Type 81 assault rifle

Last updated
Type 81
Type-81rifle.JPG
Type 81-1 (top) and Type 81 (bottom)
Type Assault rifle
Battle rifle (CS/LR14 export model)
Semi-automatic rifle (NR-81S and other civilian export models)
Place of originChina
Service history
In service1983–present
Used bySee Users
Wars Sino-Vietnamese conflicts
Cambodian–Vietnamese War
Soviet War in Afghanistan
Sri Lankan Civil War
Lord's Resistance Army insurgency
Kargil war
Boko Haram insurgency
Persian Gulf War
Baren Township riot
Croatian War of Independence
Bosnian War
Kosovo War
War in Afghanistan
Internal conflict in Burma [ citation needed ]
Iraq War
Syrian Civil War
Internal conflict in Myanmar
Production history
Designer Norinco
Designed1971-1981
ManufacturerNorinco
Produced1983
No. built~400,000 (Type 81) [1]
VariantsSee Variants
Specifications
Mass3.4 kg (7.50 lb) (empty)
4.5 kg (9.92 lb) (loaded) (CS/LR14) [2]
Length955 mm (37.6 in)
785 mm (30.9 in) (butt folded) (CS/LR14) [2]
1,010 mm (40 in) (butt extended) (CS/LR14) [2]
Barrel  length445 mm (17.5 in)

Cartridge 7.62×39mm (Type 81)
5.8×42mm DBP87 (Type 87)
7.62×51mm (CS/LR14)
Action Short stroke gas piston, rotating bolt
Rate of fire Approx. 700–720 rounds/min
Muzzle velocity 750 m/s (2,461 ft/s)
760 metres per second (2,493 feet per second) (CS/LR14) [2]
Effective firing range400+ meter
400-500 meter (CS/LR14)
Maximum firing range2000+ meter
Feed system30-round detachable box magazine (20 rounds for CS/LR14), 75-round detachable drum magazine
SightsAdjustable iron sights

The Type 81 (Chinese :81式自动步枪; literally; "Type 81 Automatic Rifle") is a Chinese-designed second-generation, selective-fire, gas-operated 7.62×39mm rifle (based on Kalashnikov and SKS actions) adopted by the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) and has been in service since the mid-1980s.

Contents

It's a small arms family that consist of the Type 81, the Type 81-1 and the Type 81 LMG. [3]

History

The PLA's first attempt to replace their aging SKS and Type 56 assault rifle (a Chinese license produced AK-47) was the Type 63 assault rifle. [4] This weapon, however, ended in failure due to a variety of issues resulting in a switch back to the weapons it intended to replace. The beginning of the Sino-Vietnamese border conflicts however, showed the PLA that their SKS and Type 56s were not as effective as they thought, causing their small arms development program to spring back to life. [4]

The weapon was introduced into PLA service in 1981 but did not become widely distributed until the late 1980s. It replaced the SKS, [5] the Type 56 assault rifle and even the RPD machine gun (LMG version), succeeding where the Type 63 failed. Its first combat use came during the latter part of the Sino-Vietnamese border conflicts of the mid-1980s. [6] The PLA has replaced most of its Type-81s with the Type 95 or Type 03 series of weapons, though it is still in service in the reserves and armed police.

An improved version is also used by the Bangladesh Army under the designation BD-08. [7]

Design

The Type 81 incorporates elements of the Dragunov, SKS, and AK series rifles. The design criteria it met included accuracy of 1.78 inch R50, that is 50% of the hits within a 1.78 inch diameter at 100 meters; improved controllability in full-automatic; the same reliability of the AK but a longer service life to approximately 20,000 rounds; and able to use existing AK and SKS production tooling at the time. [8] Development was placed under Wang Zi Jun after the end of the Sino-Vietnamese border clashes in 1979. [6]

The rifle retains the general layout of the Chinese Type 56 assault rifle, but it has a SKS-like short-stroke gas-piston design and other improvements to reduce recoil and muzzle jump, giving better firing accuracy. Notable physical differences from the Type 56 assault rifle include the stock of the rifle, the length of the action, bayonet, and the positioning of the front sight. [9]

The most easily distinguishable feature of the Type 81 is the more exposed muzzle part of the barrel. The front sight has been moved back as a modification to be able to fire 22mm rifle grenades, which are slid over the unobstructed barrel muzzle now formed into a spigot-type rifle grenade launcher. [9]

There is a significant gap between the trigger guard and the magazine on Type 81 rifles, while on the Type 56 rifle series the magazine is adjacent to the front of the trigger guard.

The non-detachable swing-out spike-shaped bayonet of the Type 56 rifle was also replaced on Type 81 rifles with the detachable Type 81 knife-bayonet. [10]

Like its predecessors, the Type 81 is a series of weapons. The Type 81 (fixed stock) and Type 81-1 (folding stock) are 7.62×39mm caliber assault rifles with 30-round magazines, and the heavier Type 81 light machine gun (LMG) fitted with a 75-round drum magazine is used in the squad automatic weapon (SAW) role. [9] Its sight remains at the front of the LMG barrel.

The Type 81 can be fitted with a Picatinny rail, bipod, foregrip, and flashlight. [11] One such attempt to market picatinny rails for the Type 81 came from Bao Wa, a Hong Kong-based law enforcement supplier. [12]

Variants

Canadian civilian legal version of the Type-81 rifle P 20171205 142259 vHDR Auto.jpg
Canadian civilian legal version of the Type-81 rifle
Type-81 Light Machine Gun Machine gun Type81.jpg
Type-81 Light Machine Gun

Foreign variants

BD-08 Assault Rifle with Collimator Sight BD-08 Assault Rifle with Collimator Sight From Modular Infantry Bangladesh Army (23445743710) (cropped).jpg
BD-08 Assault Rifle with Collimator Sight

Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh

Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar

Users

Bangladesh Army soldiers with BD-08 assault rifles. Modular Infantry Bangladesh Army (23114647143).jpg
Bangladesh Army soldiers with BD-08 assault rifles.

Non-state actors

Variant of Type 81 assault rifle made by the Kachin Independence Army in Kachin State, Myanmar. Kachin K10 Rifle.jpg
Variant of Type 81 assault rifle made by the Kachin Independence Army in Kachin State, Myanmar.

Related Research Articles

AK-47 1949 Soviet 7.62×39mm assault rifle

The AK-47, officially known as the Avtomat Kalashnikova, is a gas-operated, 7.62×39mm assault rifle developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov in the aftermath of World War II. It is the originating firearm of the Kalashnikov rifle family. The number 47 refers to the year it was finished.

Automatic rifle

An automatic rifle is a type of autoloading rifle that is capable of fully automatic fire. Automatic rifles are select-fire weapons that are capable of firing in semi-automatic and automatic firing modes. Automatic rifles are distinguished from semi-automatic rifles in their ability to fire more than one shot in succession once the trigger is pulled. Most automatic rifles are further subcategorized as battle rifles or assault rifles.

SKS Semi-automatic carbine

The SKS (Samozaryadny Karabin sistemy Simonova, 1945 is a semi-automatic carbine chambered for the 7.62×39mm round, designed in 1943 by Sergei Gavrilovich Simonov. A reliable, simply designed, and relatively inexpensive weapon, the SKS was first produced in the Soviet Union but later widely exported and manufactured by various nations. Its distinguishing characteristics include a permanently attached folding bayonet and a hinged, fixed magazine. As the SKS lacked select-fire capability and its magazine was limited to ten rounds, it was rendered obsolete in the Soviet Armed Forces by the introduction of the AK-47 in the 1950s. Nevertheless, SKS carbines continued to see service with the Soviet Border Troops, Internal Troops, and second-line and reserve army units for decades.

Type 56 assault rifle Type of Assault rifle

The Type 56 also known as the AK-56, is a Chinese 7.62×39mm rifle. It is a variant of the Soviet-designed AK-47 and AKM rifles. Production started in 1956 at State Factory 66 but was eventually handed over to Norinco and PolyTech, who continue to manufacture the rifle primarily for export.

The Type 63, often incorrectly referred to as Type 68 by Western sources, is a Chinese-designed rifle with a resemblance to the SKS. However, the weapon features fully-automatic rotating-bolt system modified from the Type 56 assault rifle instead of the tilting bolt system of the SKS. Overall, the weapon is based on the Type 56 carbine and the Type 56 assault rifle which are all used by soldiers.

The RPK is a 7.62×39mm light machine gun of Soviet design, developed by Mikhail Kalashnikov in the early 1960s, parallel with the AKM assault rifle. It was created as part of a program designed to standardize the small arms inventory of the Soviet Army, where it replaced the 7.62×39mm RPD light machine gun. The RPK continues to be used by the armed forces of countries of the former Soviet Union and certain African and Asian nations. The RPK is also manufactured in Bulgaria, Romania and Serbia.

INSAS is a family of infantry arms consisting of an assault rifle and a light machine gun (LMG). It is manufactured by the Ordnance Factories Board at Ordnance Factory Tiruchirappalli, Small Arms Factory Kanpur and Ishapore Arsenal. The INSAS assault rifle was the standard infantry weapon of the Indian Armed Forces.

QBZ-95 Bullpup assault rifle

The Type 95 Automatic Rifle or QBZ-95 is a bullpup assault rifle designed and manufactured by Norinco, and issued since 1995 as the service rifle for the People's Liberation Army, People's Armed Police and various paramilitary law enforcement agencies in the People's Republic of China. The rifle's designation "QBZ" stands for "light weapon - rifle (Bùqiāng) - automatic (Zìdòng)", in keeping with the coding standards of the Chinese defense industry.

Comparison of the AK-47 and M16 Comparison of the worlds most common rifles

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The 5.8×42mm / DBP87 is a military rimless bottlenecked intermediate cartridge developed in the People's Republic of China. There is limited information on this cartridge, although the People's Liberation Army says that it is superior to the 5.56×45mm NATO and Soviet 5.45×39mm cartridges. Another variant called the DBP88 "heavy round" was designed specifically for squad automatic weapons and designated marksman rifles. The 5.8×42mm "heavy round" cartridge has the same dimensions as the standard 5.8×42mm cartridge, but utilizes a longer streamlined bullet with a heavy steel core for increased performance at extended ranges and penetration. As of 2010 all 5.8×42mm cartridge variants have been succeeded by the DBP10 variant.

QBZ-03 Assault rifle

The QBZ-03 assault rifle, also known as the Type 03, is a Chinese gas operated, selective-fire assault rifle designed and developed for the 5.8×42mm DBP87 round.

Intermediate cartridge

An intermediate cartridge is a rifle/carbine cartridge that has a reduced muzzle energy in comparison to fully powered cartridges but still has much greater power than pistol/personal defense weapon cartridges, and therefore is regarded as being "intermediate" between traditional rifle and handgun calibers.

QCW-05 Bullpup submachine gun, Personal defense weapon

The QCW-05 is a suppressed bullpup submachine gun, manufactured and developed by the People's Liberation Army (PLA) 208 Research Institute and Jianshe Industries (Group) Corporation of Chongqing under the China South Industries Group for the People's Liberation Army Ground Force, the People's Liberation Army Special Operations Forces and the People's Armed Police. This weapon is designed for the 5.8×21mm DCV05 sub-sonic round that is also used by the QSW-06 Silenced Pistol.

AKM Assault rifle

The AKM is a 7.62×39mm assault rifle designed by Mikhail Kalashnikov. It is a common modernised variant of the AK-47 rifle developed in the 1940s.

Kalashnikov rifle Russian automatic rifle family

A Kalashnikov (Калашников) rifle is any one of a series of automatic rifles based on the original design of Mikhail Kalashnikov. They are officially known in Russian as "Avtomát Kaláshnikova", but are widely known as Kalashnikovs, AKs, or in Russian slang, a "Kalash". They were originally manufactured in the Soviet Union, primarily by Kalashnikov Concern, formerly Izhmash, but these rifles and their variants are now manufactured in many other countries.

The Type 64 pistol is a semi-automatic pistol, formerly in service with the People's Liberation Army (PLA) but has since been replaced by several other firearms, although it still remains in service with some Chinese police forces. The Type 64 pistol was the first firearm to be indigenously developed by the People's Republic of China and was first only issued to high-ranking military officers and officials, but has since been distributed throughout the PLA. The Type 64 pistol has subsequently been distributed to various People's Armed Police and civilian police forces. The Type 64 pistol should not be confused with the unrelated, but similarly named, Type 64 silent pistol which can be distinguished from the Type 64 pistol, by its large, integral suppressor.

Assault rifle Military rifle type

An assault rifle is a selective-fire rifle that uses an intermediate cartridge and a detachable magazine. Assault rifles were first put into mass production and accepted into widespread service during World War II. The first assault rifle to see major usage was the German StG 44, a development of the earlier Mkb 42. Though other Western nations were slow to accept the assault rifle concept, by the end of the 20th century they had become the standard weapon in most of the world's armies, replacing full-powered rifles and sub-machine guns in most roles. Besides the StG 44, examples of assault rifles include the AK-47 and the M16.

Type 80 machine gun General-purpose machine gun

The Type 80 is a general-purpose machine gun manufactured by Norinco in China, based on the Soviet PKM. The machine gun was certified for design finalisation in 1980 and entered the PLA service in the mid-1980s, specifically in 1983. The Type 80 was intended as a successor to the Chinese independently developed Type 67, doing well in tests conducted in the Chengdu Military Region before it was dropped and instead, opted to keep the Type 67 GPMG in use.

AK-12 Assault rifle

The AK-12 is a Russian assault rifle chambered in 5.45×39mm designed and manufactured by the Kalashnikov Concern, making it the fifth generation of Kalashnikov rifles.

7.62×39mm Soviet military intermediate rifle cartridge

The 7.62×39mm round is a rimless bottlenecked intermediate cartridge of Soviet origin that was designed during World War II. Due to the worldwide proliferation of the Soviet SKS and AK-47 pattern rifles, as well as RPD and RPK light machine guns, the cartridge is used by both militaries and civilians alike.

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