Ulm

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Ulm
Ulm - Sicht aus dem Flieger auf Zentrum, Munster und Neu-Ulm.jpg
Ulm with the Ulm Minster
Coat of arms of Ulm.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Ulm
Germany adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Ulm
Baden-Wuerttemberg location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Ulm
Coordinates: 48°24′N09°59′E / 48.400°N 9.983°E / 48.400; 9.983 Coordinates: 48°24′N09°59′E / 48.400°N 9.983°E / 48.400; 9.983
Country Germany
State Baden-Württemberg
Admin. region Tübingen
District Stadtkreis
Subdivisions18 Stadtteile
Government
   Lord Mayor Gunter Czisch (CDU)
Area
  Total118.68 km2 (45.82 sq mi)
Elevation
478 m (1,568 ft)
Population
(2017-12-31) [3]
  Total125,596
  Density1,100/km2 (2,700/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
89073–89081
Dialling codes 0731, 07304,
07305, 07346
Vehicle registration UL
Website www.ulm.de

Ulm (German pronunciation: [ˈʊlm] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a city in the federal German state of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the River Danube. The city, whose population is estimated at almost 120,000 (2015), forms an urban district of its own (German : Stadtkreis) and is the administrative seat of the Alb-Donau district. Founded around 850, Ulm is rich in history and traditions as a former free imperial city (German : freie Reichsstadt). Today, it is an economic centre due to its varied industries, and it is the seat of the University of Ulm. Internationally, Ulm is primarily known for having the church with the tallest steeple in the world (161.53 m or 529.95 ft), the Gothic minster (Ulm Minster, German: Ulmer Münster), and as the birthplace of Albert Einstein.

Baden-Württemberg State in Germany

Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France. It is Germany’s third-largest state, with an area of 35,751 km2 (13,804 sq mi) and 11 million inhabitants. Baden-Württemberg is a parliamentary republic and partly sovereign, federated state which was formed in 1952 by a merger of the states of Württemberg-Baden, Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern. The largest city in Baden-Württemberg is the state capital of Stuttgart, followed by Karlsruhe and Mannheim. Other cities are Freiburg im Breisgau, Heidelberg, Heilbronn, Pforzheim, Reutlingen and Ulm.

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

Free imperial city Self-ruling city that enjoyed Imperial immediacy

In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities, briefly worded free imperial city, was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that had a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet. An imperial city held the status of Imperial immediacy, and as such, was subordinate only to the Holy Roman Emperor, as opposed to a territorial city or town which was subordinate to a territorial prince – be it an ecclesiastical lord or a secular prince.

Contents

Geography

View from the Munster towards Hirschstrasse. Ulm Fussgangerzone.jpg
View from the Münster towards Hirschstraße.

Ulm lies at the point where the rivers Blau and Iller join the Danube, at an altitude of 479 m (1,571.52  ft ) above sea level. Most parts of the city, including the old town, are situated on the left bank of the Danube; only the districts of Wiblingen, Gögglingen, Donaustetten and Unterweiler lie on the right bank. Across from the old town, on the other side of the river, lies the twin city of Neu-Ulm in the state of Bavaria, smaller than Ulm and, until 1810, a part of it (population c. 50,000).

Blau (Danube) Sidestream of Danube

The Blau is a 22 km long river in Baden-Württemberg, southern Germany, and a left tributary of the Danube. The source of the Blau is the karst spring of Blautopf, in the town Blaubeuren, in the Swabian Jura. It flows east through Blaustein to the city of Ulm, where it empties into the Danube.

Iller river in Germany

The Iller  is a river of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg in Germany. It is a right tributary of the Danube, 146 kilometres (91 mi) long.

Danube River in Central Europe

The Danube is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga. It is located in Central and Eastern Europe.

Except for the Danube in the south, the city is surrounded by forests and hills which rise to altitudes of over 620 metres (2,034.12 feet ), some of them part of the Swabian Alb. South of the Danube, plains and hills finally end in the northern edge of the Alps, which are approximately 100 kilometres (62 miles) from Ulm and are visible from the city on clear days.

The foot is a unit of length in the imperial and US customary systems of measurement. Since the International Yard and Pound Agreement of 1959, one foot is defined as 0.3048 meter exactly. In customary units, the foot comprises 12 inches and three feet compose a yard.

Alps Major mountain range system in Central Europe

The Alps are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, separating Southern from Central and Western Europe and stretching approximately 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) across eight Alpine countries : France, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, and Slovenia. The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc and the Matterhorn. Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, and at 4,810 m (15,781 ft) is the highest mountain in the Alps. The Alpine region area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4,000 metres (13,000 ft).

The city of Ulm is situated in the northern part of the North Alpine Foreland basin, where the basin reaches the Swabian Alb. The Turritellenplatte of Ermingen ("Erminger Turritellenplatte") is a famous palaeontological site of Burdigalian age.

Foreland basin A structural basin that develops adjacent and parallel to a mountain belt

A foreland basin is a structural basin that develops adjacent and parallel to a mountain belt. Foreland basins form because the immense mass created by crustal thickening associated with the evolution of a mountain belt causes the lithosphere to bend, by a process known as lithospheric flexure. The width and depth of the foreland basin is determined by the flexural rigidity of the underlying lithosphere, and the characteristics of the mountain belt. The foreland basin receives sediment that is eroded off the adjacent mountain belt, filling with thick sedimentary successions that thin away from the mountain belt. Foreland basins represent an endmember basin type, the other being rift basins. Space for sediments is provided by loading and downflexure to form foreland basins, in contrast to rift basins, where accommodation space is generated by lithospheric extension.

The Turritellenplatte of Ermingen is a type of very rich, fossil-bearing rock which is of particular interest to geologists and paleontologists. It occurs in a very restricted outcrop and is protected in its entirety as a natural monument.

The Burdigalian is, in the geologic timescale, an age or stage in the early Miocene. It spans the time between 20.43 ± 0.05 Ma and 15.97 ± 0.05 Ma. Preceded by the Aquitanian, the Burdigalian was the first and longest warming period of the Miocene and is succeeded by the Langhian.

Neighboring communes

Ulm in the 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle. Nuremberg chronicles f 190v191r 1.jpg
Ulm in the 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle .

On the right (south-eastern) side of Danube and Iller there is the Bavarian district town Neu-Ulm. On the left (north-western) side Ulm is almost completely surrounded by the Alb-Danube district. The neighboring communes of Baden-Württemberg are the following: Illerkirchberg, Staig, Hüttisheim, Erbach (Donau), Blaubeuren, Blaustein, Dornstadt, Beimerstetten and Langenau as well as the eastern neighboring community Elchingen.

Neu-Ulm Place in Bavaria, Germany

Neu-Ulm is the capital of the Neu-Ulm district and a town in Swabia, Bavaria. Neighbouring towns include Ulm, Senden, Pfaffenhofen an der Roth, Holzheim, Nersingen and Elchingen. The population is 51,110.

Illerkirchberg Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Illerkirchberg is a town in the district of Alb-Donau in Baden-Württemberg in Germany.

Staig Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Staig is a municipality in the district of Alb-Donau in Baden-Württemberg in Germany. The community belongs to the Gemeindeverwaltungsverband-Kirchberg Weihungstal with headquarter in Illerkirchberg.

Town subdivisions

The city is divided into 18 districts (German : Stadtteile ): Ulm-Mitte, Böfingen, Donaustetten, Donautal, Eggingen, Einsingen, Ermingen, Eselsberg, Gögglingen, Grimmelfingen, Jungingen, Lehr, Mähringen, Oststadt, Söflingen (with Harthausen), Unterweiler, Weststadt, and Wiblingen.

Nine districts that were integrated during the latest municipality reform in the 1970s (Eggingen, Einsingen, Ermingen, Gögglingen-Donaustetten, Jungingen, Lehr, Mähringen und Unterweiler). They have own local councils which acquire an important consulting position to the whole city council concerning issues that are related to the prevailing districts. But at the end, final decisions can only be made by the city council of the entire city of Ulm.

History

Ulm in 1572 by Frans Hogenberg Braun Ulm UBHD.jpg
Ulm in 1572 by Frans Hogenberg

The oldest traceable settlement of the Ulm area began in the early Neolithic period, around 5000 BC. Settlements of this time have been identified at the villages of Eggingen and Lehr, today districts of the city. In the city area of Ulm proper, the oldest find dates from the late Neolithic period. The earliest written mention of Ulm is dated 22 July 854 AD, when King Louis the German signed a document in the King's palace of "Hulma" in the Duchy of Swabia. [4] The city was declared an Imperial City (German : Reichsstadt) by Friedrich Barbarossa in 1181.

At first, Ulm's significance was due to the privilege of a Königspfalz, a place of accommodation for the medieval German kings and emperors on their frequent travels. Later, Ulm became a city of traders and craftsmen. One of the most important legal documents of the city, an agreement between the Ulm patricians and the trade guilds (German : Großer Schwörbrief), dates from 1397. This document, considered an early city constitution, and the beginning of the construction of an enormous church (Ulm Minster, 1377), financed by the inhabitants of Ulm themselves rather than by the church, demonstrate the assertiveness of Ulm's medieval citizens. Ulm blossomed during the 15th and 16th centuries, mostly due to the export of high-quality textiles. The city was situated at the crossroads of important trade routes extending to Italy. These centuries, during which many important buildings were erected, also represented the zenith of art in Ulm, especially for painters and sculptors like Hans Multscher and Jörg Syrlin the Elder. During the Reformation, Ulm became Protestant (1530). With the establishment of new trade routes following the discovery of the New World (16th century) and the outbreak and consequences of the Thirty Years' War (1618–48), the city began to decline gradually. During the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714), it was alternately invaded several times by French and Bavarian soldiers.

The capitulation of Ulm. General Mack and 23,000 Austrian troops surrendered to Napoleon. Charles Thevenin - Reddition de la ville d'Ulm.jpg
The capitulation of Ulm. General Mack and 23,000 Austrian troops surrendered to Napoleon.

In the wars following the French Revolution, the city was alternately occupied by French and Austrian forces, with the former ones destroying the city fortifications. In 1803, it lost the status of Imperial City and was absorbed into Bavaria. During the campaign of 1805, Napoleon managed to trap the invading Austrian army of General Mack and forced it to surrender in the Battle of Ulm. In 1810, Ulm was incorporated into the Kingdom of Württemberg and lost its districts on the other bank of the Danube, which came to be known as Neu-Ulm (New Ulm).

In the mid-19th century, the city was designated a fortress of the German Confederation with huge military construction works directed primarily against the threat of a French invasion. The city became an important centre of industrialisation in southern Germany in the second half of the 19th century, its built-up area now being extended beyond the medieval walls. The construction of the huge minster, which had been interrupted in the 16th century for economic reasons, was resumed and eventually finished (1844–91) in a wave of German national enthusiasm for the Middle Ages.

From 1933 to 1935, a concentration camp primarily for political opponents of the regime was established on the Kuhberg, one of the hills surrounding Ulm. The Jews of Ulm, around 500 people, were first discriminated against and later persecuted; their synagogue was torn down after Kristallnacht in November 1938. The sole RAF strategic bombing during World War II against Ulm occurred on December 17, 1944, against the two large lorry factories of Magirus-Deutz and Kässbohrer, as well as other industries, barracks, and depots in Ulm. The Gallwitz Barracks and several military hospitals were among 14 Wehrmacht establishments destroyed. [5] The raid killed 707 Ulm inhabitants and left 25,000 homeless and after all the bombings, over 80% of the medieval city centre lay in ruins.[ citation needed ]

Most of the city was rebuilt in the plain and simple style of the 1950s and 1960s, but some of the historic landmark buildings have been restored. Due to its almost complete destruction in 1944, the Hirschstraße part of the city primarily consists of modern architecture. Ulm experienced substantial growth in the decades following World War II, with the establishment of large new housing projects and new industrial zones. In 1967, Ulm University was founded, which proved to be of great importance for the development of the city. Particularly since the 1980s, the transition from classical industry towards the high-tech sector has accelerated, with, for example, the establishment of research centres of companies like Daimler, Siemens and Nokia and a number of small applied research institutes near the university campus. The city today is still growing, forming a twin city of 170,000 inhabitants together with its neighbouring Bavarian city of Neu-Ulm, and seems to benefit from its central position between the cities of Stuttgart and Munich and thus between the cultural and economic hubs of southern Germany.

Ulm360.jpg
Panorama of Ulm
Significant minority groups
NationalityPopulation (2018)
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 4,782
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 2,009
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 1,557
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia & Herzegovina 1,532
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 1,319
Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo 959
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria 823
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 783
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 740
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq 678
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 626

Economy

Saint George's Catholic church, Ulm Kirche St Georg Ulm.jpg
Saint George's Catholic church, Ulm

The city has very old trading traditions dating from medieval times and a long history of industrialisation, beginning with the establishment of a railway station in 1850. The most important sector is still classical industry (machinery, especially motor vehicles; electronics; pharmaceuticals). The establishment of the University of Ulm in 1967, which focuses on biomedicine, the sciences, and engineering, helped support a transition to high-tech industry, especially after the crisis of classical industries in the 1980s. [ citation needed ]

Companies with headquarters in Ulm include:

Companies with important sites in Ulm include:

Ecology

In 2007 the City of Ulm was awarded the European Energy Award for its remarkable local energy management and its efforts to combat climate change. [8] Examples of these efforts are a biomass power plant operated by the Fernwärme Ulm GmbH (10 MW electrical output), and the world's biggest passive house office building, the so-called Energon, located in the "Science City" near the university campus. Moreover, the city of Ulm boasts the second largest solar power production in Germany. [9] For all new buildings, a strict energy standard (German KFW40 standard) has been mandatory since April 2008. Ulm Minster has been fully powered by renewables since January 2008. [10] Until the end of 2011 as a European pilot project a self-sustaining data-centre will be constructed in the west-city of Ulm. [11] There is a solar-powered ferry that crosses the Danube 7 days a week in summer. [12] The "Bündnis 100% Erneuerbare Energien" was founded in February 2010 with the aim of bringing together the people and organisations seeking to promote the transition to 100% renewable energy in Ulm and Neu-Ulm by 2030. [13]

Transportation

Tram in Ulm Strassenbahn ulm stadion.JPG
Tram in Ulm

Ulm is situated at the crossroads of the A8 motorway (connecting the principal cities of southern Germany, Stuttgart and Munich), and the A7 motorway (one of the motorways running from northern to southern Europe).

The city's railway station is served, among other lines, by one of the European train routes (ParisStrasbourgStuttgart – Ulm – MunichViennaBudapest). Direct connections to Berlin are also available.

Ulm's public transport system is based on several bus lines and a tram line. Construction of a second tram line started in 2015. Several streets in the old town are for the use of pedestrians and cyclists only. Ulm was the first area to be served by the Daimler AG's Car2Go carsharing service in 2008. However, the service in Ulm was discontinued at the end of 2014.

Education and culture

The Ulm Public Library Ulm public library above.jpg
The Ulm Public Library

The University of Ulm was founded in 1967 and focuses on the sciences, medicine, engineering, and mathematics / economics. With about 10,000 students, it is one of the smaller universities in Germany. [14]

Ulm is also the seat of the city's University of Applied Sciences (German : Fachhochschule), founded in 1960 as a public school of engineering. The school also houses numerous students from around the world as part of an international study abroad programme.[ citation needed ]

In 1953, Inge Aicher-Scholl, Otl Aicher and Max Bill founded the Ulm School of Design (German: Hochschule für Gestaltung - HfG Ulm), a design school in the tradition of the Bauhaus, which was, however, closed in 1968. [15]

Ulm's public library features over 480,000 print media. The city has a public theatre with drama, opera and ballet, [16] several small theatres, [17] and a professional philharmonic orchestra. [18]

Sport

The Donaustadion is the stadium of football club SSV Ulm 1846 Ulm Donaustadion 1.jpg
The Donaustadion is the stadium of football club SSV Ulm 1846
ClubFoundedLeagueSportVenueCapacity
SSV Ulm 1846 1846 Football Donaustadion 19,500
Ratiopharm Ulm 2001 Basketball Bundesliga Basketball Ratiopharm arena 6,000

Sights

Ulm Marktplatz (market square) with town hall (right) and public library (center) Ulm Marktplatz.jpg
Ulm Marktplatz (market square) with town hall (right) and public library (center)
Town hall Rathaus Ulm.jpg
Town hall
Ulm: View through Rabengasse towards the minster Ulm Rabengasse.jpg
Ulm: View through Rabengasse towards the minster
Sculpture by Niki de Saint Phalle (The poet and his muse) in front of Ulm University Uni Ulm See Nordeingang.jpg
Sculpture by Niki de Saint Phalle (The poet and his muse) in front of Ulm University

Historic

Contemporary

Museums

Memorials

Other landmarks

Notable inhabitants

Born in Ulm

Otherwise associated with Ulm

International relations

Ulm is a member city of the Eurotowns network. [26]

Ulm is officially not twinned. But there are relations with:

Related Research Articles

Alb-Donau-Kreis is a Landkreis (district) in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is bounded by the districts of Biberach, Reutlingen, Göppingen and Heidenheim, the two Bavarian districts Günzburg and Neu-Ulm, and the city of Ulm.

Swabian Jura low mountain range in Germany

The Swabian Jura, sometimes also named Swabian Alps in English, is a mountain range in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, extending 220 km (140 mi) from southwest to northeast and 40 to 70 km in width. It is named after the region of Swabia.

Reutlingen, nicknamed "The Gate to the Swabian Alb", is a Landkreis (district) in the middle of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. The former free imperial city reached the limit of 100,000 residents in 1989. It is the ninth-largest city in Baden-Württemberg. Reutlingen district's neighboring districts are Esslingen, Göppingen, Alb-Donau, Ostalbkreis, Biberach, Sigmaringen, Zollernalbkreis and Tübingen

Neu-Ulm (district) District in Bavaria, Germany

Neu-Ulm is a Landkreis (district) in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany. It is bounded by the districts of Günzburg and Unterallgäu and the state of Baden-Württemberg.

Ulm Minster Church in Ulm, Germany

Ulm Minster is a Lutheran church located in Ulm, State of Baden-Württemberg (Germany). Until the eventual completion of Sagrada Familia in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, it will remain the tallest church in the world, and the 5th tallest structure built before the 20th century, with a steeple measuring 161.5 metres (530 ft).

Max Bill Swiss architect, painter and sculptor

Max Bill was a Swiss architect, artist, painter, typeface designer, industrial designer and graphic designer.

Erbach an der Donau Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Erbach an der Donau is a town on the Danube River in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Located in the Alb-Donau District, Erbach lies between Ulm and Ehingen an der Donau on the southern edge of the Swabian Jura.

Upper Swabia

Upper Swabia is a region in Germany in the federal states of Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria. The name refers to the area between the Swabian Jura, Lake Constance and the Lech. Its counterpart is Lower Swabia (Niederschwaben), the region around Heilbronn.

Upper Swabian Baroque Route street in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

The Upper Swabian Baroque Route is a tourist theme route through Upper Swabia, following the themes of "nature, culture, baroque". The route has a length of about 500 km. It was established in 1966, being one of the first theme routes in Germany. There is an extension to the route into Switzerland and Austria around Lake Constance.

Ulm School of Design Ulm School of Design

The Ulm School of Design was a college of design based in Ulm, Germany.

Hüttisheim Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Hüttisheim is a town in the district of Alb-Donau in Baden-Württemberg in Germany.

Neenstetten Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Neenstetten is a town in the district of Alb-Donau in Baden-Württemberg in Germany.

Öllingen Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Öllingen is a municipality in the district of Alb-Donau in Baden-Württemberg in Germany. Öllingen is on the southern slope of the Swabian Jura, in the northern Alb Danube county, about 18 km northeast of Ulm. Öllingen is located on 526m above sea level between the Lone Valley in the north and the Danube valley with the Langenau basin in the south.

Wiblingen Abbey abbey

Wiblingen Abbey was a former Benedictine abbey which was later used as barracks. Today its buildings house several departments of the medical faculty of the University of Ulm. The former abbey is located south of the confluence of the rivers Danube and Iller, south of the city of Ulm in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. Administratively, the former independent village of Wiblingen now belongs to the city of Ulm. The abbey is part of the Upper Swabian Baroque Route.

Stuttgart–Augsburg new and upgraded line is a proposed German railway project.

Inge Scholl German activist

Inge Aicher-Scholl, born in present-day Crailsheim, Germany, was the daughter of Robert Scholl, mayor of Forchtenberg, and elder sister of Hans and Sophie Scholl, who studied at the University of Munich in 1942, and were core members of the White Rose student resistance movement in Nazi Germany. Inge Scholl wrote several books about the White Rose after the war. However, according to the Center for White Rose Studies, she did not even "so much as listen to her siblings' talk", when they tried to convince her to take part in 1942.

Rot (Danube) river in Germany

The Rot is a southern tributary of the river Danube in the region of Upper Swabia in Baden-Württemberg in Germany. It has a length of 56 km.

Ulm Sparrow

The Ulm Sparrow is a landmark in, and symbol of, the German city of Ulm.

Nabada water festival in Ulm, Germany

Nabada is a traditional parade on the Danube, in Ulm, Germany. It takes place every year on Schwörmontag, the second to last Monday of July.

References

Notes

  1. https://www.destatis.de/DE/ZahlenFakten/LaenderRegionen/Regionales/Gemeindeverzeichnis/Administrativ/Aktuell/05Staedte.html.
  2. "Alle politisch selbständigen Gemeinden mit ausgewählten Merkmalen am 31.12.2018 (4. Quartal)". DESTATIS. Archived from the original on 10 March 2019. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  3. "Bevölkerung nach Nationalität und Geschlecht am 31. Dezember 2017". Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg (in German). 2018.
  4. "ulm-by-michael-vogt". 500px.com. Retrieved May 24, 2014.
  5. "RAF History - Bomber Command 60th Anniversary". Raf.mod.uk. Archived from the original on 2007-07-06. Retrieved 2009-05-06.
  6. "Homepage - BMW Car IT".
  7. "Homepage - Nokia Networks in Germany".
  8. Stadt Ulm. "Stadt Ulm - Ulm erhält 'European Energy Award'". Archived from the original on 2018-07-04. Retrieved 2018-12-12.
  9. Lars Schulz (2010-03-27). "Solarbundesliga". Solarbundesliga.de. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  10. SWU Fakten, Stadtwerke Ulm, visited 15. Mai 2008.
  11. "Press release at Gruene-IT.de".
  12. "Solarstiftung Ulm/Neu-Ulm - Home". Solarboot-ulm.de. Archived from the original on 2014-01-06. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
  13. Roland Fuchs. "Home - Bündnis 100% Erneuerbare Energien". 100ee.de. Retrieved 2010-03-20.
  14. "The University of Ulm" . Retrieved 2011-03-09.
  15. "HfG-Archiv Ulm - History". HfG-Archiv Ulm. 2003. Archived from the original on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2011-03-09.
  16. "Theatre Ulm" . Retrieved 2011-03-09.
  17. "Theatres & Stages" . Retrieved 2011-03-09.
  18. "Theater Ulm - Konzerte" (in German). Archived from the original on 2011-01-26. Retrieved 2011-03-09.
  19. "Ulm City Hall (Rathaus)".
  20. "Page with photos of Wiblingen Abbey's Baroque library". Archived from the original on 2011-07-17. Retrieved 2019-01-16.
  21. "kunsthalle-weishaupt.de".
  22. http://www.tourismus.ulm.de/tourismus/en/sehenswert/museen_und_co/ulmer_museum/ulmer_museum.php
  23. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-31. Retrieved 2013-03-18.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  24. http://www.dzm-museum.de/english/dzm_en.html%5B%5D
  25. Terence McKenna ~ Science Was Founded by an Angel. 2 January 2010 via YouTube.
  26. "Eurotowns".
  27. "Partner (Twin) towns of Bratislava". Bratislava-City.sk. Archived from the original on 2013-07-28. Retrieved 2013-08-05.
  28. 1 2 "Ulm - International Contacts (in German)". City of Ulm. Archived from the original on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2011-02-22.

Bibliography