|Comune di Udine|
|• Mayor||Pietro Fontanini (Lega Nord)|
|• Total||56 km2 (22 sq mi)|
|Elevation||113 m (371 ft)|
|• Density||1,800/km2 (4,600/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Patron saint||Sts. Ermacoras and Fortunatus|
|Saint day||12 July|
Udine ( US: // OO-dee-nay, Italian: [ˈuːdine] ( listen ); Friulian : Udin; German : Weiden in Friaul; Slovene : Videm; Latin : Utinum) is a city and comune in north-eastern Italy, in the middle of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, between the Adriatic Sea and the Alps (Alpi Carniche). Its population was 100,514 in 2012, 176,000 with the urban area.
Udine was first attested in medieval Latin records as Udene in 983 and as Utinum around the year 1000. The origin of the name Udine is unclear. It has been tentatively suggested that the name may be of pre-Roman origin, connected with the Indo-European root *ou̯dh- 'udder' used in a figurative sense to mean 'hill'. The Slovene name Videm (with final -m) is a hypercorrection of the local Slovene name Vidan (with final -n), based on settlements named Videm in Slovenia. The Slovene linguist Pavle Merkù characterized the Slovene form Videm as an "idiotic 19th-century hypercorrection."
Udine is the historical capital of Friuli. The area has been inhabited since the Neolithic age, and is believed to have been settled by Illyrians.
Based on an old Hungarian legend, Attila (?–453), the leader of the Huns, built a hill there, when besieging Aquileia, because he needed a winter quarters billet: he instructed his soldiers to bring soil in their helmets and shields, because the landscape was too flat, without any hill. He established the town there, and built a square-shape tower.
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the area increased in importance after the decline of Aquileia and afterwards of Cividale also. In AD 983 Udine was mentioned for the first time, with the donation of the Utinum castle by emperor Otto II to the Patriarchs of Aquileia, then the main feudal lords of the region. In 1223, with the foundation of the market,the city became finally the most important in the area for economy and trade, and also became the Patriarch's seat.
In 1420, it was conquered by the Republic of Venice.In 1511, it was the seat of a short civil war, which was followed by an earthquake and a plague. Udine remained under Venetian control until 1797, being the second largest city in the state. After the short French domination which ensued, it was part of the Austrian-puppet Lombardy-Venetia Kingdom, and was included in the newly formed Kingdom of Italy in 1866.
During World War I, before the defeat in the battle of Caporetto, Udine became the seat of the Italian High Command and was nicknamed "Capitale della Guerra" ("War Capital"). After the battle, it was occupied by the Germans in 1917and Austrians in 1918 until after the Battle of Vittorio Veneto in 1918. After the war it was made capital of a short-lived province (Provincia del Friuli) which included the current provinces of Gorizia, Pordenone and Udine. After September 8, 1943, when Italy surrendered to the Allies in World War II, the city was under direct German administration, which ceased in April 1945.
Udine has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa). Precipitation is abundant year round with spring and fall being the wettest seasons. The highest temperature recorded was 38.2 °C (101 °F) on July 21, 2006 while the lowest temperature recorded was −18.6 °C (−1 °F) on December 19, 2009.
|Climate data for Udine (1971–2000, extremes 1969–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||18.6|
|Average high °C (°F)||7.7|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||3.7|
|Average low °C (°F)||−0.4|
|Record low °C (°F)||−14.6|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||74.9|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||6.2||5.2||7.6||9.8||10.8||10.5||7.8||7.2||7.3||8.3||7.2||6.7||94.6|
|Source: Servizio Meteorologico|
In 2007, there were 97,880 people residing in Udine itself (whereas the greater area has a population double its size), located in the province of Udine, Friuli Venezia Giulia, of whom 46.9% were male and 53.1% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled 14.36 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 24.27 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners). The average age of Udine residents is 47 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Udine grew by 1.48 percent, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.56 percent. The current birth rate of Udine is 9.13 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births.
The nearby area close to the border has a Slovene population estimated at about 2,000.A 1475 document mentions Slovene as the language of the "lower class" in the town, and the Udine Manuscript of 1458 contains Slovene vocabulary. Alasia da Sommaripa's Italian-Slovenian dictionary was printed in Udine in 1607. However, the Slovenian minority is not officially recognized by the Municipality and the Slovenian language is not taught in any city state educational institution, nor in neighboring municipalities. Udine, on the other hand, is one of the municipalities in Friuli where the Friulian language is taught.
As of 2006 [update] , 90.90% of the population was of Italian descent. The largest immigrant group came from other European nations (particularly those from Albania and Romania): 5.37%, followed by sub-saharan Africa (mostly from Ghana): 1.65%, and North African: 0.77%.
The old residence of the patriarchs of Aquileia, the palazzo Patriarcale, was erected by Giovanni Fontana in 1517 in place of the older one destroyed by an earthquake in 1511. Under the Austrians it was used as a prison. In the cathedral archives was formerly preserved a recension of the Visigothic code of laws, called the Breviary of Alaric, in a manuscript known as the Codex Utinensis, which was printed before it was lost.
In the 1550s, Andrea Palladio erected some buildings in Udine. The Oratorio della Purità has 18th-century frescoes by Giambattista Tiepolo and his son Giandomenico.
The church dedicated to St. Mary of the Castle is probably the oldest in Udine, judging from extant fragments dating back to the Lombard era. It lost its parish status in 1263, when it was annexed to the larger parish of Saint'Odorico (now the Cathedral). It has been renovated many times over the centuries: the façade, for example, was entirely rebuilt after the 1511 Idrija earthquake. Its three naves preserve the suggestive atmosphere of silence and contemplation, which is often found in old churches. The Venetian Governor, Tommaso Lippomano, commissioned the Venetian Gothic portico with steps and ramps leading down the hill in 1487.
In the principal square (Piazza della Libertà) stands the town hall (Loggia del Lionello) built in 1448–1457 in the Venetian-Gothic style opposite a clock tower (Torre dell'Orologio) resembling that of the Piazza San Marco at Venice. It was begun in 1448 on a project by Nicolò Lionello, a local goldsmith, and was rebuilt following a fire in 1876. The new design was projected by the architect Andrea Scala.
Opposite the Loggia del Lionello is the Loggia di San Giovanni, a Renaissance structure designed by Bernardino da Morcote. Other noteworthy monuments in the square are the Fountain by Giovanni Carrara, an architect from Bergamo (1542); the Columns bearing the Venetian Lion and the Statue of Justice (1614), the statues of Hercules and Cacus and the Statue of Peace (1819) which was donated to Udine by Emperor Francis I to commemorate the peace Treaty of Campoformido.
The Cathedral of Udine is an imposing edifice whose construction started in 1236, on a Latin cross-shaped plan with three naves and chapels along the sides. The church was consecrated in 1335 as Santa Maria Maggiore. At the beginning of the 18th century a radical transformation project involving both the exterior and the interior was undertaken at the request and expense of the Manin family. The Baroque interior has monumental dimensions and contains many works of art by Tiepolo, Amalteo, and Ludovico Dorigny. On the ground floor of the bell tower (built from 1441 over the ancient baptistry) is a chapel which is completely adorned with frescoes by Vitale da Bologna (1349).
The centre of Udine is dominated by the castle, built by the Venetians from 1517 over a Lombard fortification ruined by an earthquake in 1511. The current Renaissance appearance dates from the intervention of Giovanni da Udine, who finished the works starting from 1547. The castle houses one of the most ancient Parliament Halls of Europe.
Udine has a university, the University of Udine. The archbishop's palace and the Museo Civico have quite important paintings. The city has a theater, the Teatro Giovanni da Udine.
Important festivals include the wine-and-food September festival, Friuli D.O.C., the national literary prize for non-fiction Premio Friuli Storia and the biggest European festival of popular East Asian cinema, the Far East Film Festival, in April.
Asteroid 33100 Udine was named in honour of the city.
Along with Italian, Friulian is often spoken in Udine, as well as a variant of Venetian (called Venetin) that is however in decline.
Udine is important for commerce, with several commercial centers in the hinterland. There are also iron and mechanical industries (Danieli and ABS are the most important).
With 7,600,000 travelling people every year, Udine railway station is the most important station in Friuli-Venezia Giulia. Train services operate to Venice, Treviso, Trieste, Gemona del Friuli, Tarvisio, Cividale del Friuli, Padua, Bologna, Rome, Verona and Milan. International trains operate to Vienna and Munich.
The main football club in the city is Udinese Calcio, founded in 1896, who play in the Serie A (2019–2020 season). Their ground, the Stadio Friuli, was a venue at the 1990 FIFA World Cup.
The local basketball team, APU GSA, played in the second national league, the LegaDue.
Udine is twinned with:
Friuli Venezia Giulia is one of the 20 regions of Italy, and one of five autonomous regions with special statute. The regional capital is Trieste.
Friuli is an area of Northeast Italy with its own particular cultural and historical identity containing 600,000 Friulians. It comprises the major part of the autonomous region Friuli Venezia Giulia, i.e. the administrative provinces of Udine, Pordenone, and Gorizia, excluding Trieste.
Gorizia, English (obsolete) also "Goritz", is a town and comune in northeastern Italy, in the autonomous region of Friuli Venezia Giulia. It is located at the foot of the Julian Alps, bordering Slovenia. It was the capital of the former Province of Gorizia and is a local center of tourism, industry, and commerce. Since 1947, a twin town of Nova Gorica has developed on the other side of the modern-day Italian–Slovenian border. The entire region was subject to territorial dispute between Italy and Yugoslavia after World War II: after the new boundaries were established in 1947 and the old town was left to Italy, Nova Gorica was built on the Yugoslav side. Taken together, the two towns constitute a conurbation, which also includes the Slovenian municipality of Šempeter-Vrtojba. Since May 2011, these three towns have been joined in a common trans-border metropolitan zone, administered by a joint administration board.
Cividale del Friuli is a town and comune in the Province of Udine, part of the North-Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia regione. The town lies 135 metres (443 ft) above sea-level in the foothills of the eastern Alps, 15 kilometres (9 mi) by rail from the city of Udine and close to the Slovenian border. It is situated on the river Natisone, which forms a picturesque ravine here. Formerly an important regional power, it is today a quiet, small town that attracts tourists thanks to its medieval center.
The province of Pordenone was a province in the autonomous region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia in Italy. Its capital was the city of Pordenone. The province was subdivided from the province of Udine in 1968. It had a total population of 312,794 inhabitants. The province was abolished on 30 September 2017.
The province of Udine was a province in the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia of Italy, bordering Austria and Slovenia. Its capital was the city of Udine, which has a population of 99,242 inhabitants. It had a total population of 530,849 inhabitants over an area of 4,907.24 square kilometres (1,894.70 sq mi). The province was abolished on 30 September 2017.
Venezia Giulia, traditionally called Julian March or Julian Venetia is an area of southeastern Europe which is currently divided among Croatia, Italy and Slovenia. The term was coined in 1863 by the Italian linguist Graziadio Isaia Ascoli, a native of the area, to demonstrate that the Austrian Littoral, Veneto, Friuli and Trentino shared a common Italian linguistic identity. Ascoli emphasized the Augustan partition of Roman Italy at the beginning of the Empire, when Venetia et Histria was Regio X.
The flag of Friuli is the official standard of historical Friuli. A Friuli-Venezia Giulia Autonomous Regional law describes the flag as consisting of “…a rectangular standard featuring at its centre a golden heraldic eagle with outspread wings, headturned to the left, open beak and red claws, set in a sky blue field. The crest covers three fifths of the height of the flag, which in turn is two thirds of its length.”
Chiusaforte is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia.
Lusevera is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located about 80 kilometres (50 mi) northwest of Trieste and about 20 kilometres (12 mi) north of Udine, on the border with Slovenia, and borders the following municipalities: Gemona del Friuli, Kobarid (Slovenia), Montenars, Nimis, Resia, Taipana, Tarcento, and Venzone.
Prepotto is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located about 50 kilometres (31 mi) northwest of Trieste and about 20 kilometres (12 mi) east of Udine, on the border with Slovenia. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 894 and an area of 33.2 square kilometres (12.8 sq mi).
San Pietro al Natisone is a comune (municipality) in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located about 60 kilometres (37 mi) northwest of Trieste and about 20 kilometres (12 mi) northeast of Udine, and borders the following municipalities: Cividale del Friuli, San Leonardo, Savogna, Prepotto, Pulfero, and Torreano. Until 1878, its official name was San Pietro degli Slavi, that is "Saint Peter of the Slavs".
Taipana is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located about 80 kilometres (50 mi) northwest of Trieste and about 20 kilometres (12 mi) northeast of Udine, on the border with Slovenia. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 737 and an area of 65.6 square kilometres (25.3 sq mi). According to the census 1971 74,4% of the population are Slovenes.
Torreano is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located about 60 kilometres (37 mi) northwest of Trieste and about 15 kilometres (9 mi) northeast of Udine, on the border with Slovenia. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 2,301 and an area of 34.9 square kilometres (13.5 sq mi). According to the census 1971 24,5% of the population are Slovenes.
Venzone is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia.
Friuli-Venezia Giulia wine is wine made in the northeastern Italian region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia. Once part of the Venetian Republic and with sections under the influence of the Austro-Hungarian Empire for some time, the wines of the region have noticeable Slavic and Germanic influences. There are 11 Denominazione di origine controllata (DOC) and 3 Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia area. The region has 3 Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT) designations Alto Livenza, delle Venezie and Venezia Giulia. Nearly 62% of the wine produced in the region falls under a DOC designation. The area is known predominantly for its white wines which are considered some of the best examples of Italian wine in that style. Along with the Veneto and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, the Friuli-Venezia Giulia forms the Tre Venezie wine region which ranks with Tuscany and Piedmont as Italy's world class wine regions.
Lago del Predil is a lake near Cave del Predil, part of the Tarvisio municipality in the Province of Udine, in the Italian region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia.
Slovene minority in Italy, also known as Slovenes in Italy is the name given to Italian citizens who belong to the autochthonous Slovene ethnic and linguistic minority living in the Italian autonomous region of Friuli – Venezia Giulia. The vast majority of members of the Slovene ethnic minority live in the Provinces of Trieste, Gorizia, and Udine. Estimates of their number vary significantly; the official figures show 52,194 Slovenian speakers in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, as per the 1971 Census, but Slovenian estimates speak of 83,000 to 100,000 people.
Slavia Friulana, which means Friulian Slavia, is a small mountainous region in northeastern Italy and it is so called because of its Slavic population which settled here in the 8th century AD. The territory is located in the Italian region of Friuli Venezia Giulia, between the town of Cividale del Friuli and the Slovenian border.
Piazza Libertà, also known as Piazza della Libertà is the oldest square in Udine, in Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, Italy. The square sits in the open space below Udine Castle.
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|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Udine .|