Ukrainian Party of Socialist-Independists (Ukrainian : Українська партія соціалістів-самостійників) was a Ukrainian political party created on December 17, 1917 in Kiev at the Party Congress (December 17–21) and consisted from some member of the Popular Ukrainian Party, socialist-independists, independent socialist-revolutionaries and national-democrats that united around the "Union of Ukrainian Statehood". The party's chairman was elected Oleksandr Makarenko, while the party's central committee consisted of 21 members. As many other Ukrainian parties of 1917 it seceded from the Revolutionary Ukrainian Party. The Ukrainian Party of Socialist-Independists was not numerous and in general did not play a great role in political life.
The Ukrainian Party of Socialist-Independists demanded immediate proclamation of the independence of Ukraine and recognized the social program where land had to belong to agriculturists (peasants), while factories - to workers. The party stood in opposition to the government of the Central Council of Ukraine criticizing it land policy and liberal attitude towards minorities. In the Ukrainian State it also was critical to official policy of the government and belong to the initiators of creation of the Ukrainian National State Union (May 1918), took part in the Ukrainian National Union and had its representative in the Directorate of Ukraine (Opanas Andriyevsky). On August 11, 1918 according to the party's Central Committee statement Opanas Andriyevsky was appointed as a provisional chairman of the party. The party delegated Andriyevsky and S.Makarenko (provisionally) to the Ukrainian National Union.
Members of the Ukrainian Party of Socialist-Independists participated in governments of the Directorate. In a protest to the policy of the Martos government, the party led by Volodymyr Oskilko and along with popular-republicans (Yevhen Arkhypenko) instigated coup-d'etat in Rivne on April 29, 1919.
After the exile of the Ukrainian government, the party was revived in Vienna and later as the Ukrainian People's Party Volodymyr Oskilko tried to reestablish it in Volhynia in 1922 where he published in Rivne the party's press-media "Dzvin" (1923-1925).
The Central Council of Ukraine was the All-Ukrainian council that united the political, public, cultural and professional organizations of the Ukrainian People's Republic. After the All-Ukrainian National Congress, the Council became the revolutionary parliament in the interbellum lasting until the Ukrainian-Soviet War.
Volodymyr Kyrylovych Vynnychenko was a Ukrainian statesman, political activist, writer, playwright, artist, who served as the first Prime Minister of Ukraine.
The Directorate, or Directory was a provisional collegiate revolutionary state committee of the Ukrainian People's Republic, initially formed on November 13–14, 1918 during a session of the Ukrainian National Union in rebellion against Skoropadsky's regime. During the overthrow of Pavlo Skoropadsky it was named as the Executive Council of the State Affairs. Its authority was extended by the Labor Congress of Ukraine on January 23–28, 1919.
Various factions fought over Ukrainian territory after the collapse of the Russian Empire following the Russian Revolution of 1917 and after the First World War ended in 1918, resulting in the collapse of Austria-Hungary, which had ruled Ukrainian Galicia. The crumbling of the empires had a great effect on the Ukrainian nationalist movement, and in a short period of four years a number of Ukrainian governments sprang up. This period was characterized by optimism and by nation-building, as well as by chaos and civil war. Matters stabilized somewhat in 1921 with the territory of modern-day Ukraine divided between Soviet Ukraine and Poland, and with small ethnic-Ukrainian regions belonging to Czechoslovakia and to Romania.
Ukrainian Socialist-Revolutionary Party was a political party in the Russian Republic from 1917. It was founded in April 1917 based on separate groups and circles of SRs that existed on the territory of Ukraine since 1905. The left faction of the party dissolved it in 1918 forming a new party, while the Ukrainian Socialist-Revolutionary Party was recreated in January 1919 by its right faction members.
The Ukrainian War of Independence, a period of sustained warlike conflict, lasted from 1917 to 1921 and resulted in the establishment and development of a Ukrainian republic, most of which was later absorbed into the Soviet Union as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic of 1922–1991.
The General Secretariat of Ukraine was the autonomous Ukrainian executive government of the Russian Republic from June 28, 1917 to January 22, 1918. For most of its existence it was headed by Volodymyr Vynnychenko.
The Ukrainian Social Democratic Labour Party was the leading party of the Ukrainian People's Republic and was also known as SDPists or Esdeky. The party was reformed in 1905 at the Second Congress of the RUP and was pursuing the Marxist ideology. The leaders of the Ukrainian Social Democratic Party were Volodymyr Vynnychenko, Symon Petliura, Mykola Porsh, Dmytro Antonovych, Lev Yurkevych, Mykhailo Tkachenko, M. Kovalsky.
The Kiev Bolshevik Uprising was a military struggle for power in Kiev after the fall of the Russian Provisional Government due to the October Revolution. It ended in victory for the Kievan Committee of the Bolshevik Party and the Central Rada.
The People's Secretariat of Ukraine was the executive body of the Provisional Central Executive Committee of Soviets in Ukraine. It was formed in Kharkiv on December 30, 1917 as a form of the Soviet concept of dual power by the Russian and other local Bolsheviks thus forming the Ukrainian Soviet government and the opposition to the Central Rada and the General Secretariat of Ukraine. The government claimed the same jurisdiction over Ukraine as the General Secretariat. The Central Executive Committee of Ukraine that was elected by the First All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets canceled the declaration of independence, declared that Ukraine is in a federal subordination to the Russian SFSR, and called on to fight against the separatists, the Ukrainian Central Rada and the General Secretariat of Ukraine.
Fedir Shvets was a Ukrainian geologist, public activist, and statesman.
The Council of People's Ministers of Ukraine was the main executive institution of the Ukrainian People's Republic. Its duties and functions were outlined in the Chapter V of the Constitution of the Ukrainian National Republic.
Volodymyr Panteleimonovych Oskilko was a Ukrainian military activist and administrator. He became famous for the historical Oskilko's Affair.
The All-Russian Congress of Soviets evolved from 1917 to become the supreme governing body of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1918 until 1936, effectively. The 1918 Constitution of the Russian SFSR mandated that Congress shall convene at least twice a year, with the duties of defining the principles of the Soviet Constitution and ratifying peace treaties. The October Revolution ousted the provisional government, making the Congress of Soviets the sole, and supreme governing body. It is important to note that this Congress was not the same as the Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union which governed the whole Soviet Union after its creation in 1922.
Provisional Workers-Peasants Government of Ukraine was provisional Soviet government created on November 28, 1918 in Kursk on decision of the Communist Party of Ukraine, the place of location was assigned the city of Sudzha. On the same day the government released its manifest. It became the highest legislative, executive and administrative body of Soviet power in Ukraine as the Soviet Russia resumed hostilities.
Volodymyr Musiyovych Chekhivsky was a Ukrainian political and public activist, prime minister of the Ukrainian People's Republic, member of the Russian State Duma, one of founders of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church. He was brother of conductor and singer Oleksa Chupryna-Chekhivsky.
The Ukrainian People's Republic (UPR), or Ukrainian National Republic (UNR), was declared in Ukraine following the February Revolution in Russia. It initially formed part of the Russian Republic, and proclaimed its independence from the Russian Soviet Republic on 25 January 1918. During its short existence the republic went through several political transformations - from the socialist-leaning republic headed by the Central Council with its general secretariat to the national republic led by the Directorate and by Symon Petliura. Between April and December 1918 the Ukrainian People's Republic did not function, having been overthrown by the pro-German Ukrainian State of Pavlo Skoropadsky, who proclaimed himself Hetman. From late 1919 the UNR operated as an ally of the Second Polish Republic, but by then the state de facto no longer existed in Ukraine. The 18 March 1921 Treaty of Riga between the Second Polish Republic, Soviet Russia and of Soviet Ukraine sealed the fate of the Ukrainian People's Republic.
The Ukrainian–Soviet War is the term commonly used in post-Soviet Ukraine for the events taking place between 1917–21, nowadays regarded essentially as a war between the Ukrainian People's Republic and the RSFSR. The war ensued soon after the October Revolution when Lenin dispatched the Antonov's expeditionary group to Ukraine and Southern Russia.
Volodymyr Kedrowsky was a political activist, diplomat, writer, and a colonel in the army of the Ukrainian National Republic (UNR). His military career took him from being a sub-poruchik in the Imperial Russian Army to the leadership of the State Inspectorate of the Army of the UNR. Subsequently, he served as in the diplomatic corps of the UNR to the Ottoman Empire and the Baltic States, and went on to play a major role in the Ukrainian American community as an exile in the United States.
Alexander Shumsky or Oleksandr Shumskyi was a popular Ukrainian-Soviet politician and activist of the 1920s. He was one of the leaders of National communism's movement. Shumskyi actively supported Ukrainization. He was one of the victims of Soviet Totalitarian regime. He was followed, arrested and then killed by NKVD in 1946. A few years later in 1958 he was rehabilitated.