Typhoon Jebi (2018)

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Typhoon Jebi (Maymay)
Typhoon (JMA scale)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Jebi 2018-08-31 0330Z.jpg
Typhoon Jebi at peak intensity northwest of Guam on August 31
FormedAugust 26, 2018
DissipatedSeptember 9, 2018
( Extratropical after September 4)
Highest winds 10-minute sustained:195 km/h (120 mph)
1-minute sustained:280 km/h (175 mph)
Lowest pressure915 hPa (mbar); 27.02 inHg
Fatalities17 total
Damage$3.4 billion (2018 USD)
Areas affected Mariana Islands, Taiwan, Japan, Russian Far East, Arctic
Part of the 2018 Pacific typhoon season

Typhoon Jebi, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Maymay, was considered to be the strongest typhoon to strike Japan since Typhoon Yancy in 1993. [1] Jebi formed as a tropical depression on August 26, before becoming the twenty-first named storm of the 2018 Pacific typhoon season on August 28. It rapidly intensified into a typhoon on the following day and reached its peak intensity on August 31, after striking the Northern Mariana Islands. Jebi initiated a slow weakening trend on September 2 and made landfall over Shikoku, and then the Kansai region of Japan, as a very strong typhoon on September 4.

Philippines Republic in Southeast Asia

The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, and Malaysia and Indonesia to the south.

Japan Constitutional monarchy in East Asia

Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south.

Typhoon Yancy (1993)

Typhoon Yancy, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Tasing, was one of the costliest and most intense tropical cyclones to strike Japan on record. Yancy was the sixth typhoon of the annual typhoon season and sixth tropical cyclone overall to impact Japan that year. Developing out of an area of disturbed weather in the open northwest Pacific on August 29, 1993, the precursor to Yancy tracked westward and quickly intensified to reach tropical storm strength on August 30. Just two days later, the tropical storm reached typhoon intensity as it recurved towards the northeast. A period of rapid intensification followed, allowing Yancy to quickly reach super typhoon intensity. The strong tropical cyclone reached peak intensity on September 2 with maximum sustained winds of 175 km/h (110 mph). The following day Yancy made its first landfall on Iōjima at nearly the same strength; over the course of the day the typhoon would make three subsequent landfalls on Japanese islands. Land interaction forced the tropical cyclone to weaken, and after its final landfall on Hiroshima Prefecture, Yancy weakened below typhoon intensity. After emerging into the Sea of Japan, Yancy transitioned into an extratropical cyclone; these remnants persisted as they meandered in the sea before dissipating completely on September 7.

Contents

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale Jebi 2018 track.png
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

A low-pressure area formed near the Marshall Islands early on August 25. [2] It remained devoid of a low-level circulation center (LLCC) next day; [3] however, the system developed further on August 27 and both the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center upgraded it to a tropical depression, [4] based on persistent deep convection wrapping into a consolidating LLCC. [5] Early on August 28, the system was upgraded to a tropical storm, with JMA assigning the storm the international name Jebi. [6] On the August 29, the JMA upgraded the storm to a typhoon, after it developed an eye with a central dense overcast, and underwent rapid intensification. Jebi continued to intensify, becoming the third super typhoon of the season and also the second Category 5-equivalent super typhoon of the season.

Marshall Islands country in Oceania

The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands, is an island country and a United States associated state near the equator in the Pacific Ocean, slightly west of the International Date Line. Geographically, the country is part of the larger island group of Micronesia. The country's population of 53,158 people is spread out over 29 coral atolls, comprising 1,156 individual islands and islets.

Japan Meteorological Agency meteorological service of Japan

The Japan Meteorological Agency, JMA, is an agency of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. It is charged with gathering and providing results for the public in Japan, that are obtained from data based on daily scientific observation and research into natural phenomena in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, seismology and volcanology, among other related scientific fields. Its headquarters is located in Chiyoda, Tokyo.

Joint Typhoon Warning Center

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is a joint United States Navy – United States Air Force command located in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The JTWC is responsible for the issuing of tropical cyclone warnings in the North-West Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, and Indian Ocean for all branches of the U.S. Department of Defense and other U.S. government agencies. Their warnings are intended for the protection of primarily military ships and aircraft as well as military installations jointly operated with other countries around the world.

On September 4, Jebi made its first landfall over the southern part of Tokushima Prefecture at around 12:00 JST (03:00 UTC). [7] Afterward, Jebi crossed Osaka Bay and made its second landfall over Kobe, Hyōgo Prefecture at around 14:00 JST (05:00 UTC), [8] and then moved over Osaka and Kyoto prefectures, before ultimately emerging into the Sea of Japan shortly after 15:00 JST (06:00 UTC). [9] Simultaneously, a cold front formed southwest of the typhoon, indicating the beginning of an extratropical transition. [10] On September 5, after JTWC issued a final warning at 00:00 JST (15:00 UTC), [11] Jebi was downgraded to a severe tropical storm at 03:00 JST (18:00 UTC), when it was located near the Shakotan Peninsula of Hokkaido. [12] The storm completely transitioned into a tropical storm-force extratropical cyclone off the coast of Primorsky Krai, Russia, shortly before 10:00 VLAT (09:00 JST, 00:00 UTC). Later, the extratropical cyclone moved inland. [13] The terrain of Khabarovsk Krai contributed to the steadily weakening of the storm as the it moved inland northwestward and then turned northward; [14] Jebi's extratropical low passed northeast of Ayan early on September 7. [15] [16] Jebi's extratropical remnant continued northward, and then turned northeastward, before dissipating on early September 9 over the Arctic Ocean.

Landfall event of a storm moving over land after being over water

Landfall is the event of a storm or waterspout moving over land after being over water.

Tokushima Prefecture Prefecture of Japan

Tokushima Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located on Shikoku Island. The capital is the city of Tokushima.

Japan Standard Time time zone

Japan Standard Time or JST is the standard timezone in Japan, 9 hours ahead of UTC. There is no daylight saving time, though its introduction has been debated several times. During World War II, it was often called Tokyo Standard Time.

Impact

Taiwan

Typhoon Jebi brought large waves to the east coast of Taiwan on September 2 and 3 when it recurved northward east of the Ryukyu Islands. On September 2, at the Mystery Beach in Nan'ao Township, Yilan County, deadly incidents involving large waves were reported on September 2, causing 5 fatalities; [17] the other one death also occurred at the Neipi Beach in Su'ao Township. [18] In the next morning, also at the Neipi Beach, a middle-aged woman was also swept away by the waves; however, it was reported that she walked into the waves and stayed in the ocean, presumed to be a suicidal action. [19]

Ryukyu Islands A chain of Japanese islands that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan

The Ryukyu Islands, also known as the Nansei Islands or the Ryukyu Arc, are a chain of Japanese islands that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Tokara, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands, with Yonaguni the westernmost. The larger are mostly high islands and the smaller mostly coral. The largest is Okinawa Island.

Nanao, Yilan Mountain indigenous township

Nan'ao Township is a mountain indigenous township in the southern part of Yilan County, Taiwan. It is the largest township in the county.

Yilan County, Taiwan County in Taiwan Province, Republic of China

Yilan County is a county in northeastern Taiwan. Yilan is officially administered as a county of the Republic of China.

Japan

Maximum wind speed at Kansai International Airport on September 4 (JST) Maximum wind at Kansai International Airport on Sept 4.svg
Maximum wind speed at Kansai International Airport on September 4 (JST)

Typhoon Jebi was the most intense tropical cyclone to make landfall over Japan since Typhoon Yancy in 1993, causing a significant disaster in the Kansai region. At least 11 deaths and more than 600 injuries were reported across the region. Kansai International Airport, one of the most important transport hubs in Japan, was completely shut down because of flooding. A fuel tanker rammed into Sky Gate Bridge R and severely damaged it, cutting off the linking road to the airport and leaving more than 3,000 travelers and employees stranded. [20]

1993 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1993 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1993, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

Kansai region Region

The Kansai region or the Kinki region lies in the southern-central region of Japan's main island Honshū. The region includes the prefectures of Mie, Nara, Wakayama, Kyoto, Osaka, Hyōgo and Shiga, sometimes Fukui, Tokushima and Tottori. While the use of the terms "Kansai" and "Kinki" have changed over history, in most modern contexts the use of the two terms is interchangeable. The urban region of Osaka, Kobe, and Kyoto is the second-most populated in Japan after the Greater Tokyo Area.

Kansai International Airport airport serving Kobe, Osaka, and Kyoto, Japan

Kansai International Airport is an international airport located on an artificial island in the middle of Osaka Bay off the Honshu shore, 38 km (24 mi) southwest of Ōsaka Station, located within three municipalities, including Izumisano (north), Sennan (south), and Tajiri (central), in Osaka Prefecture, Japan.

The typhoon broke the historical records of 10-minute maximum sustained winds at 53 weather stations and the maximum gust at 100 weather stations in Japan, mostly on September 4. [21] The highest sustained winds from Jebi were recorded at Cape Muroto, of 48.2 m/s (174 km/h), although the maximum gust of 55.3 m/s (199 km/h) was ranked third. At Kankujima (the island of Kansai International Airport), the maximum sustained winds of 46.5 m/s (167 km/h) were ranked second and the maximum gust of 58.1 m/s (209 km/h) was ranked first, significantly higher than the previous records (from Typhoon Cimaron, only 12 days earlier) for the airport. At the downtown of Wakayama, the maximum sustained winds of 39.7 m/s (143 km/h) and the maximum gust of 57.4 m/s (207 km/h) were also recorded. Even at Chūō-ku, the financial center of Osaka, the exceptional maximum gust of 47.4 m/s (171 km/h) was recorded. [22] Jebi also produced a maximum storm surge of 3.29 m (10.8 ft) in Osaka, surpassing the previous record of 2.93 m (9.6 ft) from the 2nd Muroto Typhoon (Typhoon Nancy) in 1961. [23]

Muroto, Kōchi City in Shikoku, Japan

Muroto is a city located in Kōchi Prefecture, Japan. The city was founded on March 1, 1951.

Wakayama (city) Core City in Honshu, Japan

Wakayama is the capital city of Wakayama Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan.

Chūō-ku, Osaka ward of the City of Osaka, Japan

Chūō-ku is one of 23 wards of Osaka, Japan. It has an area of 8.88 km2, and a population of 60,085. It houses Osaka's financial district, as well as the Osaka Prefecture offices and principal shopping and tourist areas.

Agricultural damage were about ¥44.22 billion (US$397 million), [24] and estimates of insured loss ranged from US$3–5.5 billion (¥340–620 billion). [25]

See also

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