Ultra HD Blu-ray

Last updated
Ultra HD Blu-ray
Ultra HD Blu-ray (logo).svg
Media type High-density optical disc
Encoding H.265/MPEG-H Part 2 (HEVC)
Capacity50 GB (dual-layer, [1] 92 Mb/s)
66 GB (dual-layer, [1] 123, 144 Mb/s)
100 GB (triple-layer, [1] 123, 144 Mb/s)
Block size2 KB sector, 64 KB block size [1]
Read mechanism405  nm laser
Developed by Blu-ray Disc Association
Dimensions120  mm (4.7  in) diameter
Usage Ultra-high-definition video
Extended from Standard Blu-ray
ReleasedFebruary 14, 2016;5 years ago (2016-02-14)

Ultra HD Blu-ray (marketed as 4K Ultra HD) (UHD-BD), also referred as 4K Blu-ray, [2] [3] is a digital optical disc data storage format that is an enhanced variant of Blu-ray. [4] Ultra HD Blu-ray discs are incompatible with existing standard Blu-ray players (though in most cases, a traditional Blu-ray and digital copy has been packaged with the Ultra HD Blu-ray discs). [1] Ultra HD Blu-ray supports 4K UHD (3840 × 2160 pixel resolution) video at frame rates up to 60 progressive frames per second, [4] encoded using High Efficiency Video Coding. [4] The discs support both high dynamic range by increasing the color depth to 10-bit per color and a greater color gamut than supported by conventional Blu-ray video by using the Rec. 2020 color space. 4K Blu-rays are supported on Microsoft's Xbox One X [5] and One S; [6] while retail game releases on the Xbox Series X and PlayStation 5 [7] [8] video game consoles may be natively printed onto 100GB UHD Blu-ray discs. [9]

Contents

To differentiate Ultra HD Blu-ray titles on store shelves, the format uses a black opaque or slightly transparent keep case packaging format, as opposed to blue.

Specifications

The specification allows for three disc capacities, each with its own data rate: 50 GB at 72 or 92 Mbit/s, and 66 GB and 100 GB at 92 Mbit/s, 123 or 144 Mbit/s. On 66 GB and 100 GB discs, the pits and lands are not narrower than those of a standard Blu-ray Disc, but shorter, which increases the capacity of each layer from 25 GB to 33 1/3 GB. This also means that each revolution of such a disc transfers more data than a revolution of a standard Blu-ray Disc, which means the transfer rate is higher despite the same linear velocity. In addition, the disc can be encoded to have the drive spin back up to the full 5,000 rpm starting from a point slightly away from the innermost part of the disc if an even higher transfer rate is needed. 50 and 66 GB use two layers, and 100 GB uses three layers. [10] [4] Ultra HD Blu-ray technology was licensed in mid 2015, and players had an expected release date of Christmas 2015. [4] Ultra HD Blu-ray uses a new revision of AACS DRM; AACS 2. In addition, AACS 2.1 is used on certain titles ( Stand by Me , Fury , The Patriot , Zombieland ).

On May 12, 2015, the Blu-ray Disc Association revealed completed specifications and the official Ultra HD Blu-ray logo. [11] Unlike conventional DVDs and Blu-rays, the new 4K format does not have region coding. [12]

On February 14, 2016, the BDA released Ultra HD Blu-ray with mandatory support for HDR10 Media Profile video and optional support for Dolby Vision. [13] [14]

As of January 23, 2018, the BDA spec v3.2 also includes optional support for HDR10+ and Philips/Technicolor's SL-HDR2, also known as Advanced HDR by Technicolor. [15] However, no Ultra HD Blu-ray player has ever supported SL-HDR2, and no discs encoded in SL-HDR2 were ever released.

Initial titles

The first Ultra HD Blu-ray Discs were officially released on February 14, 2016: [16]

Sales and reception

Sales of UHD Blu-ray players have been modest compared to older-generation video disc players, based on official US sales data from the Consumer Technology Association (CTA). [26] Peak sales occurred in 2017 with 884,000 units sold, and sales have declined in the years since, as have all disc player sales.[ citation needed ] Meanwhile, previous generations of disc players sold in excess of four times as many units per year as did UHD Blu-ray. [26]

Related Research Articles

Blu-ray Disc Association

The Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA) is the industry consortium that develops and licenses Blu-ray Disc technology and is responsible for establishing format standards and promoting business opportunities for Blu-ray Disc. The BDA is divided into three levels of membership: the Board of Directors, Contributors, and General Members.

High-definition video is video of higher resolution and quality than standard-definition. While there is no standardized meaning for high-definition, generally any video image with considerably more than 480 vertical scan lines or 576 vertical lines (Europe) is considered high-definition. 480 scan lines is generally the minimum even though the majority of systems greatly exceed that. Images of standard resolution captured at rates faster than normal, by a high-speed camera may be considered high-definition in some contexts. Some television series shot on high-definition video are made to look as if they have been shot on film, a technique which is often known as filmizing.

1080p Video mode

1080p is a set of HDTV high-definition video modes characterized by 1,920 pixels displayed across the screen horizontally and 1,080 pixels down the screen vertically; the p stands for progressive scan, i.e. non-interlaced. The term usually assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, implying a resolution of 2.1 megapixels. It is often marketed as Full HD or FHD, to contrast 1080p with 720p resolution screens. Although 1080p is sometimes informally referred to as 2K, these terms reflect two distinct technical standards, with differences including resolution and aspect ratio.

AVCHD is a file-based format for the digital recording and playback of high-definition video. It is H.264 and Dolby AC-3 packaged into the MPEG transport stream, with a set of constraints designed around the camcorders.

Blu-ray Optical disc format used for storing digital video and other digital data

The Blu-ray Disc (BD), often known simply as Blu-ray, is a digital optical disc storage format. It is designed to supersede the DVD format, and capable of storing several hours of high-definition video. The main application of Blu-ray is as a medium for video material such as feature films and for the physical distribution of video games for the PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, PlayStation 5, Xbox One, and Xbox Series X. The name "Blu-ray" refers to the blue laser used to read the disc, which allows information to be stored at a greater density than is possible with the longer-wavelength red laser used for DVDs.

HD DVD Obsolete optical disc format

HD DVD is a discontinued high-density optical disc format for storing data and playback of high-definition video. Supported principally by Toshiba, HD DVD was envisioned to be the successor to the standard DVD format.

High-definition optical disc format war Format war in the mid to late 2000s between HD DVD and Blu-ray

The high-definition optical disc format war was between the Blu-ray and HD DVD optical disc standards for storing high-definition video and audio; it took place between 2006 and 2008 and was won by Blu-ray Disc.

Kaleidescape High-fidelity movie content source for home cinema

Kaleidescape, Inc. is a Mountain View, California-based private company, founded in 2001, which designs multi-room home entertainment server systems that store and play back video and audio content to movie players that can be connected to televisions or projectors. The company began marketing its products in 2003. Research and development is carried out partly by Kaleidescape Canada based in Waterloo, Ontario.

CyberLink PowerDVD is a universal media player for movie discs, video files, photos and music. The latest version PowerDVD 20 released on April 14, 2020 includes support for the new Ultra HD Blu-ray Disc and 8K video format. During 2016, PowerDVD achieved certification from the Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA) for the playback of Ultra HD Blu-ray Discs, and became the world's first and only software player to pass the BD-ROM 4.0 PC Application Software License process.

"21:9" is a consumer electronics (CE) marketing term to describe the ultrawide aspect ratio of 64:27, designed to show films recorded in CinemaScope and equivalent modern anamorphic formats. The main benefit of this screen aspect ratio, compared to the more common 16:9, is the absence of the black bars at the top and bottom of the screen when viewing content in this format, and a constant display height when displaying other content with a lesser aspect ratio.

4K resolution Video size standard

4K resolution refers to a horizontal display resolution of approximately 4,000 pixels. Digital television and digital cinematography commonly use several different 4K resolutions. In television and consumer media, 3840 × 2160 is the dominant 4K standard, whereas the movie projection industry uses 4096 × 2160.

HDBaseT is a consumer electronic (CE) and commercial connectivity standard for transmission of uncompressed ultra-high-definition video, digital audio, DC power, Ethernet, USB 2.0, and other control communication over a single category cable up to 100 m in length, terminated using the same 8P8C modular connectors as used in Ethernet networks. HDBaseT technology is promoted and advanced by the HDBaseT Alliance.

8K resolution Resolutions with approximate width of 8,000 pixels

8K resolution refers to an image or display resolution with a width of approximately 8,000 pixels. 8K UHD is the highest resolution defined in the Rec. 2020 (UHDTV) standard.

Rec. 2020 ITU-R recommendation

ITU-R Recommendation BT.2020, more commonly known by the abbreviations Rec. 2020 or BT.2020, defines various aspects of ultra-high-definition television (UHDTV) with standard dynamic range (SDR) and wide color gamut (WCG), including picture resolutions, frame rates with progressive scan, bit depths, color primaries, RGB and luma-chroma color representations, chroma subsamplings, and an opto-electronic transfer function. The first version of Rec. 2020 was posted on the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) website on August 23, 2012, and two further editions have been published since then. It is expanded in several ways by Rec. 2100.

The PlayStation 4 technical specifications describe the various components of the PlayStation 4 (PS4) home video game console. Multiple versions of this console have been released since the initial launch of the PS4. Subsequent versions include changes to the technical specifications of the console.

Ultra-high-definition television Television formats beyond HDTV

Ultra-high-definition television today includes 4K UHD and 8K UHD, which are two digital video formats with an aspect ratio of 16:9. These were first proposed by NHK Science & Technology Research Laboratories and later defined and approved by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). It is a digital television (DTV) standard, and the successor to high-definition television (HDTV), which in turn was the successor to standard-definition television (SDTV).

Hybrid log–gamma High dynamic range standard that was jointly developed by the BBC and NHK

Hybrid log–gamma (HLG) is a backwards-compatible high dynamic range (HDR) standard that was jointly developed by the BBC and NHK. It provides the ability to encode a wide dynamic range, while still being compatible with the existing transmission standards in the standard dynamic range (SDR) region. This makes HLG compatible with SDR displays, reducing complexity and cost for both equipment manufacturers and content distributors.

HDR10 Open HDR standard

HDR10 Media Profile, more commonly known as HDR10, is an open HDR standard announced on 27 August 2015 by the Consumer Technology Association. It is the most widespread of the HDR formats.

Ultra HD Forum is an organization whose goal is to help solve the real world hurdles in deploying Ultra HD video and thus to help promote UHD deployment. The Ultra HD Forum will help navigate amongst the standards related to high dynamic range (HDR), high frame rate (HFR), next generation audio (NGA), and wide color gamut (WCG). The Ultra HD Forum is an industry organisation that is complementary to the UHD Alliance, covering different aspects of the UHD ecosystem.

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