Ukrainian Argentines

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Ukrainian Argentines
Ucraniano-argentinos
Ukrainianobera2.JPG
Ukrainian Argentines in parade in Misiones Province
Total population
305,000 [1] 0.75–1% of Argentina's population
Regions with significant populations
Buenos Aires Province, La Pampa Province, Misiones Province, Chaco province, Córdoba Province, Chubut Province
Languages
Religion
Related ethnic groups

Ukrainian Argentines (Ukrainian : Українці Аргентини, Ukrajintsi Arhentyny, Spanish: Ucranio-argentinos) are Argentine citizens of Ukrainian descent or Ukraine-born people who reside in Argentina. Ukrainian Argentines are an ethnic minority in Argentina; although the Argentine census does not provide data on ethnic origins, estimates of the Ukrainian population range from 305,000 (the latter figure making Ukrainians up to 1% of the total Argentine population). Many Ukrainian Argentines are of Jewish descent. [2] Currently, the main concentrations of Ukrainians in Argentina are in the Greater Buenos Aires area, with at least 100,000 people of Ukrainian descent, [3] the province of Misiones (the historical heartland of Ukrainian immigration to Argentina), with at least 55,000 Ukrainians, and the province of Chaco with at least 30,000 Ukrainians. [3] [4] In Misiones Province Ukrainians constitute approximately 9% of the province's total population. [3] In comparison to Ukrainians in North America, the Ukrainian community in Argentina (as well as in Brazil) tends to be more descended from earlier waves of immigration, is poorer, more rural, has less organizational strength, and is more focused on the Church as the center of cultural identity. [5] Most Ukrainian Argentines do not speak the Ukrainian language and have switched to Spanish, although they continue to maintain their ethnic identity. [6]

Contents

History

There were four waves of Ukrainian immigration to Argentina: pre-World War I, with about 10,000 to 14,000 immigrants, post-World War I to World War II, including approximately 50,000, post-World War II, with 5,000 immigrants, and the post-Soviet immigration, which is estimated to number approximately 4,000. [7]

Ukrainians harvesting yerba mate in Misiones province, 1920 Ukranian immigrants cropping yerba mate in Tres Capones, Misiones.jpg
Ukrainians harvesting yerba mate in Misiones province, 1920

The first wave of Ukrainian immigration to Argentina included 12-14 families from Eastern Galicia (at the time part of Austria-Hungary) in 1897. [7] [8] When the immigrants arrived in the country, the Argentine government sent them to the Misiones Province, where they settled in Apóstoles. [8] Their settlement here was part of the local governor's strategy of building up European immigration in his province as a way of preventing neighboring Brazil's claims on the region. [9] The settlers were granted land allotments of 123.6 acres, or 50 hectares (500,000 m2) in two identical lots, with one lot being used for agriculture and the other for cattle breeding. Initially, they struggled with adapting to climatic conditions quite different from those of their native Ukraine, and eventually largely switched to tending crops that were appropriate to their new homes, such as sugar cane, rice, tobacco, and especially yerba mate -an Argentinian beverage similar to the tea- as proper crops. Indeed, the first person to grow tea in the province of Misiones was Volodymyr Hnatiuk, a Ukrainian immigrant. [3] Ultimately, at least 10,000 Ukrainians from Galicia settled in Misiones before the onset of World War I. At this time, an estimated 4,000 Ukrainians also settled in Buenos Aires. [3]

The "Ukrainian House" in Obera, Misiones. This province was one of the largest recipients of Ukrainian immigrants in the country. Casa Ucraniana en Obera.JPG
The "Ukrainian House" in Oberá, Misiones. This province was one of the largest recipients of Ukrainian immigrants in the country.

The largest number of Ukrainians migrated to Argentina between the two world wars. This wave of emigrants, whose number is estimated at between 50,000 [7] and 70,000 people, [3] was much more geographically diverse, and included many people from Orthodox areas of Ukraine such as Volhynia and Bukovina. It also included more educated or politically oriented people who had been involved in Ukraine's struggle for independence. Approximately half of this wave of immigrants settled in Buenos Aires, while the remainder strengthened the Ukrainian population in Misiones Province or created new Ukrainian settlements in other agricultural regions such as in Chaco Province.

Approximately 5,000-6,000 Ukrainians fleeing Communism entered Argentina between 1946 and 1950. Many of them were university professors, military personnel, skilled workers, or technicians. Some of these educated immigrants contributed to the Argentine government's industrialization policies. [9]

Obera's Ukrainian Barvinok ballet cast. Parte del ballet ucraniano barvinok de obera misiones.jpg
Oberá's Ukrainian Barvinok ballet cast.

An estimated 3,000 highly educated Ukrainians, many from the third wave, left Argentina for the United States or Canada in the 1950s due to greater economic opportunities. Another 3,000 Ukrainians left Argentina for the Soviet Union during the late 1950s, after having been promised a "prosperous life in the homeland." Only a third of the latter group were able to return to Argentina. These demographic losses were compensated for by small numbers of Ukrainians moving to Argentina from Paraguay and Uruguay. [3]

Following the fall of the Soviet Union, since the 1990s approximately 4,000 Ukrainians have moved to Argentina from Ukraine. Although not as numerous as in the past, the Ukrainian immigration is still present. [9]

Society

Ukrainian performers during Immigrant's Festival in Misiones province Fiestadelinmigrante1.JPG
Ukrainian performers during Immigrant's Festival in Misiones province

Religion

Ukrainian Catholics

The first Ukrainians to Argentina who settled in Misiones came from a predominantly Catholic region of Ukraine, Galicia. However, the local Argentine (Latin Rite) Roman Catholic Church opposed the creation of a separate Ukrainian Catholic Church. As a result, for the first ten years of their settlement, Argentine Ukrainians Catholics did not have their own Eastern-rite Catholic priests, and were subject to intense missionary activities by Polish Roman Catholics. In response, many of them converted to Eastern Orthodoxy, whose rituals are virtually identical to those of Ukrainian Catholicism. Without the help of their Mother Church in Galicia, local Ukrainians built their own churches, chapels, and homes for priests, and petitioned church authorities in Galicia to send priests to them. Finally, in 1908, Father K. Bzhukhovsky was sent to Misiones from Brazil. He was succeeded in the province of Misiones by several more priests from Ukraine. In 1922, the Ukrainian parishes in Misiones were visited by the head of the Ukrainian Catholic Church, Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytsky of Lviv. The first Ukrainian Catholic Church in Buenos Aires region was built in 1940 and in the city in 1948. In 1978, the Ukrainian Catholic Church in Argentina was granted its own Eparchy (Eastern-rite equivalent of a diocese). Andriy Sapeliak was the first Ukrainian Bishop in Argentina. [3]

Currently, over 120,000 of Ukrainians in Argentina are Ukrainian Catholics, [10] comprising approximately 50% of Ukrainian Argentines. Misiones Province, the heartland of Ukrainian immigration to Argentina, has 60 Ukrainian Catholic Churches and chapels. [9] In April 1987 Pope John Paul II visited the Ukrainian Catholic community in Buenos Aires. [11]

Orthodox

The first Orthodox Ukrainians in Argentina were converts from the Ukrainian Catholic Church and came under the jurisdiction of the Russian Orthodox Church. Many Orthodox immigrants who came to Argentina from Ukraine between the World Wars, among whom were several priests, who created parishes in Buenos Aires and surrounding areas. The newcomers generally belonged to the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church. [3]

Approximately 30% of Ukrainian Argentines are currently Orthodox.

Others

The first Protestant Ukrainians were Baptists who emigrated to Argentina from Volyn in the 1920s. During the period when there was no Ukrainian Church in Argentina, many Ukrainians became accustomed to not being involved in any Church and did not return to their ancestral religion when the parishes were established.

Currently, 20% of Argentine Ukrainians are Protestant or indifferent to religion.

Education

A group of Ukrainian Argentine girls dancing. Fiestadelinmigrante2.JPG
A group of Ukrainian Argentine girls dancing.

Ukrainian all-day elementary and secondary schools, in which classes are taught in Spanish and follow the Argentine curriculum but also have Ukrainian subjects several times per week, exist in the cities of Apóstoles, Posadas, and Buenos Aires. Ukrainian all-day elementary schools exist in Berisso and San Vicente (both towns in the Buenos Aires region). These schools are all run by the Ukrainian Catholic Church. [3] In addition, Argentina's branch of the Prosvita operates Ukrainian Saturday schools.

Argentina's Ukrainian community also has several folk dancing ensembles, as well as the Ukrainian scouting organization Plast.

Notable Ukrainian Argentines

Ukrainian Argentine musician Chango Spasiuk performing in Warsaw, Poland in March 2009. Chango spasiuk Warszawa7mar2009.jpg
Ukrainian Argentine musician Chango Spasiuk performing in Warsaw, Poland in March 2009.

See also

Related Research Articles

Demographics of Argentina

This article is about the demographic features of Argentina, including population density, ethnicity, economic status and other aspects of the population.

Asian Argentine or Asian Argentinian, refers to Argentines of Asian ancestry who are citizens or residents of Argentina. Asian-Argentines settled in Argentina in large numbers during several waves of immigration in the twentieth century. Primarily living in their own neighbourhoods in Buenos Aires, many currently own their own businesses of varying sizes – largely textiles, grocery retailing and buffet-style restaurants. The small Asian-Argentine population has generally kept a low profile, and is accepted by greater Argentine society.

Oberá City in Misiones, Argentina

Oberá, formerly Svea, is a city in the interfluvial province of Misiones, Argentina, and the head town of the Oberá Department. It is located 96 km east of the provincial capital Posadas, on National Route 14, and about 1,150 km north of Buenos Aires. It has 63,960 inhabitants according to the 2010 census [INDEC].

Immigration to Argentina Population event

Immigration to Argentina began in several millennia BC with the arrival of cultures from Asia to the Americas through Beringia, according to the most accepted theories, and were slowly populating the American continent. Upon arrival of the Spaniards, the inhabitants of Argentine territory were approximately 300,000 people belonging to many civilizations, cultures and tribes.

Irish Argentines are Argentine citizens who are fully or partially of Irish descent. Irish emigrants from the Midlands, Wexford and many counties of Ireland arrived in Argentina mainly from 1830 to 1930, with the largest wave taking place in 1850–1870. The modern Irish-Argentine community is composed of some of their descendants, and the total number is estimated at 500,000–1,000,000.

The ethnography of Argentina makes this country, along with other areas of relatively modern settlement like United States, Canada, Brazil, Australia or New Zealand, a crisol de razas, or a melting pot of different peoples. In fact, immigration to Argentina was so strong that it eventually became the country with the second highest number of immigrants, with 6.6 million, second only to the United States with 27 million, and ahead of such other immigratory receptors such as Canada, Brazil and Australia.

History of the Jews in Argentina

The history of the Jews in Argentina goes back to the early sixteenth century, following the Jewish expulsion from Spain. Sephardi Jews fleeing persecution immigrated with explorers and colonists to settle in what is now Argentina. In addition, many of the Portuguese traders in the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata were Jewish. An organized Jewish community, however, did not develop until after Argentina gained independence from Spain in 1816. By mid-century, Jews from France and other parts of Western Europe, fleeing the social and economic disruptions of revolutions, began to settle in Argentina.

Armenian Argentine Ethnic group in Argentina

Armenian Argentines are ethnic Armenians who live in Argentina. Estimates vary, but between 70 and 120 thousand people of Armenian ancestry live in the country, forming one of the largest groups in the Armenian diaspora worldwide. The core of the population came from Cilicia, Syria and Lebanon. In Buenos Aires, the Armenian community is known to share their common culture with the Basque community through musical events and cultural activities.

German Argentines Argentine citizens of German descent

German Argentines are Argentine citizens of German ancestry. They are descendants of Germans who immigrated to Argentina from Germany and elsewhere in Europe. Some German Argentines originally settled in Brazil, then later immigrated to Argentina. Germany as a political entity was founded only in 1871, but immigrants from earlier dates are also considered German Argentines due to their shared ethnic heritage, language and culture. German Argentines today make up the fourth-largest ethnic group in Argentina, with over two million Volga Germans alone.

Polish Argentines are Argentine citizens of full or partial Polish ancestry or Poland-born people who reside in Argentina. Poland was the fourth largest net migrants contributor after Italy, Spain and Germany. Although it is hard to give an exact number of Polish immigrants to Argentina, as those who immigrated before 1919 carried German, Austrian or Russian passport, it is estimated that between 1921 and 1976, 169,335 Poles permanently settled in the country. Today there are 500,000 Argentines of Polish descent. The Polish minority in Argentina is both one of the most significant minorities in Argentina and one of the largest groups of Polish minority.

Argentina–Ukraine relations

Argentina–Ukraine relations refers to the diplomatic relations between Argentina and Ukraine. Both nations enjoy friendly relations, the importance of which centers on the history of Ukrainian migration to Argentina. Ukrainians in Argentina form the second largest Ukrainian community in Latin America numbering approximately 250,000 Ukrainians and their descendants. Both nations are members of the World Trade Organization.

Ukrainian Brazilians

Ukrainian Brazilians are Brazilian citizens born in Ukraine, or Brazilians of Ukrainian descent who remain connected, in some degree, to Ukrainian culture.

Croatian Argentines are Argentine citizens of Croatian descent or Croatian-born people who reside in Argentina. Croats and their descendants settled in Buenos Aires, the homonymous province, Santa Fe, Córdoba, Chaco, and Patagonia. Argentines of Croatian descent number over 250,000.

Ukrainians in Paraguay

Ukrainians in Paraguay are an ethnic minority in Paraguay. In the mid-1990s, 5,000 to 8,000 Ukrainians lived in Paraguay, clustered in small communities near the southeastern city of Encarnacion, which borders the Argentine province of Misiones. The majority of Ukrainians in Paraguay work as farmers, cultivating rice, corn, wheat and yerba mate.

Russian Argentines are people from Russia living in Argentina, and their Argentine-born descendants. The estimates of the number of Argentines of Russian descent vary between 170,000 and 350,000. They are mostly living in Buenos Aires and Greater Buenos Aires.

Austrian Argentines

Austrian Argentines are Argentine citizens of Austrian descent or Austrian-born people who emigrated to Argentina. Many Austrian descendants in Argentina arrived in the country from other parts of Europe when Austria was a unified kingdom with Hungary.

Azara, Misiones Municipality and village in Misiones Province, Argentina

Azara is a village and municipality in Misiones Province in north-eastern Argentina. It is considered an agricultural colony, having about 230 km². The municipality is located in the Apóstoles department, bordered by the municipalities of Apóstoles and Tres Capones in the same department, by the Sierra de Concepción in the Concepción Department and by the province of Corrientes.

Argentines People of the country of Argentina or who identify as culturally Argentine

Argentines are people identified with the country of Argentina. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Argentines, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Argentine.

Finnish Argentine is an Argentine person of full, partial or predominantly Finnish ancestry, or a Finnish-born person residing in Argentina.

The Ordinariate for Eastern (Rites) Catholics in Argentina or Argentina of the Eastern Rite is a Catholic Ordinariate for Eastern Catholic faithful, jointly for all Eastern Catholics, regardless of rite, living in Argentina.

References

  1. Ucrania.com (in Spanish)
  2. "Article". Ucrania.com (in Spanish). Archived from the original on February 7, 2005. Retrieved August 5, 2007.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Wasylyk, Mykola (1994). Ukrainians in Argentina (Chapter), in Ukraine and Ukrainians Throughout the World, edited by Ann Lencyk Pawliczko, University of Toronto Press: Toronto, pp. 420-443
  4. Hadamer, Hans Georg (January 25, 2007). "Argentine-Ukrainians or Ukrainian-Argentines: about two homelands". Instytut Ukrainoznavstva (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on October 7, 2008. Retrieved March 22, 2007.
  5. Subtelny, Orest. (1988). Ukraine: a History. University of Toronto Press: Toronto. pg. 566 ISBN   0-8020-5808-6
  6. Ukrainian Echo [ permanent dead link ] From the Life of the Ukrainian Diaspora in Misiones. Ihor Vasylyk. November 6, 2008. (in Ukrainian)
  7. 1 2 3 Kuropas, Myron B. (May 28, 2000). "Hola Argentina!". Ukrainian Weekly. Archived from the original on January 11, 2005. Retrieved March 22, 2007.
  8. 1 2 Yatsiv, Ihor. "Interview with Joseph Hazuda, about the UGCC in Argentina". Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on March 7, 2007. Retrieved March 22, 2007.
  9. 1 2 3 4 Michael Soltys. A different kind of multinational: Immigrants to Argentina from Eastern Europe Originally published in the Buenos Aires Herald, 1998.
  10. "Session of Permanent Synod to be held in Argentina". Ukrainian Catholic Archdiocese of Philadelphia. January 25, 2007. Retrieved March 22, 2007.
  11. Immigration in Argentina, accessed April 7, 2008 Archived March 24, 2008, at the Wayback Machine