Ueda Castle

Last updated
Ueda Castle
上田城
Ueda, Nagano Prefecture, Japan
Ueda Castle Amagafuchi.jpg
Ueda Castle
Coordinates Coordinates: 36°24′15″N138°14′39″E / 36.40413°N 138.24427°E / 36.40413; 138.24427
Typehilltop-style Japanese castle
Site information
Open to
the public
yes
Conditionpartially reconstructed
Site history
Built1583
Built by Sanada Masayuki
In use Sengoku - Edo period
Demolished1874

Ueda Castle (上田城, Ueda-jō) is a Japanese castle located in Ueda, northern Nagano Prefecture, Japan. At the end of the Edo period, Ueda Castle was home to a cadet branch of the Matsudaira clan, daimyō of Ueda Domain, but the castle is better known for its association with the Sengoku period Sanada clan. It was also called Amagafuji-jō or Matsuo-jō. The castle was designated a National Historic Site of Japan in 1934. [1]

Contents

Situation

plan of Ueda Castle Burg Ueda Plan.jpg
plan of Ueda Castle

Ueda Castle is located on a hill overlooking a branch of the Chikuma River at the northeast edge of the Nagano plain, which forms part of its southern defences and acts as a moat.

The Central Bailey (Hon-Maru) [1] originally had seven two-story yagura , but no tenshu and was protected by a moat as well as stone ramparts. The Central Bailey is also surrounded by a Second Bailey (Ni-no-Maru) [2], also with moats and earthen ramparts. The adjacent Third Bailey (San-no-maru) [3], had additional yagura, of which only the foundation bases remain, and contained the main residence of the daimyō [R] (which was also protected by a moat), gardens [G] and work area [A], and the main gate (Ōtemon) of the castle [H]. Most of the area of the former Third Bailey is now occupied by the Ueda High School.

History

During the Sengoku period, the area around Ueda was under the control of the Sanada clan, a minor local warlord in the service of the Takeda clan. After the fall of the Takeda clan to the combined forces of Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu, the Sanada switched side with bewildering rapidity between the Uesugi clan, the Hōjō clan, Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi in an effort to preserve their territory and independence. Ueda Castle was constructed in 1583 by Sanada Masayuki with the assistance of his then-ally, Tokugawa Ieyasu as a stronghold against Uesugi Kagekatsu; however it came under attack by the Tokugawa in 1585 after Masayuki switched sides again join the Uesugi. The greatly outnumbered Sanada defeated the forces of Tokugawa Ieyasu in the Battle at Kami River, which greatly enhanced Sanada Masayuki’s reputation. [2]

However, under Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the Sanada were forced to submit fealty to Tokugawa Ieyasu and Sanada Masayuki's first son, Sanada Nobuyuki, was married to Komatsuhime, an adopted daughter of Ieyasu; while his second son, Sanada Yukimura (Nobushige), was married to Chikurin-in, an adopted daughter of Hideyoshi. After the death of Hideyoshi, the Tokugawa ordered the Sanada to participate in their invasion of Aizu against the Uesugi clan. Sanada Nobuyuki chose to remain on the Tokugawa side, while Sanada Masayuki and his younger son, Sanada Yukimura chose to join the Toyotomi armies under Ishida Mitsunari against the Tokugawa. This led to the Siege of Ueda in 1600, a side battle to the Battle of Sekigahara. The army of Tokugawa Hidetada, while on their way to Sekigahara was ordered to reduce Ueda Castle along the away. Again, the greatly outnumbered Sanada forces inflicted severe casualties on the Tokugawa and delayed Hidetada so long that he was forced to break off the siege and his forces thus arrived at Sekigahara too late to make a contribution to the battle. [2]

After the Battle of Sekigahara and the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate, Sanada Masayuki submitted to Tokugawa Ieyasu, but was dispossessed and Ueda Castle was partially demolished. Sanada Nobuyuki was made daimyō of Ueda Domain, and returned to build a residence in the former San-no-maru area. He was transferred to nearby Matsushiro Domain in 1622, and replaced by the Sengoku clan, who rebuilt parts of the Main Bailey and Second Bailey from 1628, but the tenshu was not restored. The Sengoku were in turn replaced by a branch of the Matsudaira clan in 1706, who remained in control of the castle until the end of the Edo period. [2]

Following the Meiji restoration and the abolition of the han system, the castle was dismantled, leaving only the stone ramparts and one yagura. The site was made into a public park, with two Shinto shrines (one dedicated to the Sanada clan, and the other to the war dead), and a local history museum. In 1949, two yagura were reconstructed, and in the 1990s one of the gates was rebuilt. [2]

Ueda Castle was listed as one of the 100 Fine Castles of Japan by the Japan Castle Foundation in 2006. [3] The castle is a ten-minute walk from Ueda Station on the Nagano Shinkansen.

See also

Literature

Related Research Articles

Battle of Sekigahara Major battle in 17th-century Japan

The Battle of Sekigahara was a decisive battle on October 21, 1600 in what is now Gifu prefecture, Japan, at the end of the Sengoku period. This battle was fought by the forces of Tokugawa Ieyasu against a coalition of Toyotomi loyalist clans, several of which defected before or during the battle, leading to a Tokugawa victory. The Battle of Sekigahara was the largest and most important battle of Japanese feudal history, and led to the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate.

Sanada Masayuki

Sanada Masayuki was a Japanese Sengoku period lord and daimyō. He was the head of Sanada clan, a regional house of Shinano Province, which became a vassal of the Takeda clan of Kai Province.

Sanada Yukimura

Sanada Yukimura, actual name: Sanada Nobushige, was a Japanese samurai warrior of the Sengoku period. He was especially known as the leading general on the defending side of the Siege of Osaka. Yukimura was called "A Hero who may appear once in a hundred years", "Crimson Demon of War" and "The Last Sengoku Hero". The famed veteran of the invasion of Korea, Shimazu Tadatsune, called him the "Number one warrior in Japan" (日本一の兵).

Aizuwakamatsu Castle

Aizu-Wakamatsu Castle, also known as Tsuruga Castle is a concrete replica of a traditional Japanese castle in northern Japan, at the center of the city of Aizuwakamatsu, in Fukushima Prefecture.

Matsumoto Castle

Matsumoto Castle, originally known as Fukashi Castle, is one of Japan's premier historic castles, along with Himeji and Kumamoto. The building is also known as the "Crow Castle" due to its black exterior. It was the seat of Matsumoto Domain under the Edo Period Tokugawa shogunate. It is located in the city of Matsumoto, in Nagano Prefecture and is within easy reach of Tokyo by road or rail.

Sanada Nobuyuki

Sanada Nobuyuki was a Japanese samurai of the Sengoku period. He was the son of daimyō Sanada Masayuki and the older brother of Sanada Yukimura.

Komatsuhime

Komatsuhime (小松姫) was a female warrior (onna-musha) during late-Sengoku period and early Edo period. Born the daughter of Honda Tadakatsu, she was adopted by Tokugawa Ieyasu, before marrying Sanada Nobuyuki. She is described as having been very beautiful, highly intelligent and skillful in fighting.

Sengoku Hidehisa

Sengoku Hidehisa, childhood name Gonbei (権兵衛) was a samurai warrior of the Sengoku period and the Edo period. He was the head of the Komoro Domain in Shinano Province. Hidehisa is also credited with being the man who captured the legendary outlaw hero "Ishikawa Goemon".

Ueda Domain

Ueda Domain was a feudal domain under the Tokugawa shogunate of Edo period Japan. It is located in Shinano Province, Honshū. The domain was centered at Ueda Castle, located in what is now part of the city of Ueda in Nagano Prefecture.

Matsushiro Domain Japanese historical estate in Shinano province

Matsushiro Domain was a feudal domain under the Tokugawa shogunate of Edo period Japan. It is located in Shinano Province, Honshū. The domain was centered at Matsushiro Castle, located in what is now part of the city of Nagano in Nagano Prefecture.

Sanada clan

The Sanada clan is a Japanese clan. The Sanada were long associated with Matsushiro Domain in modern-day Nagano (city), Nagano Prefecture.

Iwabitsu Castle

Iwabitsu Castle is a "yamashiro"-style (castle located on Mount Iwabitsu in Higashiagatsuma, Gunma Prefecture, Japan. The ruins have been protected by the central government as a National Historic Site since 2019.

Shibata Castle

Shibata Castle is a flatland-style Japanese castle located in the city of Shibata, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Throughout the Edo period, Shibata Castle was home to the Mizoguchi clan, daimyō of Shibata Domain. The castle was also known as "Ayame-jō".

Yamagata Castle

Yamagata Castle is a flatland-style Japanese castle located in the center of the city of Yamagata, eastern Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. Throughout the Edo period, Yamagata Castle was the headquarters for the daimyō of Yamagata Domain. The castle was also known as "Ka-jō" (霞城). The castle grounds are protected as a National Historic Site by the Japanese government

<i>Sanada Maru</i> (TV series) 2016 taiga drama about the samurai Sanada Nobushige

Sanada Maru (真田丸) is a 2016 Japanese historical drama television series and the 55th NHK taiga drama. The series is named after the Sanada Maru, a fortification defended by Sanada during the Siege of Osaka in 1615. Written by Kōki Mitani, it stars Masato Sakai as the samurai Sanada Nobushige. It premiered on January 10, 2016 and concluded on December 18, 2016.

Takada Castle Edo period flatland-style Japanese castle

Takada Castle) was an Edo period flatland-style Japanese castle located in what is now the center of the city of Jōetsu, Niigata Prefecture in the Hokuriku region of Honshu, Japan. Under the Tokugawa shogunate, it was the centre of Takada Domain.

Matsushiro Castle

Matsushiro Castle, formerly known as Kaizu Castle, is a Japanese castle located in former Matsushiro town, now part of The site is a registered National Historic Site of Japan.

Takatō Castle

Takatō Castle is a Japanese castle located in the city of Ina, southern Nagano Prefecture, Japan. At the end of the Edo period, Takatō Castle was home to a cadet branch of the Naitō clan, daimyō of Takatō Domain. The castle was also known as Kabuto Castle. Built sometime in the 16th century, it is now largely ruins.

Takashima Castle

Takashima Castle is a Japanese castle located in Suwa, central Nagano Prefecture, Japan. At the end of the Edo period, Takashima Castle was home to the Suwa clan, daimyō of Takashima Domain. The castle is also known as ’The Floating Castle of Suwa’’’ or Shimazaki Castle

Chikurin-in (竹林院) was a Japanese noble lady of the late Azuchi-Momoyama through early Edo period. She was Ōtani Yoshitsugu's daughter, then she was adopted by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, before marrying Sanada Yukimura (Nobushige). She is described as having been very beautiful. They had two sons and four daughters.

References

  1. "上田城跡" [Ueda-jō ato] (in Japanese). Agency for Cultural Affairs . Retrieved August 20, 2020.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  2. 1 2 3 4 Isomura, Yukio; Sakai, Hideya (2012). (国指定史跡事典) National Historic Site Encyclopedia. 学生社. ISBN   4311750404.(in Japanese)
  3. Japan Castle Foundation (in Japanese)