Tyne and Wear

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Tyne and Wear
County Flag of Tyne & Wear.svg
Flag of Tyne and Wear (unofficial)
Tyne and Wear UK locator map 2010.svg
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region North East
Established1974
(Local Government Act 1972) Created from the five county boroughs within Northumberland (North of Tyne) and County Durham (South of Tyne)
Time zone UTC±00:00 (Greenwich Mean Time)
  Summer (DST) UTC+01:00 (British Summer Time)
Police Northumbria Police
Ceremonial county
Lord Lieutenant Susan Winfield
High Sheriff Mrs Sarah Stewart [1] (2020–21)
Area538 km2 (208 sq mi)
  Ranked 44th of 48
Population (mid-2019 est.)1,136,371
  Ranked 16th of 48
Density2,105/km2 (5,450/sq mi)
Ethnicity2011: [2]
91.49% White British
4.10% Asian
1.98% Other White
0.97% Mixed
0.78% Black
0.67% Other
Metropolitan county
Area538 km2 (208 sq mi)
ONS code 2D
GSS code E11000007
NUTS UKC22/23
Districts
Tyne and Wear numbered districts.svg
Districts of Tyne and Wear
Districts
  1. Gateshead
  2. Newcastle upon Tyne
  3. North Tyneside
  4. South Tyneside
  5. Sunderland
Population density map Tyne and Wear population density map, 2011 census.png
Population density map

Tyne and Wear ( /ˌtn...ˈwɪər/ ) is a metropolitan county in North East England, situated around the mouths of the rivers Tyne and Wear. It came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. It consists of the five metropolitan boroughs of Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, North Tyneside, South Tyneside and the City of Sunderland. The county is bordered to the north by Northumberland, to the south by County Durham and to the east of the county lies the North Sea. It is the smallest county in North East England by area, but by far the largest in terms of population.

Contents

Prior to the 1974 reforms, the territory now covered by the county of Tyne and Wear straddled the border between the counties of Northumberland and Durham, the border being marked by the river Tyne; that territory also included five county boroughs.

Tyne and Wear County Council, based at Sandyford House, was abolished in 1986 along with the other metropolitan county councils in England by the Local Government Act 1985, and so its districts (the metropolitan boroughs) have since functioned effectively as unitary authorities. However, the metropolitan county continues to exist in law and as a geographic frame of reference, [3] [4] [5] and as a ceremonial county.

History

In the late 600s and into the 700s the Venerable Bede (Saint Bede) lived as a monk at the monastery of St. Peter and of St. Paul writing histories of the early of the Early Middle Ages including the Ecclesiastical History of the English People. [6]

Roughly 150 years ago, in the village of Marsden in South Shields, Souter Lighthouse was built, the first electric structure of this type. [7]

The Local Government Act 1888 constituted Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead and Sunderland as county boroughs (Newcastle had "county corporate" status as the "County and Town of Newcastle upon Tyne" since 1400). Tynemouth joined them in 1904. Between the county boroughs, various other settlements also formed part of the administrative counties of Durham and of Northumberland.

The need to reform local government on Tyneside was recognised by the government as early as 1935, when a Royal Commission to Investigate the Conditions of Local Government on Tyneside was appointed. [8] The three commissioners were to

examine the system of local government in the areas of local government north and south of the river Tyne from the sea to the boundary of the Rural District of Castle Ward and Hexham in the County of Northumberland and to the Western boundary of the County of Durham, to consider what changes, if any, should be made in the existing arrangements with a view to securing greater economy and efficiency, and to make recommendations.

The report of the Royal Commission, published in 1937, [9] recommended the establishment of a Regional Council for Northumberland and Tyneside (to be called the "Northumberland Regional Council") to administer services that needed to be exercised over a wide area, with a second tier of smaller units for other local-government purposes. The second-tier units would form by amalgamating the various existing boroughs and districts. The county boroughs in the area would lose their status. Within this area, a single municipality would be formed covering the four county boroughs of Newcastle, Gateshead, Tynemouth, South Shields and other urban districts and boroughs. [10]

A minority report proposed amalgamation of Newcastle, Gateshead, Wallsend, Jarrow, Felling, Gosforth, Hebburn and Newburn into a single "county borough of Newcastle-on-Tyneside". The 1937 proposals never came into operation: local authorities could not agree on a scheme and the legislation of the time did not allow central government to compel one. [11]

Tyneside (excluding Sunderland) was a Special Review Area under the Local Government Act 1958. The Local Government Commission for England came back with a recommendation to create a new county of Tyneside based on the review area, divided into four separate boroughs. This was not implemented. The Redcliffe-Maud Report proposed a Tyneside unitary authority, again excluding Sunderland, which would have set up a separate East Durham unitary authority.

The White Paper that led to the Local Government Act 1972 proposed as "area 2" a metropolitan county including Newcastle and Sunderland, extending as far south down the coast as Seaham and Easington, and bordering "area 4" (which would become Tees Valley). The Bill as presented in November 1971 pruned back the southern edge of the area, and gave it the name "Tyneside". The name "Tyneside" proved controversial on Wearside, and a government amendment changed the name to "Tyne and Wear" at the request of Sunderland County Borough Council. [12]

post-1974 pre-1974
Metropolitan countyMetropolitan borough County boroughs Non-county boroughs Urban districts Rural districts
Tyne and Wear County.png
Tyne and Wear amalgamates 24 former local government districts, including five county boroughs.
Gateshead Gateshead - BlaydonFellingRytonWhickham Chester-le-Street
Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle upon Tyne - GosforthNewburn Castle Ward
North Tyneside Tynemouth WallsendWhitley Bay LongbentonSeaton Valley -
South Tyneside South Shields Jarrow BoldonHebburn -
Sunderland Sunderland - WashingtonHoughton-le-SpringHetton-le-Hole Easington

Local government

Although Tyne and Wear County Council was abolished in 1986, several joint bodies exist to run certain services on a county-wide basis. Most notable is the Tyne and Wear Passenger Transport Authority, which co-ordinates transport policy. Through its passenger transport executive, known as Nexus, it owns and operates the Tyne and Wear Metro light rail system, and the Shields ferry service and the Tyne Tunnel, linking communities on either side of the River Tyne. Also through Nexus, the authority subsidises socially necessary transport services (including taxis) and operates a concessionary fares scheme for the elderly and disabled. Nexus has been an executive body of the North East Joint Transport Committee since November 2018.

Other joint bodies include the Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Service and Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums, which was created from the merger of the Tyne and Wear Archives Service and Tyne and Wear Museums. These joint bodies are administered by representatives of all five of the constituent councils. In addition the Northumbria Police force covers Northumberland and Tyne and Wear.

There have been occasional calls for Tyne and Wear to be abolished and the traditional border between Northumberland and County Durham to be restored. [13] [14]

Climate and environment

Tyne and Wear either has or closely borders two official Met Office stations, neither located in one of the major urban centres. The locations for those are in marine Tynemouth where Tyne meets the North Sea east of Newcastle and inland Durham in County Durham around 20 kilometres (12 mi) south-west of Sunderland. There are some clear differences between the stations temperature and precipitation patterns even though both have a cool-summer and mild-winter oceanic climate.

Climate data for Tynemouth 33m asl, 1981–2010
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)7.2
(45.0)
7.3
(45.1)
9.0
(48.2)
10.3
(50.5)
12.7
(54.9)
15.6
(60.1)
18.1
(64.6)
18.1
(64.6)
16.1
(61.0)
13.2
(55.8)
9.7
(49.5)
6.4
(43.5)
12.1
(53.8)
Average low °C (°F)2.2
(36.0)
2.2
(36.0)
3.3
(37.9)
4.8
(40.6)
7.2
(45.0)
10.0
(50.0)
12.3
(54.1)
12.3
(54.1)
10.4
(50.7)
7.7
(45.9)
4.9
(40.8)
2.5
(36.5)
6.7
(44.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches)45.5
(1.79)
37.8
(1.49)
43.9
(1.73)
45.4
(1.79)
43.2
(1.70)
51.9
(2.04)
47.6
(1.87)
59.6
(2.35)
53.0
(2.09)
53.6
(2.11)
62.8
(2.47)
53.9
(2.12)
597.2
(23.51)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 61.181.6117.7149.9191.7183.0185.7174.9174.1106.270.451.91,515
Source: Met Office [15]
Climate data for Durham, elevation: 102 m (335 ft), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1850–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)16.7
(62.1)
17.4
(63.3)
21.7
(71.1)
24.1
(75.4)
27.8
(82.0)
30.6
(87.1)
33.6
(92.5)
32.5
(90.5)
30.0
(86.0)
25.0
(77.0)
19.4
(66.9)
15.9
(60.6)
33.6
(92.5)
Average high °C (°F)6.6
(43.9)
7.2
(45.0)
9.5
(49.1)
11.9
(53.4)
15.0
(59.0)
17.6
(63.7)
20.1
(68.2)
19.8
(67.6)
17.2
(63.0)
13.3
(55.9)
9.4
(48.9)
6.7
(44.1)
12.9
(55.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)3.8
(38.8)
4.1
(39.4)
5.9
(42.6)
7.8
(46.0)
10.6
(51.1)
13.3
(55.9)
15.6
(60.1)
15.4
(59.7)
13.1
(55.6)
9.8
(49.6)
6.4
(43.5)
3.9
(39.0)
9.1
(48.4)
Average low °C (°F)0.9
(33.6)
0.9
(33.6)
2.3
(36.1)
3.7
(38.7)
6.1
(43.0)
9.0
(48.2)
11.1
(52.0)
11.0
(51.8)
9.0
(48.2)
6.3
(43.3)
3.4
(38.1)
1.1
(34.0)
5.4
(41.7)
Record low °C (°F)−17.2
(1.0)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−15.0
(5.0)
−11.1
(12.0)
−4.4
(24.1)
−1.1
(30.0)
1.1
(34.0)
0.6
(33.1)
−1.1
(30.0)
−5.5
(22.1)
−8.8
(16.2)
−16.6
(2.1)
−18.3
(−0.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches)52.3
(2.06)
41.8
(1.65)
44.6
(1.76)
52.7
(2.07)
44.2
(1.74)
55.4
(2.18)
54.0
(2.13)
60.8
(2.39)
55.4
(2.18)
60.9
(2.40)
72.0
(2.83)
57.0
(2.24)
651.1
(25.63)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)11.49.39.79.59.29.79.09.69.311.312.311.7122.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 58.680.3115.5150.3181.7164.8172.3167.3134.5102.866.451.21,445.4
Source 1: Met Office [16] [17] [18]
Source 2: Durham Weather UK [19]

Green belt

Tyne and Wear contains green belt interspersed throughout the county, mainly on the fringes of the Tyneside/Wearside conurbation. There is also an inter-urban line of belt helping to keep the districts of South Tyneside, Gateshead, and Sunderland separated. It was first drawn up from the 1950s. All the county's districts contain some portion of belt.

Politics

Tyne and Wear is divided into 12 Parliamentary constituencies. Historically, the area has been a Labour stronghold; South Shields is the only Parliamentary constituency that has never returned a Conservative Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons since the Reform Act of 1832.

General Election 2010 : Tyne and Wear
LabourLiberal DemocratsConser­vativeBNPUKIPOthersGreenNational FrontTrade Union & SocialistChristian PartyTurnout
239,211
+7,338
106,380
+9,129
105,117
+30,595
23,740
+20,071
8,731
+4,876
3,766
+59
3,186
+1,932
599
–398
266
N/A
131
N/A
491,304
+73,971
Overall Number of seats as of 2010
LabourLiberal DemocratsConser­vativeBNPUKIPOthersGreenNational FrontTrade Union & SocialistChristian Party
12000000000

At the level of local government, all of the region's five unitary authorities were controlled by Labour in 2019.

Newcastle and Sunderland are known for declaring their election results early on election night. [20] Therefore, they frequently give the first indication of nationwide trends. An example of this was at the 2016 European Union referendum. Newcastle was the first large city to declare, and 50.6% of voters voted to Remain; this proportion was far lower than predicted by experts. Sunderland declared soon after and gave a 62% vote to Leave, much higher than expected. These two results were seen as an early sign that the United Kingdom had voted to Leave.

Settlements

Commuter rail services in the region Tyne and Wear and Tees Rail Map.svg
Commuter rail services in the region

Italics indicate the district centre.For a complete list of all villages, towns and cities see the list of places in Tyne and Wear.

Borough/CityLocalityAuthority
Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead Gateshead

Birtley
Blaydon
Low Fell
Rowlands Gill
Ryton
Sheriff Hill
Whickham

Gateshead Metropolitan Borough Council
City of Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne - city centre

Byker
Blakelaw
Elswick
Fenham
Gosforth
Jesmond
Heaton
Newburn
North Kenton
Throckley
Walbottle
Walker
Westerhope
West Moor

Newcastle upon Tyne City Council
Metropolitan Borough of North Tyneside Wallsend

Annitsford
Backworth
Benton
Cullercoats
Dudley
Earsdon
Fordley
Forest Hall
Killingworth
Longbenton
Monkseaton
North Shields
Preston
Tynemouth
Whitley Bay
Wideopen

North Tyneside Metropolitan Borough Council
Metropolitan Borough of South Tyneside South Shields

Boldon
Cleadon
Harton
Hebburn
Jarrow
Westoe
Whitburn

South Tyneside Metropolitan Borough Council
City of Sunderland Sunderland

Castletown
Fulwell
Hendon
Herrington
Hetton-le-Hole
Houghton-le-Spring
Hylton Red House
Newbottle
Penshaw
Rainton
Ryhope
Seaburn
Shiney Row
Silksworth
South Hylton
Southwick
Springwell Village
Warden Law
Washington

Sunderland City Council

Places of interest

See also

Related Research Articles

North East England A region of England

North East England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. The region includes the counties of Tyne and Wear, County Durham, Northumberland and a small part of North Yorkshire. Large settlements include the cities of Newcastle upon Tyne, Sunderland and the City of Durham and towns of Gateshead, Darlington, Middlesbrough, Stockton-on-Tees and Hartlepool.

Northumberland County of England

Northumberland is a ceremonial county and historic county in North East England. It is bordered by Cumbria to the west, County Durham and Tyne and Wear to the south and the Scottish Borders to the north. To the east is the North Sea coastline with a path 103 kilometres (64 mi) long. The county town is Alnwick. The county is administered as a unitary authority by Northumberland County Council, headquartered in Morpeth.

Gateshead Human settlement in England

Gateshead is a large town in Tyne and Wear, England, on the southern bank of the River Tyne opposite Newcastle upon Tyne. Gateshead and Newcastle are joined by seven bridges across the Tyne, including the Gateshead Millennium Bridge. The town is known for its architecture, including the Sage Gateshead, the Angel of the North and the Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art. Residents of Gateshead, like the rest of Tyneside, are usually referred to as Geordies. Gateshead's town population in 2011 was 120,046.

South Tyneside Metropolitan borough in England

South Tyneside is a metropolitan borough in the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear, North East England. It forms part of the Tyneside conurbation.

North Tyneside Metropolitan borough in England

The Metropolitan Borough of North Tyneside is a metropolitan borough in the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear, North East England. It forms a part of the greater Tyneside conurbation. The North Tyneside Council is headquartered at Cobalt Business Park, Wallsend.

Counties of England Englands administrative, geographical and political demarcation

The counties of England are areas used for different purposes, which include administrative, geographical, cultural and political demarcation. The term 'county' is defined in several ways and can apply to similar or the same areas used by each of these demarcation structures. These different types of county each have a more formal name but are commonly referred to just as 'counties'. The current arrangement is the result of incremental reform.

Tyneside Place in England

Tyneside is a conurbation of the urban areas on the north and south banks of the River Tyne in North East England. Centred on Newcastle upon Tyne, it incorporates the surrounding metropolitan boroughs of Gateshead, North Tyneside and South Tyneside. The population of Tyneside as published in the 2011 census was 774,891, making it the eighth most-populous urban area in the United Kingdom. In 2013, the estimated population was 832,469 and since then has significantly increased. Tyneside is considered to be the core conurbation of the Tyneside-Wearside metropolitan area.

County Durham County of England

County Durham is a ceremonial county in North East England. The county town is Durham, a cathedral city. During the Middle Ages, the county was an ecclesiastical centre, due largely to the presence, of St Cuthbert's shrine in Durham Cathedral, and the extensive powers granted to the Bishop of Durham as ruler of the County Palatine of Durham.

Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead Metropolitan borough in England

The Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead is a metropolitan borough in the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear, North East England. It is named after its largest town, Gateshead, but the metropolitan borough incorporates the surrounding area including Rowlands Gill, Whickham, Blaydon, Ryton, Felling, Pelaw, Dunston and Low Fell. The borough forms part of the Tyneside conurbation, centred on Newcastle upon Tyne.

Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England Subdivisions of England

Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are one of the four levels of subdivisions of England used for the purposes of local government outside Greater London and the Isles of Scilly. As originally constituted, the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties each consisted of multiple districts, had a county council and were also the counties for the purposes of Lieutenancies. Later changes in legislation during the 1980s and 1990s have allowed counties without county councils and 'unitary authority' counties of a single district. Counties for the purposes of Lieutenancies are now defined separately, based on the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties.

Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Service

Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Service, formerly known as the Tyne and Wear Metropolitan Fire Brigade, is the fire and rescue service for the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear. The service provides emergency fire cover to the five metropolitan boroughs in the county: Newcastle Upon Tyne, Gateshead, North Tyneside, South Tyneside and Sunderland, with a total population of 1.09 million people and a total geographical area of 538 km2. Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Authority is responsible for the running of the service, as well as the publication of performance indicators in accordance with its legal obligations. In April 2017, Chris Lowther was appointed Chief Fire Officer.

Transport in Tyne and Wear

Tyne and Wear is a metropolitan area covering the cities of Newcastle upon Tyne and Sunderland, as well as North and South Tyneside, Gateshead and Washington.

The geology of Tyne and Wear in northeast England largely consists of a suite of sedimentary rocks dating from the Carboniferous and Permian periods into which were intruded igneous dykes during the later Palaeogene Period.

Tyneside Passenger Transport Executive

The Tyneside Passenger Transport Executive was the operations arm of the Tyneside Passenger Transport Authority, created by the Transport Act 1968.and came into operation on 1 January 1970.

Tyne and Wear County Council

Tyne and Wear County Council was the county council of the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear in northeast England. It came into its powers on 1 April 1974 and was abolished on 1 April 1986. The county council was based at Sandyford House in Newcastle upon Tyne. It was replaced with five unitary authorities: Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead, Newcastle City Council, North Tyneside Council, South Tyneside Council and Sunderland City Council.

North East Combined Authority Local government body in north east England

The North East Combined Authority, abbreviated to NECA, is a combined authority in North East England created in 2014. It currently consists of the local authorities for Sunderland; Gateshead, South Tyneside; and most of County Durham. The local authorities for Newcastle upon Tyne; North Tyneside; and Northumberland were included in the combined authority until 2018, when they exited to create their own combined authority, the North of Tyne Combined Authority. For transport policy, the two combined authorities come together to form the North East Joint Transport Committee.

North East Green Belt

The North East Green Belt, also known as the Tyne & Wear Green Belt, is a non-statutory green belt environmental and planning policy that regulates the rural space in part of the North East region of England. It is centred on the county of Tyne and Wear, with areas of belt extending into Northumberland and County Durham. The belt functions to protect surrounding towns and villages outside the Tyneside/Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Wearside/Sunderland conurbations from further convergence. It is managed by local planning authorities on guidance from central government.

1973 Tyne and Wear County Council election

The 1973 Tyne and Wear County Council election was held on 12 April 1973 as part of the first elections to the new local authorities established by the Local Government Act 1972 in England and Wales. 104 councillors were elected from 95 electoral divisions across the region's five boroughs. Each division returned either one or two county councillors each by First-past-the-post voting for a four-year term of office. The election took place ahead of the elections to the area's metropolitan borough councils, which followed on 10 May 1973.

References

  1. "No. 62943". The London Gazette . 13 March 2020. p. 5161.
  2. "2011 census: Ethnic group (detailed)". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 20 May 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
  3. Office for National Statistics Archived 23 December 2003 at the UK Government Web Archive - Gazetteer of the old and new geographies of the United Kingdom, p48. URL accessed 12 March 2007.
  4. Metropolitan Counties and Districts Archived 6 June 2002 at the UK Government Web Archive , Beginners' Guide to UK Geography, Office for National Statistics , 17 September 2004. URL accessed 12 March 2007.
  5. North East England Counties Archived 10 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine , The Boundary Commission for England. URL accessed 12 March 2007.
  6. [hhttps://britishheritage.com/history/bede-englands-first-great-historian "The Venerable Bede - England's first great historian"]. British Heritage. 29 October 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  7. "Five of England's less-visited counties for days out and short breaks". Guardian. 6 March 2021. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  8. London Gazette, 10 May 1935
  9. Local Government in the Tyneside Area (Cmd.5402)
  10. Government of Tyneside : a Regional Council. The Times. 19 March 1937.
  11. Local Government on Tyneside. Sir K. Wood and Report of Commission. The Times. 22 September 1937.
  12. Hansard, 6 July 1972, column 909
  13. "Call to return the county to its historic status". Northumberland Gazette . 19 March 2016.
  14. Henderson, Tony (3 January 2019). "Are there signs that our traditional county boundaries are set to return?". Evening Chronicle .
  15. "Tynemouth climate information". Met Office. Archived from the original on 28 April 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
  16. "Durham climate information". Met Office. 1981–2010. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
  17. "Exceptional warmth, December 2015". Met Office. 27 January 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
  18. Kendon, Mike; McCarthy, Mark; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Legg, Tim (2015). "State of the UK Climate 2015" (PDF). Met Office . Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  19. "North East England Climate : Durham Weather". Durham Weather UK. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  20. Rodger, James (8 June 2017). "Why Sunderland and Newcastle always declare election results first". birminghammail.

Coordinates: 54°58′26″N1°36′48″W / 54.974°N 1.6132°W / 54.974; -1.6132