyneside, South Tyneside and Sunderland, serving a population of 1.14 million people across an area of 208 square miles (540 km2). Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Authority is responsible for the running of the service, as well as the publication of performance indicators in accordance with its legal obligations. In April 2017, Chris Lowther was appointed chief fire officer.
Tyne and Wear is a metropolitan area covering the cities of Newcastle upon Tyne and Sunderland, as well as North and South Tyneside, Gateshead and Washington.
The geology of Tyne and Wear in northeast England largely consists of a suite of sedimentary rocks dating from the Carboniferous and Permian periods into which were intruded igneous dykes during the later Palaeogene Period.
The Tyneside Passenger Transport Executive was the operations arm of the Tyneside Passenger Transport Authority, created by the Transport Act 1968. and came into operation on 1 January 1970.
Tyne and Wear County Council was the county council of the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear in northeast England. It came into its powers on 1 April 1974 and was abolished on 1 April 1986. The county council was based at Sandyford House in Newcastle upon Tyne. It was replaced with five unitary authorities: Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead, Newcastle City Council, North Tyneside Council, South Tyneside Council and Sunderland City Council.
The North East Combined Authority, abbreviated to NECA, is a combined authority in North East England created in 2014. It currently consists of the local authorities for Sunderland; Gateshead, South Tyneside; and most of County Durham.
The North East Green Belt, also known as the Tyne & Wear Green Belt, is a non-statutory green belt environmental and planning policy that regulates the rural space in part of the North East region of England. It is centred on the county of Tyne and Wear, with areas of belt extending into Northumberland and County Durham. The belt functions to protect surrounding towns and villages outside the Tyneside/Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Wearside/Sunderland conurbations from further convergence. It is managed by local planning authorities on guidance from central government.
The 1973 Tyne and Wear County Council election was held on 12 April 1973 as part of the first elections to the new local authorities established by the Local Government Act 1972 in England and Wales. 104 councillors were elected from 95 electoral divisions across the region's five boroughs. Each division returned either one or two county councillors each by First-past-the-post voting for a four-year term of office. The election took place ahead of the elections to the area's metropolitan borough councils, which followed on 10 May 1973.
County Durham is a unitary authority in the ceremonial county of Durham, North East England. It covers the former non-metropolitan county and its seven districts: Durham (city), Easington, Sedgefield (borough), Teesdale, Wear Valley, Derwentside, and Chester-le-Street. It is governed by Durham County Council and has 136 civil parishes.