|Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)|
|Formed||August 28, 1966|
|Dissipated||September 7, 1966|
|Highest winds|| 1-minute sustained: 280 km/h (175 mph)|
|Lowest pressure||918 hPa (mbar); 27.11 inHg|
Typhoon Cora, as known as the 2nd Miyakojima Typhoon (第2宮古島台風) in Japan,was a typhoon struck the Ryūkyū Islands in 1966.
At 18 UTC on August 28, a tropical depression formed just to the east of the Northern Mariana Islands. Although initially drifting southeast, the depression began curving to the southwest early the next day. Late on August 29, it passed over the south tip of Guam and over the Cocos Lagoon. 45 millibars (1.3 inHg ) in 24 hours, from 970 mb (28.6 inHg) to 925 mb (27.3 inHg). In the same period, between 00 UTC on September 1–2, Typhoon Cora increased its maximum sustained wind speed from 85 miles per hour (137 km/h ) to 145 mph (233 km/h). Having intensified significantly, Typhoon Cora progressively decreased its forward speed and bent back to the west-northwest over the next 36 hours. During this period, Typhoon Cora attained peak winds equal to those of a minimal Super Typhoon on the Joint Typhoon Warning Center's classification scale. At 12 UTC on September 3, it turned to the west and maintained its wind speed of 150 mph (240 km/h) for another 24 hours. Late on September 4, Typhoon Cora began yet another turn to the west-northwest and intensified into what is equivalent of a Category 5 typhoon on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale; however, the classification did not exist until the scale was first devised in the 1970s and then used retroactively to rate past storms. Just before midnight UTC on September 5, Typhoon Cora passed only 5 miles (8.0 km ) southwest of Miyakojima Island, its northern eyewall impacting the island for several hours. During this pass, the central pressure in Typhoon Cora dropped to 918 mb (27.1 inHg), the lowest observed in its life span. However, Typhoon Cora did not reach its maximum wind speed of 175 mph (282 km/h) for another 12 hours, until 12 UTC on September 5.Early on August 30, the depression slowed its course and began a gentle turn to the west-northwest. By 00 UTC on August 31, the depression attained tropical storm intensity and started moving northwest. Steadily strengthening as it did so, Tropical Storm Cora attained typhoon intensity by 00 UTC on September 1. At that time, Typhoon Cora began a period of rapid deepening: its central pressure dropped
After peaking at this intensity, Typhoon Cora continued moving west-northwest toward mainland China; around midnight UTC on September 6, its eye passed 20 mi (32 km) southwest of the Senkaku Islands. Between 12 UTC on September 5 and 00 UTC on September 6, Typhoon Cora briefly fluctuated in intensity, its winds alternating between 160–175 mph (257–282 km/h); however, it generally maintained its intensity and remained at Category 5 intensity for one more day, until 00 UTC on September 7, after a total of 42 hours spent at that level. Sometime before midnight UTC on September 7, Typhoon Cora made landfall on Fujian province, China, with estimated sustained winds of 160 mph (260 km/h), making it the only Category 5 typhoon to make landfall in the People's Republic of China. After making landfall, Typhoon Cora quickly lost typhoon intensity and curved to the northeast. It passed near Jinhua, Hangzhou, and Suzhou; by the time it was nearest Suzhou, it was already a remnant low. On September 8, the remnant low turned to the northeast, over the East China Sea, and approached the Korean Peninsula. Shortly after 06 UTC on September 9, it struck South Chungcheong Province in the Republic of Korea. Dissipation took place inland, six hours later.
|Nancy||T6118||2nd Muroto Typhoon（第2室戸台風）|
|Cora||T6618||2nd Miyakojima Typhoon（第2宮古島台風）|
|Della||T6816||3rd Miyakojima Typhoon（第3宮古島台風）|
|Faxai||T1915||Reiwa 1 Bōsō Peninsula Typhoon（令和元年房総半島台風）|
|Hagibis||T1919||Reiwa 1 East Japan Typhoon（令和元年東日本台風）|
As the typhoon approached Okinawa Island, flights to the island were cancelled for five days, stranding about 1,000 U.S. Marines in South Vietnam. The Marines were due to arrive on Okinawa, their staging area, but instead were sent to a camp in Da Nang, part of South Vietnamese territory in 1966.
In the southern Ryukyu Islands, Typhoon Cora was considered the most destructive typhoon in at least 75 years. There, the powerful winds and waves of the storm destroyed 520 homes on the islands of Miyakojima and Ishigaki. The worst damage occurred on Miyakojima; the storm also damaged 1,400 homes, leaving 2,363 people homeless. 118 knots (136 mph ) (60.8 m/s (219 km/h)), with a peak gust of 166 kn (191 mph) (85.3 m/s (307 km/h)). The peak gust is still the official highest wind speed ever recorded in Japan. The lowest pressure on Miyakojima island, 928.9 mb (27.43 inHg), was recorded at 10:01 a.m. local time on September 5. In all, 296.1 millimetres (11.66 in ) of rain fell during Typhoon Cora. Additionally, up to five five-ton ships were destroyed and four others reported damaged. The powerful storm, while at peak intensity near Miyakojima, also destroyed one of two radar bases there, and significant damage to crops was reported; later estimates indicated 70% of the sugar cane on the island was destroyed. Total losses on Miyakojima and Ishigaki reached $30 million (1966 USD).On the island, a Japanese weather observatory recorded sustained winds of
Slowly moving by the southern Ryukyu Islands,Cora battered the region for more than 30 hours. Miyako-jima suffered the brunt of the typhoon's impact; sustained winds on the island reached 219 km/h (136 mph) while gusts peaked at 307 km/h (191 mph). This placed Cora as a greater than 1-in-100 year event in the region. Winds of least 144 km/h (89 mph) battered Miyako-jima for 13 continuous hours. Of the 11,060 homes on Miyako-jima, 1,943 were destroyed and a further 3,249 severely damaged. The majority of these were wooden structures whose structures were compromised once their roof was torn off. Steel structures also sustained considerable damage while reinforced concrete buildings fared the best. The resulting effects rendered 6,000 residents homeless. The scale of damage varied across the island with Ueno-mura suffering the most extensive losses. Of the community's 821 homes, 90.1 percent was severely damaged or destroyed. A United States Air Force radar station was destroyed on the island. On nearby Ishigaki Island, where wind gusts reached 162 km/h (101 mph), 71 homes were destroyed while a further 139 were severely damaged. Total losses from Cora in the region reached $30 million. Despite the severity of damage, no fatalities took place and only five injuries were reported.
On nearby Taiwan (then called Formosa), Typhoon Cora produced strong winds along the north coast of the island. Peak winds in Taipei reached 70 mph (110 km/h). Wind gusts up to 130 km/h (80 mph) caused notable damage in Taiwan, with 17 homes destroyed and 42 more damaged. A smaller island closer to the storm reported a peak gust of 226 km/h (140 mph). Heavy rains were generally confined to northern areas of the island, peaking at 405 mm (15.9 in). Three people were killed during Cora's passage while seventeen others sustained injury. Additionally, 5,000 persons were evacuated. Damage amounted to NT$4.2 million. Striking Fujian Province, China, on the heels of Typhoon Alice, Cora exacerbated damage in the region. Property damage was extreme with more than 21,000 homes destroyed and nearly 63,000 more damage. An estimated 265,000 people were severely affected by the storm. A total of 269 people perished during the storm while a further 2,918 were injured; 52 people were also listed missing. Tremendous flooding occurred as a result of the rains from Alice and Cora, damaging 190,000 hectares (469,000 acres) of crops which resulted in a loss of 195,000 kg (430,000 lb) in food production.
The JMA in Japan named the typhoon 2nd Miyakojima Typhoon.
The 2003 Pacific typhoon season was a slightly below average yearlong period of tropical cyclogenesis exhibiting the development of 45 tropical depressions, of which 21 became named storms; of those, 14 became typhoons. Though every month with the exception of February and March featured tropical activity, most storms developed from May through October. During the season, tropical cyclones affected the Philippines, Japan, China, the Korean Peninsula, Indochina, and various islands in the western Pacific.
The 1966 Pacific typhoon season was an active season, with many tropical cyclones having severe impacts in China, Japan, and the Philippines. Overall, there were 49 tropical depressions declared officially or unofficially, of which 30 officially became named storms; of those, 20 reached typhoon status, while 3 further became super typhoons by having winds of at least 240 km/h (150 mph). Throughout the year, storms were responsible for at least 997 fatalities and $377.6 million in damage; however, a complete record of their effects is unavailable.
Typhoon Keith was the tenth of a record eleven super typhoons to develop during the unusually intense 1997 Pacific typhoon season. Originating from a near-equatorial trough on October 26, the precursor depression to Keith slowly organized into a tropical storm. After two days of gradual strengthening, the storm underwent a period of rapid intensification on October 30 as winds increased to 195 km/h (120 mph). On November 1, the storm further intensified into a super typhoon and later attained peak winds of 285 km/h (180 mph). The following day, the powerful storm passed between Rota and Tinian in the Northern Mariana Islands. After fluctuating in strength over the following few days, a steady weakening trend established itself by November 5 as the typhoon accelerated towards the northeast. On October 8, Keith transitioned into an extratropical cyclone and was last noted early the following day near the International Dateline.
Typhoon Gay, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Seniang, was the strongest and longest-lasting storm of the 1992 Pacific typhoon season and most intense globally in 1992. It formed on November 14 near the International Date Line from a monsoon trough, which also spawned two other systems. Typhoon Gay later moved through the Marshall Islands as an intensifying typhoon, and after passing through the country it reached its peak intensity over open waters. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) estimated peak winds of 295 km/h (185 mph) and a minimum barometric pressure of 872 mb (25.8 inHg). However, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), which is the official warning center in the western Pacific, estimated winds of 205 km/h (125 mph), with a pressure of 900 mbar (27 inHg). Gay weakened rapidly after peaking because of interaction with another typhoon, and it struck Guam with winds of 160 km/h (100 mph) on November 23. The typhoon briefly re-intensified before weakening and becoming extratropical south of Japan on November 30.
Typhoon Andy, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Iliang, was an intense tropical cyclone that made landfall in Taiwan. Andy formed along the northern edge of the monsoon trough south of Guam on July 22, 1982. It became a tropical storm the next day, although this system was initially poorly organized. Andy moved steadily west during the first few days of its life. After looping south of Guam, the cyclone moved northwest and strengthened. Andy turned westward near the 18th parallel on July 25. The system became a strong typhoon for a prolonged period on July 27 and July 28 while attaining a peak intensity of 185 km/h (115 mph). However, the typhoon struck southern Taiwan on July 29. Continuing westward through the Formosa Strait, the storm made its final landfall in southern China on July 30 and dissipated inland two days later.
Typhoon Ida, also known as the Kanogawa Typhoon, was the sixth-deadliest typhoon to hit Japan, as well as one of the strongest tropical cyclones on record. On September 20, Ida formed in the Western Pacific near Guam. It moved to the west and rapidly intensified into a 115 mph (185 km/h) typhoon by the next day. On September 22, Ida turned to the north and continued its quick rate of intensification. Two days later, the Hurricane Hunters observed a minimum barometric pressure of 877 mb (25.9 inHg), as well as estimated peak winds of 325 km/h (200 mph). This made Ida the strongest tropical cyclone on record at the time, although it was surpassed by Typhoon June 17 years later. Ida weakened as it continued to the north-northeast, and made landfall in Japan on southeastern Honshū with winds of 80 mph on September 26. It became extratropical the next day, and dissipated on the 28th to the east of the country. Ida caused torrential flooding to southeastern Japan, resulting in over 1,900 mudslides. Damage was estimated at $50 million, and there were 1,269 fatalities.
Typhoon Forrest, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Ising, was the third-most intense typhoon on record, behind Typhoon Tip of 1979 and Typhoon June of 1975. Forrest was also the fastest-intensifying tropical cyclone on record, with its minimum barometric pressure dropping from 976 millibars to 876 millibars—a drop of 100 millibars—from September 22 to September 23, in less than a day. Forrest affected Japan in September 1983 and formed from a tropical disturbance far from land in the western Pacific Ocean. On September 20, the system was classified as a tropical storm, and thereafter began to intensify. The next day, Forrest reached typhoon status, and the intensification process accelerated. The storm prudently strengthened on September 22, and the following morning, attained peak intensity following a pressure drop of 100 mbar (3.0 inHg) in slightly less than 24 hours. Thereafter, Forrest began to weaken slowly as it moved northwest. Approaching Japan, Super Typhoon Forrest first hit Okinawa on September 27. Nearby, a tornado hit Inza Island, destroying 26 homes and injuring 26 people. Forrest then moved north, impaling the Japanese archipelago before transitioning into an extratropical cyclone on September 28, before eventually dissipating on October 4. The torrential rainfall caused by the typhoon triggered deadly landslides and flooding across Japan. In all, the typhoon killed at least 21 people, left 17 listed as missing, and injured 86. Forrest flooded 46,000 homes in muddy water, over 100 dwellings were destroyed, and 2,560 people were rendered as homeless. Seven flights were called off and 27,000 people were stranded. In addition, 67 bridges and 818 roads were damaged.
Typhoon Clara, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Rubing, left flooding in the northern Philippines and southern China during September 1981. An area of disturbed weather was first detected on September 11 near Ponape. After moving westward, the system gradually became better organized and thunderstorm activity increased. On September 16, the system attained tropical storm status. Two days later, Clara attained typhoon intensity and subsequently began to deepen at a faster rate. On September 19, Clara reached maximum intensity, before making landfall along the northern tip of Luzon. Clara steadily weakened after interacting with land, but by late on September 20, Clara leveled off in intensity over the South China Sea. The next day, Clara moved ashore to the east-northeast of Hong Kong while still at typhoon intensity before rapidly dissipating over land.
Typhoon Nancy, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Weling, was a destructive typhoon that moved through Vietnam and the Philippines during October 1982. The typhoon originated from an area of convection and was first classified as a tropical cyclone on October 10. The system attained gale-force winds the next day, and slowly deepened thereafter. Although Nancy initially moved west, the system maintained a general westward course for much of its duration, striking Luzon on October 14 at peak intensity of 215 km/h (130 mph). It weakened to tropical storm strength overland, but re-intensified to typhoon intensity over the South China Sea. Nancy hit northern Vietnam on the October 18, and weakened almost immediately thereafter, before dissipating on October 20 inland over Vietnam.
Typhoon Nelson, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Ibiang, was the worst tropical cyclone to affect Southern China in 16 years. Typhoon Nelson, which developed on August 16, 1985, originated from an area of thunderstorm activity well east of the Philippines. It gradually intensified over the next several days while moving northwest. Nelson reached typhoon intensity early on August 20 and two days later, attained peak intensity before turning west. The cyclone brushed northern Taiwan early on August 23 after weakening slightly. Nelson then briefly restrengthened to peak intensity. During the afternoon of August 23, it made landfall in eastern China before dissipating on August 25.
Typhoon Kim, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Osang, was the second typhoon in a week to directly affect the Philippines during July 1980. Like Typhoon Joe, Kim formed from the near equatorial monsoon trough in the northwestern Pacific Ocean on July 19. The disturbance tracked quickly westward-northwest underneath a subtropical ridge, reaching tropical storm strength on the July 21 and typhoon strength on July 23. After developing an eye, Kim began to rapidly intensify, and during the afternoon of July 24, peaked in intensity as a super typhoon. Several hours later, Kim made landfall over the Philippines, but the storm had weakened considerably by this time. Throughout the Philippines, 40 people were killed, 2 via drownings, and 19,000 others were directly affected. A total of 12,000 homes were destroyed and 5,000 villages were flooded. Less than a week earlier, the same areas were affected by Joe; however, Kim was considered the more damaging of the two typhoons. Land interaction took its toll on Kim, and upon entering the South China Sea, the storm was down below typhoon intensity. Kim continued northwestward but its disrupted circulation prevented re-intensification, and it remained a tropical storm until hitting southern China July 27 to the northeast of Hong Kong, where only slight damage was reported. Later that day, Kim dissipated.
Typhoon Sarah, as known as the Miyakojima Typhoon in Japan was among the deadliest typhoons on record in the western Pacific Ocean, killing around 2,000 people. It formed during the peak of the busy 1959 Pacific typhoon season near Guam, and moved generally to the west-northwest. Continued observations from the hurricane hunters allowed the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) to track Sarah from its origins to its peak as a powerful typhoon, with maximum sustained winds estimated at 305 km/h (190 mph) on September 15. Shortly thereafter, the typhoon struck the small Japanese island of Miyako-jima, where the barometric pressure fell to 908.1 mbar (26.82 inHg), the second-lowest on record for the country. Sarah turned to the north and northeast, weakening from its peak intensity. On September 17, the typhoon made landfall just west of Busan, South Korea with winds of 185 km/h (115 mph), the nation's strongest landfall at the time and only to be surpassed by Typhoon Maemi in 2003. Sarah later became extratropical over the Japanese island of Hokkaido on September 18, although the remnants persisted for several days, crossing into the Russian Far East and later dissipating on September 23.
Typhoon Songda, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Nina, was the fourth-costliest typhoon on record. The 18th named storm of the 2004 Pacific typhoon season, Songda developed on August 26 near the Marshall Islands. Following a path that Typhoon Chaba took nine days prior, Songda moved west-northwestward and strengthened quickly amid favorable conditions.
Typhoon Meranti, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Ferdie, was one of the most intense tropical cyclones on record and one of the three Category 5 typhoons in the South China Sea with the other ones being Pamela of 1954 and Rammasun of 2014. Impacting the Batanes in the Philippines, Taiwan, as well as Fujian Province in September 2016, Meranti formed as a tropical depression on September 8 near the island of Guam. Tracking to the west northwest, Meranti gradually intensified until September 11, at which point it began a period of rapid intensification. Continuing to rapidly intensify, it became a super typhoon early on September 12, as it passed through the Luzon Strait, ultimately reaching its peak intensity on September 13 with 1-minute sustained winds of 315 km/h (195 mph). Shortly afterwards, it passed directly over the island of Itbayat. Meranti passed to the south of Taiwan as a super typhoon, and began weakening steadily as a result of land interaction. By September 15, it struck Fujian Province as a Category 2-equivalent typhoon, becoming the strongest typhoon on record to impact the province. Upon moving inland, rapid weakening ensued and Meranti became extratropical the next day, dissipating shortly afterwards after it passed to the south of the Korean Peninsula.
Typhoon Gerald, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Neneng, affected the Philippines, Taiwan, and China during September 1987. A tropical depression developed on September 4, and within 24 hours, intensified into a tropical storm. After initially moving erratically within the Philippine Sea, Gerald moved west-northwest and then northwest while steadily deepening. Gerald obtained typhoon intensity on September 8, and the following day, attained maximum intensity. Shortly thereafter, the typhoon skirted southwestern Taiwan, which resulted in a steady weakening trend. On September 10, Gerald moved ashore north of Hong Kong near Amoy. Gerald dissipated the next day.
Typhoon Cary, known as Typhoon Ising in the Philippines, was the second of two tropical cyclones to affect Vietnam in a week. An area of disturbed weather developed southwest of Pohnpei on August 6, 1987. The system initially remained disorganized, but by August 14, Cary had attained tropical storm intensity. After initially moving north-northwest, Cary turned west-northwest, although intensification was slow to occur. On August 15, Cary was upgraded into a typhoon, and on August 17, the typhoon peaked in intensity. Typhoon Cary then made landfall in northern Luzon while at peak intensity. Across the Philippines, 954 houses were damaged and an additional 89 were destroyed, which left 55,567 people, or 13,247 families that were either homeless or otherwise sought shelter. Five people died in the country while damage totaled $5.58 million (1987 USD), including $1.45 million from agriculture and $4.13 million from infrastructure. The storm weakened over land, but re-intensified into a typhoon over the South China Sea. On August 21, Typhoon Cary passed just south of Hainan, where hundreds of homes were damaged but no fatalities occurred, and subsequently entered the Gulf of Tonkin. The storm weakened as it approached Vietnam, and on August 23, the storm dissipated inland over Laos. Across Vietnam, almost 40,000 ha of land were flooded or destroyed. Twenty people were killed and many others were injured.
Typhoon Janis, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Gloring, was an early-season typhoon that struck Japan during August 1992. An area of disturbed weather formed near Pohnpei in late-July 1992, and after an increase in thunderstorm activity, a tropical depression developed on August 3. After passing near Guam, Janis tracked generally westward, and on August 5, the storm was believed to have attained typhoon intensity. After intensifying at a brisk pace, Janis attained peak intensity on August 6 near Okinawa. Thereafter, the typhoon began to weaken and accelerate as it recurved towards Kyushu, where it made landfall on the next day. Land interaction took its toll on the typhoon as it tracked northeast, paralleling the western coast of Honshu. On August 9, Janis transitioned into an extratropical low over Hokkaido.
Typhoon Irving, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Ruping, was a mid-season tropical cyclone that affected the Philippines and China during September 1982. An area of disturbed weather developed within the monsoon trough during early September 1982 near Guam. Following an increase in organization, a tropical depression developed on the morning of September 5. Later that day, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Irving. Irving tracked westward, nearly becoming a typhoon before hitting the central Philippines. There, Irving uprooted trees, downed power and telephone lines, triggered landslides, and forced the cancellation of several domestic airline flights. Irving damaged 7,890 houses in Albay and Sorsogon provinces alone, resulting in 138,500 people homeless. Nation-wide, 65 people were killed, 26 others were hurt, and 29 were rendered missing. A total of 44,383 families or 248,040 residents sought shelter. Moreover, 18,488 homes were damaged and 5,599 others were demolished. Damage in the country was assessed at US$23.3 million, including US$14.2 million in crops. While crossing the island chain, Irving turned northwestward. After entering the South China Sea, Irving continued generally northwest, and became a typhoon on September 11. After developing a well-defined eye, Irving attained its peak intensity of 160 km/h (100 mph) the following day. Land interaction with Hainan Island resulted in a weakening trend, and Irving was downgraded to a tropical storm before striking the southern coast of China on September 15. Across the Leizhou Peninsula, 90% of homes were damaged. Onshore, Irving rapidly weakened and the storm dissipated on September 16.
Typhoon Warren, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Huaning, struck the Philippines and China during July 1988. An area of disturbed weather developed within the vicinity of the Caroline Islands during the second week of July. A tropical depression developed southeast of Guam on July 12, and on the next day, intensified into a tropical storm. Tracking generally west-northwest, Warren deepened into a typhoon on July 14. The storm subsequently entered a period of rapid intensification, commencing with Warren reaching its highest intensity on July 16. The following evening, the typhoon brushed Luzon, resulting in a weakening trend, although Warren was still a typhoon when it made landfall near Shantou. Warren rapidly dissipated inland.
Typhoon Maria, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Gardo, was a powerful tropical cyclone that affected Guam, the Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, and East China in early July 2018. Developing into the eighth named tropical storm of the 2018 Pacific typhoon season and passing the Mariana Islands on July 4, Maria strengthened into the fourth typhoon of the season and underwent rapid intensification the next day amid favorable environmental conditions. The typhoon reached its first peak intensity on July 6; subsequently, Maria weakened due to an eyewall replacement cycle, but it reintensified and reached a second, stronger peak intensity on July 9 with 10-minute sustained winds of 195 km/h (120 mph) and a minimum pressure of 915 hPa. Over the next three days, it started to gradually weaken due to another eyewall replacement cycle and decreasing sea surface temperatures. After crossing the Yaeyama Islands and passing north of Taiwan on July 10, Maria ultimately made landfall over Fujian, China, early on July 11, before dissipating the next day.