Tyrnavos

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Tyrnavos

Τύρναβος
Tirnavos.jpg
Greece location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Tyrnavos
Location within the region
2011 Dimos Tyrnavou.png
Coordinates: 39°44′N22°17′E / 39.733°N 22.283°E / 39.733; 22.283 Coordinates: 39°44′N22°17′E / 39.733°N 22.283°E / 39.733; 22.283
CountryGreece
Administrative region Thessaly
Regional unit Larissa
Area
  Municipality525.3 km2 (202.8 sq mi)
  Municipal unit370.56 km2 (143.07 sq mi)
Population
 (2011) [1]
  Municipality
25,032
  Municipality density48/km2 (120/sq mi)
  Municipal unit
16,977
  Municipal unit density46/km2 (120/sq mi)
Community
[1]
  Population12,572 (2011)
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
401 00
Vehicle registration ΡΙ

Tyrnavos (Greek : Τύρναβος) is a municipality in the Larissa regional unit, of the Thessaly region of Greece. It is the second-largest town of the Larissa regional unit, after Larissa. The town is near the mountains and the Thessalian Plain. The river Titarisios, a tributary of the Pineios, flows through the town. Tyrnavos is bypassed by the GR-3 (Larissa - Kozani - Niki) and has an old road connecting the town to Elassona. It will be linked with a superhighway numbered 3 (A3) with an unscheduled opening date. Tyrnavos is located south-southwest of Thessaloniki and Katerini, northwest of Larissa, east-northeast of Trikala and south-southeast of Elassona and Kozani. Here live an important community of Aromanians (Vlachs).

Contents

Tyrnavos municipality 2010 Dimos Tyrnavou.svg
Tyrnavos municipality

History

Tyrnavos was built by the Slavs as a pastoral settlement with huts in the 7th or 8th century AD. Its name is the Greek spelling of the Slavic name Trnovo , a common place name throughout the Balkans meaning "place of thorns". [2] In 1423 the Turkish general Turahan Bey conquered Thessaly. Turahan founded Tyrnavos, gathering the local inhabitants and settling them in the new town, which he adorned with several buildings and which he granted extensive privileges. In 1770 there were 16 churches and 6 mosques in the town. Following the Convention of Constantinople in 1881, Greece annexed Tyrnavos along with the rest of Thessaly. The Turkish bath is the only Ottoman building to have been preserved, as well as some other preservable buildings of the town. [3] On march 3, 2021, a 6,3 earthquake struck the region of Thessaly between the towns of Elassona and Tyrnavos. At least a hundred homes and other buildings in the area, including churches, were damaged. A disabled man was rescued with serious head injuries after being trapped in his house in the Mesochori village and 10 other people were slightly injured.

Carnival and the "bourani"

The city holds a famous annual carnival, which has its roots in antiquity. It is at least 100 years old. The first written records about its celebration date from 1898.

In the early 20th century, the carnival of Tirnavos has been the target of bitter criticism and successive attacks by the governments of that time that regarded it as an offence against the moral standards of people. However, the prohibition of the carnival didn't intimidate the inhabitants of Tirnavos that celebrated it even secretly.

After the war, disguised people are incorporated into the carnival chariots. However, the dictatorship prohibited it once more and its celebration was interrupted until 1980 when the custom was revised. In recent years, the carnival of Tirnavos is renowned as the biggest and best carnival in Central Greece. The carnival is celebrated during about a month, but the festivities culminate on the last Sunday of carnival with the big Parade of chariots, with the participation of thousands people. [4]

The custom of “Burani” takes place on the day of (Clean Monday), the first days of Lent. [5] This customs have made Tirnavos famous. Shrove Monday is a day of merry moral freedom or laxity of morals during which the rules of decent behavior are temporarily violated. The use of sexual and love symbols are combined with the traditional folk manifestations. Strictly speaking, the “bourani” is a folk fare but in essence, it is a phallus festival that symbolizes the reproduction and fertility. First, the inhabitants of the town go to the country church of Prophet Elijah in a free wide area, in the north of the town. Each group spread a table with various dishes on the ground and a big flagon of wine or “ouzo” or “tsipouro” with water. [4]

At the same time, they lit a fire on which they prepared the “Bourani”, a spinach soup. After the “Bourani” had been served to the “initiates”, people started dancing, singing, joking and teasing each other using obscene language. Everyone who passes by must stop and stir the soup with a long wooden ladle of a particular shape, take a sip of soup straight from the ladle and then drink a shot of tsipouro from a ceramic phallic-shaped tumbler. Next to the cauldron, there is a rocking throne in the shape of a phallus, which attracts flocks of laughing festivalgoers. [6]

A lot of men that participated in this ritual held phalluses as scepters in their hands. The phalluses were made of wood or clay or even of bread and constituted the most important ceremonial symbol. In the late seventies, women started taking an active part in the entire ritual especially after the creation of the “Bourani Society” in 1979. [4]

This pagan fertility festival in honour of the god Dionysus marks the beginning of the Greek Orthodox fasting period before Easter. Due to the intense pagan roots of the festival and its irreverence, the Greek Orthodox Church does not approve of the event.

Municipality

The municipality Tyrnavos was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 2 former municipalities, that became municipal units: [7]

Subdivisions

The municipal unit of Tyrnavos is divided into the following communities (constituent settlements in brackets): [7]

Province

The province of Tyrnavos (Greek : Επαρχία Τυρνάβου) was one of the provinces of the Larissa Prefecture. Its territory corresponded with that of the current municipality Tyrnavos and the municipal units Giannouli, Gonnoi and Kato Olympos. [8] It was abolished in 2006.

Population

YearTownCommunityMunicipal unitMunicipality
198111,118---
199112,028-16,923-
200111,11612,45116,900-
201111,06912,57216,97725,032

Geography

The municipality is made up of mountains covering the northern portion as well as grasslands. Farmlands dominate the southern portion in which is part of the Thessalian Plain and the Titarisios valley. Tyrnavos is a major wine producing center.

The municipality Tyrnavos has an area of 525.323 km2, the municipal unit Tyrnavos has an area of 370.564 km2, and the community Tyrnavos has an area of 79.109 km2. [9]

Notable people

Related Research Articles

Larissa Place in Greece

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Thessaly administrative region of Greece

Thessaly is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name. Before the Greek Dark Ages, Thessaly was known as Aeolia, and appears thus in Homer's Odyssey.

Karditsa (regional unit) Regional unit in Thessaly, Greece

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Provinces of Greece

The provinces of Greece were sub-divisions of some the country's prefectures. From 1887, the provinces were abolished as actual administrative units, but were retained for some state services, especially finance services and education, as well as for electoral purposes. Before the Second World War, there were 139 provinces, and after the war, with the addition of the Dodecanese Islands, their number grew to 147. According to the Article 7 of the Code of Prefectural Self-Government, the provinces constituted a "particular administrative district" within the wider "administrative district" of the prefectures. The provinces were finally abolished after the 2006 local elections, in line with Law 2539/1997, as part of the wide-ranging administrative reform known as the "Kapodistrias Project", and replaced by enlarged municipalities (demoi).

Farsala Place in Greece

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Larissa (regional unit) Regional unit in Thessaly, Greece

Larissa is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Thessaly. Its capital is the city of Larissa. Total population 284,325 (2011).

Elassona Place in Greece

Elassona is a town and a municipality in the Larissa regional unit in Greece. During antiquity Elassona was called Oloosson (Ὀλοοσσών) and was a town of the Perrhaebi tribe. It is situated at the foot of Mount Olympus. Elassona is bypassed by the GR-3.

Agia, Larissa Place in Greece

Agia is a village and a municipality in the Larissa regional unit, Thessaly, Greece. Agia is located east of Larissa and south of Melivoia. The Mavrovouni mountains dominate the south and the Aegean Sea lies to the east.

Ampelonas Place in Greece

Ampelonas is a village and a municipal unit of the Tyrnavos municipality. Before the 2011 local government reform it was an independent municipality. The 2011 census recorded 6,083 inhabitants in the village and 8,055 inhabitants in the municipal unit. The community of Ampelonas covers an area of 38.632 km2 while the respective municipal unit covers an area of 154.759 km2.

Gonnoi Place in Greece

Gonnoi is a former municipality in the Larissa regional unit, Thessaly, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Tempi, of which it is a municipal unit. Population 2,462 (2011). The municipal unit has an area of 113.333 km2. The municipality was created under the Kapodistrias Law in 1997 out of the former communes of Gonnoi, Kallipefki, Itea and Elaia. About 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) southeast of the town lies the site of the ancient city of Gonnus, after which the present town is named.

Livadi Place in Greece

Livadi is a town and a former municipality in the Larissa regional unit, Thessaly, Greece. Livadi is a majority Aromanian town. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Elassona, of which it is a municipal unit. Before the 2011 local government reform it was an independent municipality. The 2011 census recorded 2,674 residents in the municipal unit and 2,244 residents in the community of Livadi. The community of Livadi covers an area of 140.90 km2 while the respective municipal unit 158.273 km2.

Makrychori Place in Greece

Makrychori is a former municipality in the Larissa regional unit, Thessaly, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Tempi, of which it is a municipal unit. Population 2,553 (2011). The municipal unit has an area of 107.767 km2. The municipality was created under the Kapodistrias Law in 1997 out of the former communes of Elateia, Evangelismos, Gyrtoni and Parapotamos.

Melivoia Place in Greece

Melivoia is a town and a former municipality in the Larissa regional unit, Thessaly, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Agia, of which it is a municipal unit. Population 2,195 (2011). The municipal unit has an area of 197.633 km2. The seat of the municipality was in Kato Sotiritsa. Melivoia is located east of Larissa, the capital of the regional unit and Thessaly, and a few kilometers north of Agia. The municipal unit stretches along the Aegean Sea coast, at the foot of Mount Ossa. It was named after the ancient city Meliboea. The municipal unit borders on Magnesia to the southeast.

Olympos, Larissa Place in Greece

Olympos is a former municipality in the Larissa regional unit, Thessaly, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Elassona, of which it is a municipal unit. Population 3,164 (2011). The municipal unit has an area of 303.964 km2. The seat of the municipality was in Kallithea. The municipality was named after the nation's highest point, Mount Olympus.

Sarantaporo Place in Greece

Sarantaporo is a village and a former municipality in the Larissa regional unit, Thessaly, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Elassona, of which it is a municipal unit. Population 2,455 (2011). The municipal unit has an area of 150.902 km2, and the community has an area of 26.958 km2. The town is between the mountains of Kamvounia to the northwest and the Pierian Mountains to the northeast. The river Sarantaporos flows through the municipality. Sarantaporo is on the Greek National Road 3. It is located west-southwest of Katerini, northwest of Elassona and Larissa, east of Grevena and south-southeast of Kozani.

Oichalia, Trikala Place in Greece

Oichalia Greek: Οιχαλία, before 1981: Νεοχώρι - Neochori) is a town and a former municipality in the Trikala regional unit, Thessaly, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Farkadona, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 85.628 km2. In 2011 the population of the municipality was 4,781, the population of the town proper was 2,357. Oichalia is located 8 km west of Farkadona centre, and 20 km east of the city of Trikala. It is situated on the edge of the Thessalian Plain. The Greek National Road 6 passes south of Oichalia.

Farkadona Place in Greece

Farkadona is a municipality in the southeastern Trikala regional unit, part of Thessaly in Greece. In 2011 its population was 2,652 for the town and 13,396 for the municipality. It is located about halfway between the cities Larissa to the east, and Trikala to the west, at about 30 km from both. It is situated in the Thessalian Plain, near the river Pineios. Farkadona is on the Greek National Road 6.

Azoros Place in Greece

Azoros is a village and a community of the Elassona municipality in the Larissa regional unit. Before the 2011 local government reform it was a part of the municipality of Sarantaporo, of which it was a municipal district. The 2011 census recorded 333 inhabitants in the village. The community of Azoros covers an area of 20.308 km2.

Damasi, Larissa Place in Greece

Damasi is a village and a community of the Tyrnavos municipality. Before the 2011 local government reform it was a part of the municipality of Tyrnavos. The 2011 census recorded 1,380 inhabitants in the village and 1,444 inhabitants in the municipal unit. The community of Damasi covers an area of 143.35 km2. In the territory of Damasi lies the site of the ancient city of Phalanna.

References

  1. 1 2 "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority.
  2. Tirnavos, Prefecture of Larissa
  3. Tirnavos, Larissa prefecture
  4. 1 2 3 The Carnival of Tirnavos, Larissa prefecture
  5. The Annual Phallus Festival in Greece, Der Spiegel, English edition, Retrieved on the 15-12-08
  6. Phallic Tyrnavos, Bulgaria's English Monthly, Issue 53-54, February–March 2011
  7. 1 2 "ΦΕΚ B 1292/2010, Kallikratis reform municipalities" (in Greek). Government Gazette.
  8. "Detailed census results 1991" (PDF). (39 MB)(in Greek and French)
  9. "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece.