The Ukrainian Carpathians (Ukrainian : Українські Карпати) are a section of the Eastern Carpathians, within the borders of modern Ukraine. They are located in the southwestern corner of Western Ukraine, within administrative territories of four Ukrainian regions (oblasts), covering northeastern part of Zakarpattia Oblast, southwestern part of Lviv Oblast, southern half of Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast and western half of Chernivtsi Oblast.
They are stretching in general northwest-southeast direction, starting at the tripartite border point of Ukraine with Poland and Slovakia, and continuing towards Ukrainian border with Romania. In terms of geological classification, Ukrainian Carpathians belong to two distinctive categories, with major part belonging to the Outer Eastern Carpathians and minor part to the Inner Eastern Carpathians.
Within different regional and national traditions, there are several overlapping variants of divisions and designations for various Eastern Carpathian mountain ranges. Within the wider scope of the Ukrainian Carpathians, a section of the Outer Eastern Carpathians spaning southeastern corner of Poland, northeastern corner of Slovakia and western part of Ukraine is commonly known as the Eastern Beskids (Ukrainian : Східні Бескиди; Polish : Beskidy Wschodnie), while in Slovakia the term Meadowed Mountains (Slovak : Poloniny) is also used for the same mountain range. The scope of those terms varies in accordance to different traditions and classifications.
Section of the Inner Eastern Carpathians, within Ukraine:
Section of the Outer Eastern Carpathians, within Ukraine:
Wooded Beskids (UA: Лісисті Бескиди):
Polonynian Beskids (UA: Полонинські Бескиди):
The geography of Ukraine varies greatly from one region of the country to another, with the majority of the country lying within the East European Plain. Ukraine is the second-largest country by area in Europe. Its various regions have diverse geographic features ranging from highlands to lowlands, as well as climatic range and a wide variety in hydrography.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a range of mountains forming an arc throughout Central and Eastern Europe. Roughly 1,500 km (932 mi) long, it is the third-longest European mountain range after the Urals at 2,500 km (1,553 mi) and the Scandinavian Mountains at 1,700 km (1,056 mi). The range stretches from the far eastern Czech Republic (3%) in the northwest through Slovakia (17%), Poland (10%), Hungary (4%) and Ukraine (10%) Serbia (5%) and Romania (50%) in the southeast. The highest range within the Carpathians is known as the Tatra mountains in Slovakia and Poland, where the highest peaks exceed 2,600 m (8,530 ft). The second-highest range is the Southern Carpathians in Romania, where the highest peaks range between 2,500 m (8,202 ft) and 2,550 m (8,366 ft).
Mount Hoverla, at 2,061 metres (6,762 ft), is the highest mountain in Ukraine and part of the Carpathian Mountains. The mountain is located in the Eastern Beskids, in the Chornohora region. The slopes are covered with beech and spruce forests, above which there is a belt of sub-alpine meadows called polonyna in Ukrainian. At the eastern slope there is the main spring of the Prut River. The name is of Hungarian origin and means 'snow fortress'. Hoverla is composed of sandstone, a sedimentary rock type.
The Zakarpatska Oblast is an administrative oblast (province) located in southwestern Ukraine, coterminous with the historical region of Carpathian Ruthenia. Its administrative centre is the city of Uzhhorod. Other major cities within the oblast include Mukachevo, Khust, Berehove and Chop which is home to railroad transport infrastructure.
Outer Subcarpathia denotes the depression area at the outer base of the Carpathian arc, including foothills of the Outer Western Carpathians and Outer Eastern Carpathians. It stretches from northeastern Austria, through eastern Czech Republic, southern Poland, western Ukraine and northeastern Romania.
The Beskids or Beskid Mountains are a series of mountain ranges in the Carpathians, stretching from the Czech Republic in the west along the border of Poland with Slovakia up to Ukraine in the east.
Divisions of the Carpathians are a categorization of the Carpathian mountains system.
Bieszczady Mountains is a mountain range that runs from the extreme south-east of Poland and north-east of Slovakia through to western Ukraine. It forms the western part of the Eastern Beskids, and is more generally part of the Outer Eastern Carpathians. The mountain range is situated between the Łupków Pass and the Vyshkovskyi Pass. The highest peak of Bieszczady is Mt Pikui in Ukraine. The highest peak of the Polish part is Tarnica.
Chornohora is the highest mountain range in Western Ukraine. It is within the Polonynian Beskids, a subgroup of the mountain group of Eastern Beskids, which in turn is part of the Outer Eastern Carpathians.
The Gutin Mountains are a mountain range within the Vihorlat-Gutin Area of the Inner Eastern Carpathians. They are centered in Maramureș County in Romania, bordering Satu Mare County, and also stretching further towards northwest as the Oaș Mountains, reaching border with Zakarpattia Oblast in Ukraine.
The Low Beskids or Central Beskids are a mountain range in southeastern Poland and northeastern Slovakia. They constitute a middle (central) section of the Beskids, within the Outer Eastern Carpathians.
Maramureș is a geographical, historical and cultural region in northern Romania and western Ukraine. It is situated on the northeastern Carpathians, along parts of the upper Tisza River drainage basin; it covers the Maramureș Depression and the surrounding Carpathian mountains.
The Western Beskids are a set of mountain ranges spanning the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Poland. Geologically the Western Beskids are part of the Outer Western Carpathians.
The Vihorlat-Gutin Area is a region of mountain ranges spanning from eastern Slovakia, through western Ukraine, into northern Romania.
The Svydovets is a mountain range in western Ukraine, one of the ranges of Eastern Beskids, itself belonging to the Outer Eastern Carpathians.
The Skole Beskids is a mountain range in western Ukraine, belonging to the set of ranges called the Eastern Beskids, within the Outer Eastern Carpathians.
Polonyna is a specific, regionally-focused geographic term, that is used as a designation for areas of montane meadows in the upper subalpine or alpine zones of the Carpathian Mountains. The term polonyna was introduced to English from Slavic languages, in order to designate various mountainous regions, mainly in the Eastern Carpathians, and also in the Western Carpathians. The polonyna type areas of montane meadows are very frequent in the Outer Eastern Carpathians, particularly in the Eastern Beskids. Throughout history, they were used for pasture, and in modern times they have become a popular destination for various forms of recreational tourism.
The Eastern Beskids or Eastern Beskyds are a geological group of mountain ranges of the Beskids, within the Outer Eastern Carpathians. As a continuation of the Central Beskids, this mountain range includes the far southeastern corer of Poland, the far eastern corner of Slovakia, and stretches southward through western parts of Ukraine, up to the border of Romania.
The term Wooded Carpathians refers to a group of mountain ranges that constitute the central section of Eastern Carpathians, covering both inner and outer regions of that section. Geographical scope of the term varies, since it is often used in broader or narrower sense, according to different classifications and terminological conventions. It is traditionally and most commonly applied to a wider group of mountain ranges that encompasses all mountains within central section of Outer Eastern Carpathians, including Eastern Beskids with Polonynian Beskids, and also all mountains within northern section of Inner Eastern Carpathians, including Vihorlat-Gutin Area and Maramureș-Rodna Area. In that sense, Wooded Carpathians are stretching from the southeastern corner of Poland and far eastern corner of Slovakia, through western parts of Ukraine, encompassing all of the Ukrainian Carpathians, and continuing into the northern region of Romania.
Polonynian Beskids or Polonyne Beskids is a geological group of mountain ranges of the Eastern Beskids, within the Outer Eastern Carpathians. It is one of two parallel mountain ridges of the Eastern Beskids, situated in western parts of modern Ukraine. They are stretching parallel to the Wooded Beskids on the northeast, and Vihorlat-Gutin Area to the southwest.
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