Ulsan

Last updated
Ulsan
울산시
Ulsan Metropolitan City
울산광역시
  transcription(s)
   Hangul 울산 광역시
   Hanja 蔚山 廣域市
   Revised Romanization Ulsan gwang-yeoksi
   McCune-Reischauer Ulsan gwangyŏksi
Ulsan montage.png
Top: View of downtown Yaeum-dong area
Middle: Samsan-dong downtown area (left), Iaan Expodium Tower (right)
Bottom: Ganjeolgot (left), Taehwagang Train Station (right)
Flag of Ulsan.svg
Symbol of Ulsan.svg
Ulsan
CountryFlag of South Korea.svg  South Korea
Region Yeongnam
Districts5 (including 1 county)
Government
  Type Mayor–Council
   Mayor Song Cheol-ho
(Democratic)
  Body Ulsan Metropolitan Council
Area
  Total1,057.136 km2 (408.162 sq mi)
Population
 (October, 2014)
  Total1,163,690
  Rank 8th Korea
  Density1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)
  Dialect
Gyeongsang
Area code(s) +82-52
ISO 3166 code KR-31
Flower Pear flower
Tree Ginkgo
Bird White heron
GDP USD $67.8 billion (2017)
GDP per capita (nominal) USD $65,093 (IMF, 2017)
GDP per capita (PPP) Int $80,058 (2017)
Website Official website (English)

Ulsan (Korean pronunciation:  [uɭ.s͈an] ), officially the Ulsan Metropolitan City is South Korea's seventh-largest metropolitan city and the eighth-largest city overall, with a population of over 1.1 million inhabitants. [1] It is located in the south-east of the country, neighboring Busan to the south and facing Gyeongju to the north.

Contents

Ulsan is the industrial powerhouse of South Korea, forming the heart of the Ulsan Industrial District. It has the world's largest automobile assembly plant operated by the Hyundai Motor Company; [2] the world's largest shipyard, operated by Hyundai Heavy Industries; [3] and the world's third largest oil refinery, owned by SK Energy. [4] In 2020, Ulsan had a GDP per capita of $65,352, the highest of any region in South Korea.

Administrative divisions

Ulsan is divided into four gu (districts) and one gun (county):

History

Stone tools found at the Mugeo-dong Ok-hyeon archaeological site indicates that Ulsan was inhabited by humans at least as early as the Paleolithic Era. Other findings indicated human inhabitation in the Neolithic Era. Ulsan also contains a substantial number of town remains from the Bronze Age. [5] During the Jinhan confederacy, Ulsan was a site of iron mining and production. [6] In the Later Silla period, Ulsan served as an important port for the economic hub of Gyeongju, and likely saw the import of luxury Persian goods such as silver, glass, and peacock tails. [7]

Records from the Joseon Dynasty show that Ulsan was developed as a shipbuilding site as early as 1642. [8]

Economy

Planned industrial development for the Ulsan Industrial Zone 1962. UlsanIndustrialCenter Map-Plan 1962.jpg
Planned industrial development for the Ulsan Industrial Zone 1962.
Ulsan Central market entrance. Ulsan Central market entrance.jpg
Ulsan Central market entrance.

As the centre of the Ulsan Industrial District, the city is the corporate base of the multinational Hyundai conglomerate. Up to 1962, Ulsan operated as a fishing port and market centre. As part of South Korea's first five-year economic plan, Ulsan became an open port. Additionally, the government designated Ulsan as a Special Industrial District, [9] which encouraged development of major industrial plants and factories: an oil refinery, fertilizer plants, automobile production, and heavy industries were developed here. The shipbuilding port Bangeojin was annexed by the city in 1962.

Shipbuilding

Hyundai Group founded Hyundai Heavy Industries in Ulsan in 1973, which effectively turned the city into a company town and drew a large influx of workers into the city. [10] The company's importance to the city can be seen in its name's omnipresence, with a highway named after Hyundai's founder, and the hospital, school, theater, as well as many restaurants and department stores bearing the Hyundai name. [11]

Amid a global downturn in shipbuilding, Hyundai Heavy Industries sold $1 billion of assets and laid off large numbers of employees in 2016. [12] The company borrowed money from the state-run Korea Development Bank in order to purchase Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering, forming Korea Shipbuilding & Offshore Engineering, with plans to move corporate headquarters to Seoul. [13] Some view this downturn as an indicator of South Korea's over-reliance on chaebols, and fear that a period of deindustrialization for Ulsan mirroring the United States' Rust Belt could be on the horizon. [14]

Petroleum

The city has the world's third largest [ citation needed ] oil refinery with 840,000 BPD, owned by SK Energy South Korea no.3 S-oil refinery complex with 669,000BPD and 1.7million PX plant of world single largest facility,39,000BPD lubricant base oil owned by Saudi Aramco is also in Ulsan. [4]

Automotive

Ulsan is the home of the world's largest automobile assembly plant of 300,000 annual capacity 5 assembly plants, proving ground and in-house peers, operated by Hyundai Motors started 50,000 capacity in 1968 now 30 times expansion of massive motor top complex in the world with own export piers with logistics competitiveness. [2] Its integrated design of related functions was inspired by the Ford River Rouge Complex in Dearborn, Michigan.

Lithium-ion battery manufacture

In November 2011, SB LiMotive opened an advanced lithium-ion battery production plant in Ulsan. SB LiMotive was a 50-50 consortium of Samsung SDI and Robert Bosch GmbH. [15] [16] [17] In September 2012, Samsung SDI purchased the Robert Bosch GmbH portion of SB LiMotive for $95 million to gain 100% ownership of the Ulsan production facility. [18] The Ulsan plant is one of Samsung SDI's trio of advanced car-battery production facilities. [19] [20]

Transportation

The city transport department plans to build a light-rail line. The public transportation system is as good as any other major Korean city. The bus system shows a specific ETA at most bus stops. [21]

Ulsan Airport, constructed in 1970 and expanded in 1997, has more than 20 flights per day to and from Seoul's Gimpo International Airport and 4 flights per week to and from Jeju International Airport. In November 2010, Korea's high-speed train network, the KTX, was extended to Ulsan. [22] This provides a high-speed link to Seoul, with a running time of just over 2 hours. The new KTX station (Ulsan Station) is in nearby Eonyang, with a series of express buses (5001-5005), as well as some city buses serving the new station. [23] The original city station has been renamed Taehwa River Station. [22]

Sports

Ulsan Munsu Football Stadium. Munsu 20121110 204310 5.jpg
Ulsan Munsu Football Stadium.

The city hosts the K League 1 football club Ulsan Hyundai FC. After the 2002 FIFA World Cup, they relocated from their former stadium in Jung-gu, which is now a municipal ground, to the Munsu Stadium, which hosted several matches during the 2002 World Cup. The club have been crowned champions of Asia twice, winning the AFC Champions League in 2012 and 2020. Ulsan was home to another football team, Ulsan Hyundai Mipo Dolphin FC, which played in the Korea National League until 2016, when it was dissolved.

It is also home to the University of Ulsan and its sports programs. Ulsan also hosts Korean Basketball League team Ulsan Hyundai Mobis Phoebus. Their home ground is Dongchun Gymnasium, which located in jung-gu ulsan. [24]

Geography

Ulsan is bounded on the east by the Sea of Japan. Busan is 70 km (43 mi) to the south.

Climate

Ulsan has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa/Cwa), with cold but dry winters, and hot, humid summers. Monthly means range from 2.0 °C (35.6 °F) in January to 25.9 °C (78.6 °F) in August, with diurnal temperature ranges generally low. Its location on the Korean peninsula results in a seasonal lag. The warmest days occur in August and averaging very near 30 °C (86 °F). Precipitation is relatively low in the winter months, but there is high rainfall from April to September.

Climate data for Ulsan (1981–2010, extremes 1931–present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)19.3
(66.7)
24.2
(75.6)
25.4
(77.7)
31.0
(87.8)
34.7
(94.5)
35.5
(95.9)
38.2
(100.8)
38.8
(101.8)
35.6
(96.1)
29.8
(85.6)
27.5
(81.5)
22.4
(72.3)
38.8
(101.8)
Average high °C (°F)7.3
(45.1)
9.2
(48.6)
13.2
(55.8)
19.2
(66.6)
23.4
(74.1)
26.0
(78.8)
28.9
(84.0)
30.0
(86.0)
25.9
(78.6)
21.9
(71.4)
15.8
(60.4)
9.9
(49.8)
19.2
(66.6)
Daily mean °C (°F)2.0
(35.6)
3.9
(39.0)
7.9
(46.2)
13.5
(56.3)
17.9
(64.2)
21.4
(70.5)
25.0
(77.0)
25.9
(78.6)
21.5
(70.7)
16.2
(61.2)
9.9
(49.8)
4.3
(39.7)
14.1
(57.4)
Average low °C (°F)−2.3
(27.9)
−0.7
(30.7)
3.2
(37.8)
8.2
(46.8)
12.8
(55.0)
17.3
(63.1)
21.8
(71.2)
22.7
(72.9)
17.9
(64.2)
11.5
(52.7)
5.1
(41.2)
−0.3
(31.5)
9.8
(49.6)
Record low °C (°F)−14.3
(6.3)
−12.5
(9.5)
−9.6
(14.7)
−2.6
(27.3)
3.6
(38.5)
6.8
(44.2)
13.9
(57.0)
13.4
(56.1)
7.9
(46.2)
0.4
(32.7)
−7.8
(18.0)
−12.4
(9.7)
−14.3
(6.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches)34.3
(1.35)
42.6
(1.68)
65.8
(2.59)
91.1
(3.59)
108.1
(4.26)
176.8
(6.96)
232.3
(9.15)
240.3
(9.46)
168.2
(6.62)
53.5
(2.11)
41.1
(1.62)
23.0
(0.91)
1,277.1
(50.28)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)5.36.38.18.49.210.013.512.110.35.75.13.997.9
Average snowy days1.72.11.10.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.11.16.1
Average relative humidity (%)49.651.957.660.366.173.378.977.775.767.259.952.464.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 190.7176.4187.5207.2215.4172.7151.5167.3150.0193.7182.0194.62,188.8
Percent possible sunshine 61.257.450.652.849.539.634.240.040.355.358.864.049.2
Source: Korea Meteorological Administration [25] [26] [27] (percent sunshine and snowy days) [28]

Religion

Tourist attractions

Yeongnam Alps

There are seven tall mountains (Gajisan, Sinbulsan, Ganwolsan, Cheonhwangsan, Yeongchuksan, Goheonsan, Jaeyaksan) over 1,000m above sea level. Sinbulsan (MT.) Ridge, where grasses turn silver in autumn, is one of the best sights to see in the Yeongnam Alps. Eoksae festival is held every early October in Ganwoljae, which is best known for its colony of silver grass.

Oegosan Onggi village

Korea's largest traditional folk Onggi (earthware) village is Oegosan. The traditional Onggi (earthware) manufacturing process is carried on here and is open to tourists, including Onggi workshops and kilns. The Ulsan Onggi museum offers a variety of information related to Onggi and displays a diversity of this earthware.

Jangsaengpo Whale museum & Whale Ecological Experience Hall

As the only whale museum in Korea, Jangsaengpo whale museum collects, maintains and displays whaling-related artifacts. They have become more rare since 1986, when whaling was internationally prohibited in order to protect the species. The museum provides a variety of information related to whales and marine ecosystems; it is a space for education, research and experience. Whale cruises depart from Jangsaengpo port.

Grand Park and National Garden

Industrial tour

Ulsan Industry Park has been leading the Pacific Rim industry in the 21st century. Ulsan has Hyundai Motor Company, with the world's largest single-purpose plant; Hyundai Heavy Industries, the biggest heavy industry leader in the world; Hyundai Mipo Shipbuilding, and Petrochemical Park, leaders in Korea's chemistry industry.

Coast trip

Ulsan has beautiful beaches (Jinha, Ilsan). Daewangam Park features a lush, hundred-year-old pine forest. Ganjeolgot Cape is noted as the first place to see the sunrise from the Korean peninsula. A sunrise festival is held every New Year's Day.

Festival

In media

Ulsan is one of the filming locations of the Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation 2012 South Korean television melodrama series May Queen , starring Han Ji-hye, Kim Jae-won, and Jae Hee.

Twin towns – sister cities

[29] [30]

CityRegionCountryYear
Hagi Yamaguchi Prefecture Flag of Japan.svg Japan1981
Portland Oregon Flag of the United States.svg United States1987
Changchun Jilin Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China1994
Kocaeli Province Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey2002
Santos São Paulo Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil2002
Khánh Hòa Province Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam2002
Tomsk Tomsk Oblast Flag of Russia.svg Russia2003
Wuxi Jiangsu Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China2006
Montevideo Montevideo Department Flag of Uruguay.svg Uruguay2012
Chennai Tamil Nadu Flag of India.svg India2016
Mandalay Mandalay Region Flag of Myanmar.svg Myanmar2017

Notable people

See also

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Coordinates: 35°33′N129°19′E / 35.550°N 129.317°E / 35.550; 129.317

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