|Born||31 May 1972|
|Occupation||psychologist and education researcher|
|Employer||University of Tübingen|
Ulrich Trautwein (born 31 May 1972) is a German psychologist and education researcher. He has been a Full Professor of Education Science at the University of Tübingen, Germany, since October 2008.In addition, he has been director of LEAD Graduate School & Research Network at Tübingen University since 2012. Since 2014, he has also headed the Hector Research Institute of Education Sciences and Psychology in Tübingen.
Trautwein grew up in Reutlingen in the state of Baden-Württemberg. After completing his high school education he studied Psychology at the University of Göttingen, Germany, and the University of California, Santa Cruz. After obtaining his diploma in Göttingen 1999, he worked until 2008 in various positions as a researcher at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin. In 2002 he completed his doctorate, 2005 his habilitation in Psychology at the Free University of Berlin. In 2007 he became a research group leader at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development. Shortly after being appointed an Honorary Professor at the Free University of Berlin in 2008, he joined the University of Tübingen as a Full Professor of Education Science. Trautwein is director of LEAD Graduate School & Research Network at Tübingen University, founded in 2012.LEAD features a research and training program for doctoral students and postdocs on learning, education achievement, and life course development. The School hosts more than 130 researchers and is funded by the German Universities Excellence Initiative of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. In 2014, Trautwein became the founding director of the Hector Research Institute of Education Sciences and Psychology. Since 2011 Trautwein has served as an expert advisor to the German federal government and the Kultusministerkonferenz in terms of education issues.
Trautwein has published a large number of articles on a number of topics, including the development of conscientiousness, expectancy-value beliefs, and academic effort, the effectiveness of homework assignments and completion, and the results of several randomized controlled field trials in school settings. According to an analysis published by Jones et al. (2010) in Contemporary Education Psychology, Trautwein was the third most productive researcher worldwide in the field of education psychology during 2003–2008.In 2016, Greenbaum et al. named him among the most productive researchers in education psychology as number 4 worldwide. Trautwein is principal investigator of two multicohort, longitudinal school achievement studies (TOSCA, TRAIN ).
Homework, or a homework assignment, is a set of tasks assigned to students by their teachers to be completed outside the classroom. Common homework assignments may include required reading, a writing or typing project, mathematical exercises to be completed, information to be reviewed before a test, or other skills to be practiced.
One's self-concept is a collection of beliefs about oneself. Generally, self-concept embodies the answer to the question "Who am I?".
Conscientiousness is the personality trait of being careful, or diligent. Conscientiousness implies a desire to do a task well, and to take obligations to others seriously. Conscientious people tend to be efficient and organized as opposed to easy-going and disorderly. They exhibit a tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement; they display planned rather than spontaneous behavior; and they are generally dependable. It is manifested in characteristic behaviors such as being neat, and systematic; also including such elements as carefulness, thoroughness, and deliberation.
The Big Five personality traits is a suggested taxonomy, or grouping, for personality traits, developed from the 1980s onwards in psychological trait theory. When factor analysis is applied to personality survey data, it reveals semantic associations: some words used to describe aspects of personality are often applied to the same person. For example, someone described as conscientious is more likely to be described as "always prepared" rather than "messy". These associations suggest five broad dimensions used in common language to describe the human personality, temperament and psyche.
General knowledge is information that has been accumulated over time through various mediums. It excludes specialized learning that can only be obtained with extensive training and information confined to a single medium. General knowledge is an essential component of crystallized intelligence. It is strongly associated with general intelligence and with openness to experience.
The big-fish–little-pond effect (BFLPE) is a frame of reference model introduced by Herbert W. Marsh and John W. Parker in 1984. According to the model, individuals compare their own self-concept with their peers and equally capable individuals have higher self-concepts when in a less capable group than in a more capable group. For example, it is better for academic self-concept to be a big fish in a little pond than to be a big fish in a big pond. High achieving and gifted students are just as susceptible to the effect as are less talented students indicating that the effect depends only on the achievement of the reference group. Malcolm Gladwell publicized the BFLPE in his 2013 book David and Goliath: Underdogs, Misfits, and the Art of Battling Giants.
Edwin A. Fleishman was an American psychologist best known for his work in the field of industrial and organizational psychology. Among his notable achievements was a taxonomy for describing individual differences in perceptual-motor performance. The Fleishman Job Analysis Survey (F-JAS) that he developed under Management Research Institute has been cited 100 times since 1995. Additionally, Fleishman is the author of more than 250 research articles and journals.
Reactivity is a phenomenon that occurs when individuals alter their performance or behavior due to the awareness that they are being observed. The change may be positive or negative, and depends on the situation. It is a significant threat to a research study's external validity and is typically controlled for using blind experiment designs.
A resource room is a separate, remedial classroom in a school where students with educational disabilities, such as specific learning disabilities, are given direct, specialized instruction and academic remediation and assistance with homework and related assignments as individuals or in groups.
In psychology, grit is a positive, non-cognitive trait based on an individual's perseverance of effort combined with the passion for a particular long-term goal or end state. This perseverance of effort promotes the overcoming of obstacles or challenges that lie on the path to accomplishment and serves as a driving force in achievement realization. Distinct but commonly associated concepts within the field of psychology include "perseverance", "hardiness", "resilience", "ambition", "need for achievement" and "conscientiousness". These constructs can be conceptualized as individual differences related to the accomplishment of work rather than talent or ability. This distinction was brought into focus in 1907 when William James challenged the field to further investigate how certain individuals are capable of accessing richer trait reservoirs enabling them to accomplish more than the average person, but the construct dates back at least to Francis Galton, and the ideals of persistence and tenacity have been understood as a virtue at least since Aristotle.
Academic achievement or academic performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor's degrees represent academic achievement.
Angela Lee Duckworth is an American academic, psychologist, and popular science author. She is the Rosa Lee and Egbert Chang Professor of Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania, where she studies grit and self-control. She is also the Founder and CEO of Character Lab, a not-for-profit whose mission is to advance the science and practice of character development.
Achievement orientation refers to how an individual interprets and reacts to tasks, resulting in different patterns of cognition, affect and behavior. Developed within a social-cognitive framework, achievement goal theory proposes that students’ motivation and achievement-related behaviors can be understood by considering the reasons or purposes they adopt while engaged in academic work. The focus is on how students think about themselves, their tasks, and their performance. In general, an individual can be said to be “mastery” or “performance” oriented, based on whether one's goal is to develop one's ability or to demonstrate one's ability, respectively. Achievement orientations have been shown to be associated with individuals’ academic achievement, adjustment, and well-being.
Margaret Beale Spencer is an American psychologist whose work centers on the effects of ethnicity, gender, and race on youth and adolescent development. She currently serves as the Marshall Field IV Professor of Urban Education in the Department of Comparative Human Development at the University of Chicago. Dr. Spencer's career spans more than 30 years and consists of over 115 published articles and chapters, stemming from work funded by over two-dozen foundations and federal agencies.
Jacquelynne Sue Eccles is an American educational psychologist. She is the Distinguished Professor of Education at the University of California, Irvine and formerly the McKeachie/Pintrich Distinguished University Professor of Psychology and Education at the University of Michigan.
Intelligence and personality have traditionally been studied as separate entities in psychology, but more recent work has increasingly challenged this view. An increasing number of studies have recently explored the relationship between intelligence and personality, in particular the Big Five personality traits.
Benjamin Nagengast is a German educational psychologist. He has been Full Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of Tübingen, Germany, since November 2012. He has been vice-director of LEAD Graduate School & Research Network since 2012, and vice-director of Hector Research Institute of Education Sciences and Psychology at Tübingen University since 2014.
Lynn Fuchs is an educational psychologist known for research on instructional practice and assessment, reading disabilities, and mathematics disabilities. She is the Dunn Family Chair in Psychoeducational Assessment in the Department of Special Education at Vanderbilt University.
Toni Falbo is a social psychologist known for her research on power dynamics in relationships, sibling status, and development of only children. She is a Professor of Educational Psychology and Faculty Research Affiliate of the Population Research Center at the University of Texas at Austin.
Bunmi O. Olatunji is an American psychologist who is Gertrude Conaway Vanderbilt Chair in Social Sciences at Vanderbilt University. He is Director of the Emotion and Anxiety Research Laboratory and Associate Dean of Academic Affairs for the Vanderbilt University Graduate School. Olatunji studies the psychopathology of obsessive–compulsive disorder.