Ullrich Georg Trendelenburg (31 December 1922 – 21 November 2006) was a German pharmacologist.
He was born in Gehlsdorf near Rostock. His paternal grandfather, Friedrich Trendelenburg (1844 to 1924) was the surgeon after whom Trendelenburg's sign for hip abductor weakness and the Trendelenburg test for varicose veins are named, whereas his father, Paul Trendelenburg (1884 to 1931), also was a pharmacologist. In the Institute of Pharmacology in Berlin led by his father, Ullrich got to know opponents of National Socialism such as Otto Krayer, Edith Bülbring and Marthe Vogt. In the Second World War, he volunteered for the Air force in order to escape the SS. After the war he studied medicine in Göttingen and Uppsala. From 1952 to 1956 he worked with Joshua Harold Burn (1892 to 1982)in the Department of Pharmacology of the University of Oxford as a British Council Scholar and from 1957 to 1968 with Otto Krayer at the Department of Pharmacology of Harvard Medical School. From 1968 to 1991 he held the chair of pharmacology at the University of Würzburg. After his retirement he moved to Tübingen where he lived until his death and where he received lifelong friends such as the Portuguese pharmacologist Serafim Guimarães.
Rostock is a city in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Rostock is on the Warnow river; the district of Warnemünde, 12 kilometres north of the city centre, is directly on the Baltic Sea coast. Rostock is the largest city in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, as well as its only regiopolis.
Friedrich Trendelenburg was a German surgeon. He was son of the philosopher Friedrich Adolf Trendelenburg, father of the pharmacologist Paul Trendelenburg and grandfather of the pharmacologist Ullrich Georg Trendelenburg.
Trendelenburg's sign is found in people with weak or paralyzed abductor muscles of the hip, namely gluteus medius and gluteus minimus. It is named after the German surgeon Friedrich Trendelenburg.
Trendelenburg’s main field of research was the pharmacology of the autonomic nervous system. He discovered new receptors at autonomic ganglion cells. He clarified mechanisms of hypersensitivity and subsensitivity to drugs, and his review of this subject became a citation classic.He also clarified the mode of action of direct-acting and indirect-acting sympathomimetic drugs. He identified pathways of inactivation of catecholamines in which a membrane transport protein and an enzyme are arranged in sequence. He termed such pathways "inactivating systems". From 1975 to 1979 he was president of the German Pharmacological Society and from 1969 to 1991 editor — from 1977 to 1985 chief editor — of Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology, the world's oldest still existing pharmacology journal.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs. The autonomic nervous system is a control system that acts largely unconsciously and regulates bodily functions such as the heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal. This system is the primary mechanism in control of the fight-or-flight response.
A ganglion is a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system and sensory system. Ganglia house the cell bodies of afferent nerves and efferent nerves, or axons.
Sympathomimetic drugs are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system. The primary endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system are the catecholamines, which function as both neurotransmitters and hormones. Sympathomimetic drugs are used to treat cardiac arrest and low blood pressure, or even delay premature labor, among other things.
Inspired by his friendship with persons such as Otto Krayer, he published biographies of pharmacologists who had been persecuted by National Socialism
Otto Hermann Krayer was a German-American physician, pharmacologist and university professor.
Trendelenburg was honorary member of the Polish, Indian, Czechoslovakian, German and Venezuelan Pharmacological Societies and honorary doctor of the medical faculties of five universities: Tampere, Finland, Porto, Portugal, Ohio State University, Lublin, Poland, and Prague. The German Pharmacologiocal Society awarded hin the Oswald Schmiedeberg medal, the highest scientific honor of the Society.
A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons. Such medical degrees include the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, Doctor of Medicine (MD), or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO). Many medical schools offer additional degrees, such as a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D), Master's degree (M.Sc), a physician assistant program, or other post-secondary education.
Tampere is a city in Pirkanmaa, southern Finland. It is the most populous inland city in the Nordic countries.
Porto is the second-largest city in Portugal after Lisbon and one of the major urban areas of the Iberian Peninsula. The city proper has a population of 287,591 and the metropolitan area of Porto, which extends beyond the administrative limits of the city, has a population of 2.3 million (2011) in an area of 2,395 km2 (925 sq mi), making it the second-largest urban area in Portugal. It is recognized as a gamma-level global city by the Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group, the only Portuguese city besides Lisbon to be recognised as a global city.
Otto Loewi was a German-born pharmacologist and psychobiologist who discovered the role of acetylcholine as an endogenous neurotransmitter. For his discovery he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1936, which he shared with Sir Henry Dale, who was a lifelong friend who helped to inspire the neurotransmitter experiment. Loewi met Dale in 1902 when spending some months in Ernest Starling's laboratory at University College, London.
Arthur Carl Wilhelm Heffter was a German pharmacologist and chemist. He was the first chairman of the German Society of Pharmacologists, and was largely responsible for the first Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. He isolated mescaline from the peyote cactus in 1897, the first such isolation of a naturally occurring psychedelic substance in pure form. In addition, he conducted experiments on its effects by comparing the effects of peyote and mescaline on himself.
Edith Bülbring, FRS was a British scientist in the field of smooth muscle physiology, one of the first women accepted to the Royal Society as a fellow (FRS). She was Professor of Pharmacology at the University of Oxford (1967–71), later Emeritus Professor (1971–1990) and member of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford.
The British Pharmacological Society is the primary UK learned society for pharmacologists concerned with research into drugs and the way they work. Members work in academia, industry, regulatory agencies and the health services, and many are medically qualified. The Society covers the whole spectrum of pharmacology, including laboratory, clinical, and toxicological aspects.
Bernhard Naunyn was German pathologist born in Berlin.
Oswald Schmiedeberg was a Baltic German pharmacologist. He is sometimes referred to as the "Father of Modern Pharmacology."
A sympatholytic drug is a medication that opposes the downstream effects of postganglionic nerve firing in effector organs innervated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). They are indicated for various functions; for example, they may be used as antihypertensives. They are also used to treat anxiety, such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder and PTSD.
Deoxyepinephrine, also known by the common names N-methyldopamine and epinine, is an organic compound and natural product that is structurally related to the important neurotransmitters dopamine and epinephrine. All three of these compounds also belong to the catecholamine family. The pharmacology of epinine largely resembles that of its "parent", dopamine. Epinine has been found in plants, insects and animals. It is also of significance as the active metabolic breakdown product of the prodrug ibopamine, which has been used to treat congestive heart failure.
Hans Horst Meyer was a German pharmacologist. He studied medicine and did research in pharmacology. The Meyer-Overton hypothesis on the mode of action on general anaesthetics is partially named after him. He also discovered the importance of glucuronic acid as a reaction partner for drugs, and the mode of action of tetanus toxin on the body.
Joshua Harold Burn FRS was an English pharmacologist and Emeritus Professor of Pharmacology at Oxford University.
Raymond Perry Ahlquist was an American pharmacist and pharmacologist. He published seminal work in 1948 that divided adrenoceptors into α- and β-adrenoceptor subtypes. This discovery explained the activity of several existing drugs and also laid the ground work for new drugs including the widely prescribed beta blockers.
The catecholamines comprise the endogenous substances dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and adrenaline (epinephrine) as well as numerous artificially synthesized compounds such as isoprenaline. Their investigation constitutes a prominent chapter in the history of physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology. Adrenaline was the first hormone extracted from its endocrine gland and obtained in pure form, before the word hormone was coined. It was also the first hormone the structure and biosynthesis of which were clarified. Apart from acetylcholine, adrenaline and noradrenaline were the first neurotransmitters to be discovered and the first intercellular biochemical signals to be found in intracellular vesicles. The β-adrenoceptor was the first G protein-coupled receptor the gene of which was cloned.
Everhardus Jacobus Ariëns was a Dutch pharmacologist and professor at the Catholic University of Nijmegen. He made important contributions to the function of receptors and the mathematical description of ligand–receptor interactions. Moreover, Everhardus Ariëns was the initiator for the collection of stereochemistry in drug development and spearheading the development of enantiopure drugs.
Toshio Narahashi was an internationally known pharmacologist. He was the John Evans Professor of Pharmacology and former chair of the Department of Pharmacology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, where he served on the faculty from 1977 to 2013. Prior, he was vice chairman of the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology at Duke University, where he served on the faculty from 1962 to 1977. He is considered by many to be the "founding father of neurotoxicology" and is credited with discovering how tetrodotoxin, the poison in puffer fish, immobilizes parts of the nervous system. Born in Tokyo, Japan, Narahashi received an undergraduate degree in agriculture from the University of Tokyo in 1948. According to the Chicago Tribune, "He began his career studying insecticides in an entomology lab. His findings in the lab helped form the basis of 26 published papers and a doctorate in neurotoxicology that he would earn in 1960 from the University of Tokyo." He came to the U.S. in 1961 and quickly found work as a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Chicago before joining the faculty at Duke University.
Liisa Marjatta Ahtee was born on 2 October 1937 in Turku to Aaro Veli Vilho and Lyyli Iida Kyllikki Ahtee. She is an internationally esteemed Finnish pharmacologist and professor emeritus, who served as pharmacology and biological medicine standardization chair at the University of Helsinki from 1975 to 2002.
Paul Trendelenburg was a German pharmacologist.
Salomon Zender Langer is an Argentine-American pharmacologist whose family had fled from Poland to Argentina in the early 1930s and were thus saved from the Holocaust during the Second World War.
Serafim Guimarães, full name Serafim Correia Pinto Guimarães, is a Portuguese physician and pharmacologist. With his colleague Walter Osswald he made the Department of Pharmacology, Medical Faculty of the University of Porto, a center of research on catecholamines and the sympathetic nervous system, especially their relation to blood vessels.