UTP—hexose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase

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UTP:galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase
EC number
CAS number 9016-11-9
IntEnz IntEnz view
ExPASy NiceZyme view
MetaCyc metabolic pathway
PRIAM profile
PDB structures RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum
Gene Ontology AmiGO / QuickGO

In enzymology, an UTP—hexose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction

The Enzyme Commission number is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze. As a system of enzyme nomenclature, every EC number is associated with a recommended name for the respective enzyme.

Catalysis chemical process

Catalysis is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly. Because of this, only very small amounts of catalyst are required to alter the reaction rate in principle.

Chemical reaction Process that results in the interconversion of chemical species

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that only involve the positions of electrons in the forming and breaking of chemical bonds between atoms, with no change to the nuclei, and can often be described by a chemical equation. Nuclear chemistry is a sub-discipline of chemistry that involves the chemical reactions of unstable and radioactive elements where both electronic and nuclear changes can occur.


UTP + alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate diphosphate + UDP-galactose

Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are UTP and alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate, whereas its two products are diphosphate and UDP-galactose.

Uridine triphosphate chemical compound

Uridine-5'-triphosphate (UTP) is a pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphate, consisting of the organic base uracil linked to the 1' carbon of the ribose sugar, and esterified with tri-phosphoric acid at the 5' position. Its main role is as substrate for the synthesis of RNA during transcription.

Products are the species formed from chemical reactions. During a chemical reaction reactants are transformed into products after passing through a high energy transition state. This process results in the consumption of the reactants. It can be a spontaneous reaction or mediated by catalysts which lower the energy of the transition state, and by solvents which provide the chemical environment necessary for the reaction to take place. When represented in chemical equations products are by convention drawn on the right-hand side, even in the case of reversible reactions. The properties of products such as their energies help determine several characteristics of a chemical reaction such as whether the reaction is exergonic or endergonic. Additionally the properties of a product can make it easier to extract and purify following a chemical reaction, especially if the product has a different state of matter than the reactants. Reactants are molecular materials used to create chemical reactions. The atoms aren't created or destroyed. The materials are reactive and reactants are rearranging during a chemical reaction. Here is an example of reactants: CH4 + O2. A non-example is CO2 + H2O or "energy".

Enzyme family

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring phosphorus-containing nucleotide groups (nucleotidyltransferases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is UTP:alpha-D-hexose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase. Other names in common use include galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, galactose 1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, galactose 1-phosphate uridyltransferase, UDPgalactose pyrophosphorylase, uridine diphosphate galactose pyrophosphorylase, and uridine diphosphogalactose pyrophosphorylase. This enzyme participates in galactose metabolism and nucleotide sugars metabolism.

Transferase broad class of enzymes; transfer of a functional group from one substance to another

A transferase is any one of a class of enzymes that enact the transfer of specific functional groups from one molecule to another. They are involved in hundreds of different biochemical pathways throughout biology, and are integral to some of life’s most important processes.

Nucleotide biological molecules that form the building blocks of nucleic acids

Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth. Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids; they are composed of three sub unit molecules: a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar, and at least one phosphate group.

Nucleotidyltransferase class of enzymes

Nucleotidyltransferases are transferase enzymes of phosphorus-containing groups, e.g., substituents of nucleotidylic acids or simply nucleoside monophosphates. The general reaction of transferring a nucleoside monophosphate moiety from A to B, can be written as:

Structural studies

As of late 2007, 3 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1GUP, 1GUQ, and 1HXP.

The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a database for the three-dimensional structural data of large biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids. The data, typically obtained by X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, or, increasingly, cryo-electron microscopy, and submitted by biologists and biochemists from around the world, are freely accessible on the Internet via the websites of its member organisations. The PDB is overseen by an organization called the Worldwide Protein Data Bank, wwPDB.

Related Research Articles

Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase is an enzyme responsible for converting ingested galactose to glucose.

Uridine diphosphate glucose chemical compound

Uridine diphosphate glucose is a nucleotide sugar. It is involved in glycosyltransferase reactions in metabolism.

UTP—glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase class of enzymes

UTP—glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase also known as glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase is an enzyme involved in carbohydrate metabolism. It synthesizes UDP-glucose from glucose-1-phosphate and UTP; i.e.,

Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase deficiency

Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase deficiency(classic galactosemia), is the most common type of galactosemia, an inborn error of galactose metabolism, caused by a deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase. It is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that can cause liver disease and death if untreated. Treatment of galactosemia is most successful if initiated early and includes dietary restriction of lactose intake. Because early intervention is key, galactosemia is included in newborn screening programs in many areas. On initial screening, which often involves measuring the concentration of galactose in blood, classic galactosemia may be indistinguishable from other inborn errors of galactose metabolism, including galactokinase deficiency and galactose epimerase deficiency. Further analysis of metabolites and enzyme activities are needed to identify the specific metabolic error.

UDP-glucose 4-epimerase class of enzymes

The enzyme UDP-glucose 4-epimerase, also known as UDP-galactose 4-epimerase or GALE, is a homodimeric epimerase found in bacterial, fungal, plant, and mammalian cells. This enzyme performs the final step in the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism, catalyzing the reversible conversion of UDP-galactose to UDP-glucose. GALE tightly binds nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a co-factor required for catalytic activity.

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Glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase class of enzymes

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Leloir pathway

The Leloir pathway is a metabolic pathway for the catabolism of D-galactose. It is named after Luis Federico Leloir.

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