Ufa

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Ufa

Уфа
Other transcription(s)
  BashkirӨфө
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Views of Ufa
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Flag
Coat of arms of Ufa.svg
Coat of arms
Anthem: none [2]
Location of Ufa
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Ufa
Location of Ufa
Outline Map of Bashkortostan 2.svg
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Ufa
Ufa (Bashkortostan)
Coordinates: 54°44′N56°00′E / 54.733°N 56.000°E / 54.733; 56.000 Coordinates: 54°44′N56°00′E / 54.733°N 56.000°E / 54.733; 56.000
Country Russia
Federal subject Bashkortostan [1]
Founded1574 [3]
City status since1586 [4]
Government
  BodyCity Council [5]
  Head [5] Ulfat Mustafin [6]
Area
[7]
  Total707.93 km2 (273.33 sq mi)
Elevation
150 m (490 ft)
Population
  Total1,062,319
  Estimate 
(2018) [9]
1,120,547 (+5.5%)
  Rank 11th in 2010
  Density1,500/km2 (3,900/sq mi)
  Subordinated to city of republic significance of Ufa [1]
  Capital ofRepublic of Bashkortostan [10]
   Capital ofcity of republic significance of Ufa [1] , Ufimsky District [11]
  Urban okrugUfa Urban Okrug [12]
   Capital ofUfa Urban Okrug [12] , Ufimsky Municipal District [12]
Time zone UTC+5 (MSK+2 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg [13] )
Postal code(s) [14]
450000–450010, 450013–450015, 450017–450019, 450022, 450024, 450026–450030, 450032–450035, 450037–450040, 450043–450045, 450047, 450049–450059, 450061–450065, 450068, 450069, 450071, 450073–450081, 450083, 450091–450093, 450095–450101, 450103–450106, 450880, 450890, 450911–450948, 450951–450966, 450971–450979, 450981–450986, 450989–450999, 901139, 901229, 992200
Dialing code(s) +7 347
OKTMO ID80701000001
Twin towns Ankara, Halle (Saale), Chelyabinsk OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
Website ufacity.info

Ufa (Russian :Уфа́, tr. Ufá,IPA:  [ʊˈfa] ; Bashkir : Өфө; Bashkir pronunciation:  [ʏ̞ˈfʏ̞] , Loudspeaker.svg pronunciation  ) is the capital city of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, and the industrial, economic, scientific and cultural center of the republic. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,062,319, [8] making it the eleventh most populous city in Russia.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

Romanization of Russian Romanization of the Russian alphabet

Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin script.

Bashkir language Turkic language in Russia

Bashkir is a Turkic language belonging to the Kipchak branch. It is co-official with Russian in Bashkortostan. It is spoken by approximately 1.2 million native speakers in Russia. It has three dialect groups: Southern, Eastern and Northwestern.

Contents

History

Gerardus Mercator's map of Europe with Pascherti (Bashkort) settlement presumably in the position of modern Ufa. The map was compiled in 1554, twenty years before the official date of the foundation of Ufa. Atlas Cosmographicae (Mercator) 035.jpg
Gerardus Mercator's map of Europe with Pascherti (Bashkort) settlement presumably in the position of modern Ufa. The map was compiled in 1554, twenty years before the official date of the foundation of Ufa.

Early history of the surrounding area of Ufa dates back to Paleolithic times. [16] Presumably, from the 5th to the 16th century there was a medieval city on the site of Ufa. [17] On the Pizzigano brothers' map (1367) [18] and on the Catalan Atlas (1375) [19] a town approximately on the Belaya River was designated Pascherti (Bashkort), [20] and Gerardus Mercator's map (1554) also marked the settlement with the Pascherti name. French orientalist Henri Cordier associates the position of Pascherti with the current location of Ufa. [15]

Paleolithic Hominin events for the last 10 million years

The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic, also called the Old Stone Age, is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 99% of human technological prehistory. It extends from the earliest known use of stone tools by hominins c. 3.3 million years ago, to the end of the Pleistocene c. 11,650 cal BP.

Domenico and Francesco Pizzigano, known as the Pizzigani brothers, were 14th-century Venetian cartographers. Their surname is sometimes given as Pizigano in older sources.

Catalan Atlas Atlas from the 14th century attributed to Abraham Cresques

The Catalan Atlas is a Medieval world map or mappamundi created in 1375, which has been described as the most important map of the medieval period in the Catalan language, and as "the zenith of medieval map-work". Despite its name, it is not an atlas.

Ibn Khaldun called the town, among the largest cities of the Golden Horde, Bashkort. [21]

Ibn Khaldun 14th-century Arab historiographer and historian

Ibn Khaldun was a leading Tunisian Arab historiographer and historian. He is widely considered as a forerunner of the modern disciplines of historiography, sociology, economics, and demography.

Golden Horde Mongol Khanate

The Golden Horde, Ulug Ulus was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. It is also known as the Kipchak Khanate or as the Ulus of Jochi.

Russian historian of the 18th century Peter Rychkov wrote that there was a great city on the territory of Ufa before the arrival of the Russians. [22]

The official of the Orenburg Governorate government Vasily Rebelensky wrote that Ufa was founded by the Bashkirs. [23]

Orenburg Governorate governorate of the Russian Empire

Orenburg Governorate was an administrative division of the Russian Empire with the center in the city of Orenburg.

Early color photograph of Ufa taken in 1910 by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky Ufa prokudin.jpg
Early color photograph of Ufa taken in 1910 by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky

By order of Ivan the Terrible a fortress was built on the site of modern Ufa in 1574, [24] and originally bore the name of the hill it stood on, Tura-Tau. [25] 1574 is now considered to be the official date of Ufa's foundation. [3] Town status was granted to it in 1586. [4]

Ivan the Terrible Grand Prince of Moscow and 1st Tsar of Russia

Ivan IV Vasilyevich, commonly known as Ivan the Terrible, was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and the first Tsar of Russia from 1547 to 1584.

Before becoming the seat of a separate Ufa Governorate in 1781, the city, along with the rest of the Bashkir lands, was under the jurisdiction of the Orenburg governors. And even though the 1796 reform reunited Orenburg and Ufa again, in 1802 the city of Ufa became a new center of the entire Orenburg Governorate that included large territories of modern-day Republic of Bashkortostan, Orenburg Oblast, and Chelyabinsk Oblast. During the 1800-1810s, Scottish Russian architect William Heste developed a general city plan for Ufa as a regional capital shaping the modern outline of its historical center. [ citation needed ]

The Belaya River Waterway (1870) and the Samara-Zlatoust Railroad (1890) connected the city to the European part of the Russian Empire and stimulated development of the city's light industry. As a result, by 1913 the population of Ufa grew to 100,000. [ citation needed ] During World War II, following eastward Soviet retreat in 1941, the Abwehr operated in Ufa, 1941-1943 [26] , some German infiltration, occurred 1914-1943 in espionage, a number of industrial enterprises of the western parts of the Soviet Union were evacuated to Ufa. The city also became the wartime seat of the Soviet Ukrainian government. [ citation needed ]

During 9—10 July 2015 Ufa hosted summits of the BRICS group and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. [27]

Administrative and municipal status

Ufa is the capital of the republic [10] and, within the framework of the administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Ufimsky District, [11] even though it is not a part of it. [1] As an administrative division, it is, together with twenty-four rural localities, incorporated separately as the city of republic significance of Ufa, an administrative unit with status equal to that of the districts. [1] As a municipal division, the city of republic significance of Ufa is incorporated as Ufa Urban Okrug. [12]

Economy

National Bank of Bashkortostan National Bank in Ufa.jpg
National Bank of Bashkortostan

According to Forbes, in 2013, Ufa was the best city in Russia for business among cities with population over one million. [28]

Many urban enterprises engaged in oil refining, chemistry, and mechanical engineering reside in Ufa. Additionally, the economy of Ufa is composed of many fuel, energy, and engineering complexes.

Ufa is home to about 200 large and medium industrial enterprises. [29]

Some important enterprises in Ufa include:

Transportation

Ufa is linked by railways to the rest of Russia, having a railway station on a historic branch of the Trans-Siberian Railway. Ufa is the only city connected to Moscow by more than one federal highway. The M7 motorway links the city to Kazan and Moscow and the M5 motorway links Ufa to Moscow and to the Asian part of Russia.

The Ufa International Airport has international flights to Turkey, Tajikistan, Egypt, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, and Cyprus as well as domestic flights to many Russian cities and towns, including Moscow.

The Ufa Metro is a planned and oft-delayed subway system, discussed since the late 1980s. On May 30, 1996, there was a ceremony marking the beginning of preparatory construction work, attended by then-President Boris Yeltsin. [32]

Public transportation in Ufa includes trams (since 1937) and trolleybuses (since 1962), as well as bus and marshrutka (routed cabs) lines.[ citation needed ]

Demographics

Ufa population
2010 Census 1,062,319 [8]
2002 Census 1,042,437 [33]
1989 Census 1,082,052 [34]
1979 Census 969,289 [35]

The population of Ufa exceeded one million in 1980.[ citation needed ]

As of the 2010 Census, the ethnic composition of Ufa was:[ citation needed ]

EthnicityPercentage
Russians 48.9%
Tatars 28.3%
Bashkirs 17.1%
Ukrainian 1.2%
others4.5%

Geography

Ufa is situated in eastern Europe near its land boundary with Asia, at the confluence of the Belaya (Agidel) and Ufa Rivers, on low hills forming the Ufa Plateau to the west of the southern Urals. The area of the city is 707.93 square kilometers (273.33 sq mi). [7] It stretches from north to south for 53.5 kilometers (33.2 mi) and from west to east for 29.8 kilometers (18.5 mi). [7]

Climate

Ufa has a warm summer continental climate (Köppen: Dfb) at the same time as the parallel is the northern boundary of this climate in the Canadian prairies. Strict winters but in some cases summers can be quite hot. [36] In terms of temperature is very similar to International Falls, Minnesota. [37]

Climate data for Ufa, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1921–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)5.8
(42.4)
9.2
(48.6)
16.2
(61.2)
31.1
(88.0)
36.2
(97.2)
38.3
(100.9)
38.6
(101.5)
38.5
(101.3)
33.4
(92.1)
26.8
(80.2)
15.4
(59.7)
5.0
(41.0)
38.6
(101.5)
Average high °C (°F)−8.2
(17.2)
−6.8
(19.8)
0.2
(32.4)
10.9
(51.6)
19.9
(67.8)
24.6
(76.3)
25.9
(78.6)
23.5
(74.3)
17.2
(63.0)
8.7
(47.7)
−1.0
(30.2)
−6.9
(19.6)
9.0
(48.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)−12.3
(9.9)
−11.8
(10.8)
−5.1
(22.8)
5.2
(41.4)
13.2
(55.8)
18.1
(64.6)
19.7
(67.5)
17.2
(63.0)
11.3
(52.3)
4.6
(40.3)
−4.2
(24.4)
−10.7
(12.7)
3.8
(38.8)
Average low °C (°F)−17.0
(1.4)
−17.0
(1.4)
−10.4
(13.3)
−0.1
(31.8)
6.8
(44.2)
11.9
(53.4)
13.7
(56.7)
11.6
(52.9)
6.5
(43.7)
1.1
(34.0)
−7.5
(18.5)
−14.9
(5.2)
−1.3
(29.7)
Record low °C (°F)−48.5
(−55.3)
−43.5
(−46.3)
−34.4
(−29.9)
−27.8
(−18.0)
−9.7
(14.5)
−1.2
(29.8)
1.4
(34.5)
−0.1
(31.8)
−6.8
(19.8)
−25.6
(−14.1)
−35.1
(−31.2)
−45.0
(−49.0)
−48.5
(−55.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches)48
(1.9)
39
(1.5)
32
(1.3)
33
(1.3)
47
(1.9)
67
(2.6)
55
(2.2)
58
(2.3)
51
(2.0)
58
(2.3)
52
(2.0)
51
(2.0)
590
(23.2)
Average rainy days33612161615161818114138
Average snowy days25211661000182024122
Average relative humidity (%)83807769616871747679838375
Mean monthly sunshine hours 59961552162802882892521668250401,973
Source #1: Погода и Климат [38]
Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990) [39]

Governance

House of Republic or Bashkir White House BashkirWhiteHouse.jpg
House of Republic or Bashkir White House
Local government

The bodies of local self-government of Ufa are:

Sports

Akbuzat racecourse. Named after the winged horse in the mythology of Bashkirs, analogue of Pegasus Ippodrom Akbuzat.jpg
Akbuzat racecourse. Named after the winged horse in the mythology of Bashkirs, analogue of Pegasus

[ citation needed ]

ClubSportFoundedCurrent LeagueLeague
Rank
Stadium
Salavat Yulaev Ufa Ice Hockey 1961 Kontinental Hockey League 1st Ufa Arena
Tolpar Ufa Ice Hockey 2009 Minor Hockey League Jr. 1st Ice Palace Salavat Yulaev
HC Agidel Ufa Ice Hockey 2010 Russian Women's Hockey League 1st Ice Palace Salavat Yulaev
FC Ufa Football 2009 Russian Premier League 1st Neftyanik Stadium
Ural Ufa Volleyball 1992 Volleyball Super League 1stDynamo Sports Palace
Samrau-UGNTU Volleyball 1970Women's Volleyball Super League2ndDynamo Sports Palace
Ugntu-VNZM Handball 1960 Russian Handball Super League 1stSports Complex UGNTU
Ufa-Alisa Handball 1989 Russian Women's Handball Super League 1stFOK Sports School 32
Ufimets Basketball 20123rdBGAU

Education and science

Bashkir State University, the main campus Bashkir State University at night.jpg
Bashkir State University, the main campus

Educational institutions include:

Graduate universities and law schools:

Scientific institutions include:

In Ufa there is the Ufa branch of the Financial University and the Ufa branch of the Russian State Economic University. Plekhanov, where there are practically no check digits for admissions to the budget. They are housed in good-quality buildings, but they don’t benefit from them to society, more and more often rumors are circulating about them that they are designed for siphoning money - since there are practically no budget places for economic specialties in Ufa. In the economic specialties of the magistracy, the plan for admission to Ufa universities is no more than 30 budget places.

Ecological problems

Periodically, a suffocating, unpleasant chemical smell is felt on the territory of the Ufa [43] [44] [45] . The media reports about the smell come out with an enviable regularity. All these reports are not groundless, and the culprits are getting out of responsibility due to the fact that there is no Continuous Emission Control System (CEMS) in the city.

Absence of cleaning streets, there are no street vacuum cleaners, road vacuum sweepers, industrial (street) vacuum cleaners on the streets. Unfortunately, there is a complete lack of cleaning in the city.

According to the letter of the Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Roshydromet) No. 20-18 / 218 of 11.07.18: "In the framework of solving problems at the federal level in the implementation of the state monitoring of atmospheric air, the territorial office of Roshydromet - FGBU Bashkir UGMS monitors pollution of atmospheric air in Ufa at 9 stationary posts of the state observation network located in different parts of the city to estimate the level of air pollution generated by the total release and stationary and mobile sources of pollutants. Suspended substances (dust) are measured at all 9 posts of the state observation network. The results of observations of the pollutants content are presented on the official website of the Bashkir State Hydrometeorological Service in the section "Monitoring of environmental pollution" (http://www.meteorb.ru/monitorinu/air-pollution-ufa) daily and monthly. In 2017, the maximum single concentration of suspended solids reached 4.6 MPC m. in March 2017, at the address: Oktyabrya Ave., 141, located near the motorway with heavy traffic, and in April 2017 at the post: Dostoyevsky St., 102/1, located in the area of the industrial enterprise. During 2017 almost all posts of the state observation network recorded exceedances of a single concentration of suspended substances. At the same time, in order to implement regional state environmental oversight aimed at preventing, detecting and suppressing violations by public authorities, local authorities, and legal entities, individual entrepreneurs and citizens of requirements in the field of atmospheric air protection, under the Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment of the Republic Bashkortostan operates the State Bank of the Republic of Belarus "Office of State Analytical Control", to whose tasks, including GSI "organization of periodic environmental monitoring mobile laboratories in the areas where the population lives in the republic and in the zones of protective measures in the system of the general program of integrated environmental and sanitary-hygienic monitoring. " Going to the site http://www.meteorb.ru/monitoring/air-pollution-ufa found that all 9 posts of the state observational network of Roshydromet are located at a considerable distance from the area of Inors and Sipaylovo, from residential areas. Control of MPC and air quality in residential areas is not carried out.

Religion

The major religions in the city are Sunni Islam and Russian Orthodoxy. The Bezpopovtsy strain of Russian Old Believers is also registered in Ufa. [46]

Ufa is a place of location of The Central Spiritual Administration of Muslims of Russia  [ ru ]. In 1989, the Russian Islamic University was opened. One of the largest mosques in Europe, Ar-Rahim  [ ru ], is under construction in Ufa.

Notable people

Notable Ufa people include:

Zemfira, famous singer in Russia Zemfira v obraze Rakety (uchastnika gruppy The Uchpochmack) na vystuplenii v GKTsZ "Rossiia" v Luzhnikakh.jpg
Zemfira, famous singer in Russia

International relations

Ufa is twinned with:

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References

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Resolution #391
  2. The official website of Ufa does not list an anthem among the official symbols of the city.
  3. 1 2 Official website of Ufa. Brief Information About Ufa (in Russian)
  4. 1 2 Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 498. ISBN   5-7107-7399-9.
  5. 1 2 Charter of Ufa, Article 18
  6. Official website of Ufa. Irek Ishmukhametovich Yalalov, Head of the Ufa Urban Okrug Administration (in Russian)
  7. 1 2 3 Official website of Ufa. Land Utilization (in Russian)
  8. 1 2 3 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  9. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.Cite web requires |website= (help)
  10. 1 2 Law #166-z
  11. 1 2 Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 80 252», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 80 252 , as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  12. 1 2 3 4 Law #162-z
  13. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  14. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  15. 1 2 «Mercator and Hondius (loth Ed., 1630) and N. Sanson (1650) show Jorman on the south of the Kama R., Pascherti in the position of Ufa, the present head-quarter of the Bashkirs, Sagatin ( = Fachatim of the text) at the head of the Ufa River, Marmorea on the Bielaya south of Ufa». — Cathay and the Way Thither: Being a Collection of Medieval Notices of China, Chʻeng-wen Publishing Company, 1967. Henri Cordier
  16. Главархитектура г. Уфы — История г. Уфы
  17. Псянчин А. В. Башкортостан на старых картах. Уфа, 2001. С 70, 71, Он же. Mons Et Urbis: Уральские горы и город Уфа в европейской средневековой картографической традиции//Архив Башкортостана, № 1. 2007. С. 17-23.
  18. Рудаков В. Г. К вопросу о двух столицах в Золотой Орде и местоположении города Гюлистана // Научное наследие А. П. Смирнова и современные проблемы археологии Волго-Камья. Материалы научной конференции. Труды ГИМ. Вып. 122. — М., 2000. — Рис. 1.
  19. Там же; Псянчин А. В. Башкортостан на старых картах. — Уфа, 2001. — С. 71.
  20. Мажитов Н.А,, Султанова А. Н. Сунгатов Ф. А. Башкирские города по арабским источникам IX—X вв. // Вестник АН РБ. 2008. Т. 13, № 2. С. 44-—48; Мажитов Н. А., Сунгатов Ф. А., Иванов В. А., Сатаров Т. Р., Султанова А. Н., Иванова Е. В. Городище Уфа II. Материалы раскопок 2006 года. Т. 1. Уфа, 2007. 160 с: ил.
  21. Золотая Орда в источниках. T.I. Арабские и персидские сочинения. М., 2003. С 169.
  22. Рычков П. И. История Оренбургская (1730—1750 гг.). Оренбург, 1896. С. 68,69.
  23. «Краткое описание губернского города Уфы с начала его построения до сего 1806 года». // Что ж касается башкирцев, то видно из многих описаний, как сего народа, так и о жительстве их, кои от различных возмущений, как и междоусобных воин, так и соседних своих народов, строили маленькие укрепления и городки и наконец, соединясь во множестве, распространили свои жилища и укрепления, а для сей причины и город Уфа построен.
  24. History of Ufa
  25. Beyond Moscow -Ufa. Khristina Narizhnaya, The Moscow Times, Oct. 16 2011
  26. As counterintelligence Ufa outwitted Abwehr (in Russian)
  27. Ufa – 2015 SCO BRICS. Official site
  28. 30 лучших городов для бизнеса — 2013 // Forbes.ru
  29. Ufa – capital of the Republic of Bashkortostan Archived May 29, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  30. http://www.interfax-russia.ru/Povoljie/news.asp?id=165284&sec=1679
  31. http://www.oaobtz.ru/
  32. Yeltsin lays cornerstone of first subway station Archived August 11, 2013, at the Wayback Machine , accessed June 6, 2013
  33. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000](XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  34. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 via Demoscope Weekly.
  35. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 г. Национальный состав населения по регионам России" [All Union Population Census of 1979. Ethnic composition of the population by regions of Russia](XLS). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года [All-Union Population Census of 1979] (in Russian). 1979 via Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics.
  36. "Ufa, Russia Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  37. "Average Weather in International Falls, Minnesota, United States, Year Round - Weather Spark". weatherspark.com. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  38. "Climate Ulan-Ude". Pogoda.ru.net. Retrieved May 15, 2019.Cite web requires |website= (help)
  39. "UFA 1961–1990". NOAA. Retrieved May 15, 2019.Cite web requires |website= (help)
  40. "Charter of the Urban Okrug of Ufa of the Republic of Bashkortostan". Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved July 3, 2010.Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help); Cite web requires |website= (help)
  41. [24.06.18г. Жители Уфы пожаловались на зловонный химзапах, взяты пробы. Источник: https://tdnu.ru/article/news/v-ufe-gorozhane-pozhalovalis-na-zlovonnyj-himicheskij-zapah/ ]
  42. [24.11.17г. Минэкологии Башкирии: Причина химического запаха в Уфе – пыль. Уфимцы из разных районов города жаловались на клубы пыли и запах серы.https://mkset.ru/news/city/24-11-2017/minekologii-bashkirii-prichina-himicheskogo-zapaha-v-ufe-pyl ]
  43. [09.06.16 г. Неприятный химический запах в городе, в чем причина? Источник материала: https://ufa1.ru/text/gorod/175662438797312.html]
  44. "БАШКОРТОСТАН". Православная Энциклопедия. Retrieved October 29, 2016.
  45. http://www.skysports.com/f1/news/24100/10270127/max-verstappen-and-daniil-kvyats-red-bull-swap-ted-kravitz-qa
  46. Ufa Soviet Cafeterias and IKEA Furniture The St. Petersburg Times

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