Uhna was a king of the ancient Anatolian city of Zalpuwa during the 17th century BC, who conquered the Hittite city of Neša. According to the Text of Anitta (KBo 3.22), he brought the statue of the god Siusum,from Neša to Zalpuwa. Several years later king Anitta brought this statue back to Neša.
The Hittites were an Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing first a kingdom in Kussara before 1750 BC, then the Kanesh or Nesha kingdom, and next an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1650 BC. This empire reached its height during the mid-14th century BC under Šuppiluliuma I, when it encompassed an area that included most of Anatolia as well as parts of the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia.
Kültepe, also known as Kanesh or Nesha, is an archaeological site in Kayseri Province, Turkey. The nearest modern city to Kültepe is Kayseri, about 20 km southwest. It consists of a tell, the actual Kültepe, and a lower town, where an Assyrian settlement was found. Its ancient names are recorded in Assyrian and Hittite sources. In Old Assyrian inscriptions from the 20th and the 19th century BCE, the city was mentioned as Kaneš (Kanesh); in later Hittite inscriptions, the city was mentioned as Neša, or occasionally as Aniša (Anisha). In 2014, the archaeological site was inscribed in the Tentative list of World Heritage Sites in Turkey. It is also the site of discovery of the earliest traces of the Hittite language, the earliest attestation of an Indo-European language, dated to the 20th century BCE.
Hittite, also known as Nesite, was an Indo-European language that was spoken by the Hittites, a people of Bronze Age Anatolia who created a mighty state, centred on Hattusa, as well as parts of the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia. The language, now long extinct, is attested in cuneiform, in records dating from the 17th to the 13th centuries BCE, with isolated Hittite loanwords and numerous personal names appearing in an Old Assyrian context from as early as the 20th century BCE, making it the earliest-attested of the Indo-European languages.
The Hattians were an ancient Bronze Age people, that inhabited the land of Hatti, in central Anatolia. They spoke a distinctive Hattian language, that was neither Semitic nor Indo-European. Hattians are attested by archeological records from the Early Bronze Age, and also by historical references in later Hittite and other sources. Their main center was the city of Hattush. Faced with Hittite expansion, Hattians were gradually absorbed into the new political and social order, imposed by the Hittites, who were one of the Indo-European-speaking Anatolian peoples. The Hittites kept the country name unchanged, which also became the main designation for the Hittite state.
Hattusa was the capital of the Hittite Empire in the late Bronze Age. Its ruins lie near modern Boğazkale, Turkey, within the great loop of the Kızılırmak River.
Lelluri was a Hurrian goddess worshiped in southeastern Anatolia and northern Syria.
Hattusili I was a king of the Hittite Old Kingdom. He reigned ca. 1650–1620 BCE as per middle chronology, the most accepted chronology nowadays, or alternatively ca. 1586–1556 BCE. Recent excavations in Zincirli Höyük, Southern Turkey, suggest that Hattusili I destroyed a complex at that site in the mid to late 17th century BCE, which can confirm the middle chronology dating for his reign. This event could have been part of his campaign against Zalpa in order to disrupt an exchange network connected to Aleppo that previously linked the Euphrates, North Syria, and Central Anatolia.
Pithana (Pythanas) was a Bronze Age king of the Anatolian city of Kussara, and forerunner of the later Hittite dynasty.
Tell Ta'yinat is a low-lying ancient tell on the east bank at the bend of the ancient Orontes river, in the Hatay province of southeastern Turkey about 25 kilometers south east of Antakya. It has been proposed as the site of Kinalua, the capital city of an Iron Age Neo-Hittite kingdom, and of biblical Calneh.
Ammuna was a King of the Hittites ca. 1486–1466 BC. The land seems to have suffered badly during his reign, and he lost a considerable amount of territory.
Anitta, son of Pithana, was a king of Kussara, a city that has yet to be identified. He is the earliest known ruler to compose a text in the Hittite language.
Alişar is a village in the district of Sorgun, Yozgat Province, Turkey. Near the village is the archaeological site of Alişar Hüyük.
Kussara (Kuššar) was a Bronze Age kingdom in Anatolia. The kingdom, though apparently important at one time, is mostly remembered today as the origin of the dynasty that would form the Old Hittite Kingdom.
The Museum of Anatolian Civilizations is located on the south side of Ankara Castle in the Atpazarı area in Ankara, Turkey. It consists of the old Ottoman Mahmut Paşa bazaar storage building, and the Kurşunlu Han. Because of Atatürk's desire to establish a Hittite museum, the buildings were bought upon the suggestion of Hamit Zübeyir Koşay, who was then Culture Minister, to the National Education Minister, Saffet Arıkan. After the remodelling and repairs were completed (1938–1968), the building was opened to the public as the Ankara Archaeological Museum.
Zalpuwa, also Zalpa, was a still-undiscovered Bronze Age city in Anatolia of around the 17th century BC. Its history is largely known from the Proclamation of Anitta, CTH 1. But the Zalpa mentioned in the Annals of Hattusili I, CTH 13, is now convincingly identified as Tilmen Höyük, in the Karasu River Valley south of the Taurus Mountains by Tubingen and Chicago Universities recent excavations.
Huzziya was the last recorded king of Zalpuwa. He was captured by Anitta the Hittite king of Kussara. Anitta had been confronted with what appears to have been a military alliance of states stretching southwards from Zalpa, an alliance in which Piyusti, the king of Hatti, and Huzziya, the king of Zalpa, played leading roles.
Piyusti or Piyušti was a king of Hattusa during the 17th century BC. He is mentioned in the Anitta text as being defeated by Anitta on at least two occasions.
The following is a list of regions of Ancient Anatolia, also known as "Asia Minor," in the present day Anatolia region of Turkey in Western Asia.
Purushanda was an ancient city-state in central Anatolia, lying south of the Kızılırmak River in what is now modern Turkey. Its site has yet to be discovered. It may have been situated south-east of Lake Tuz, possibly on the mound of Acemhöyük approximately 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) north-west of the city of Aksaray. Another possible location is the mound of Karahöyük near Konya.
Anitta may refer to: