Ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block is a procedure used in anesthesia that allows real-time imaging of the positions of the targeted nerve, needle, and surrounding vasculature and other anatomic structures.This visual aid increases the success rate of the block and may reduce the risk of complications. It may also reduce the amount of local anesthetic requried, while reducing the onset time of blocks.
Ménière's disease (MD) is a disorder of the inner ear that is characterized by episodes of feeling like the world is spinning, ringing in the ears, hearing loss, and a fullness in the ear. Typically, only one ear is affected initially; however, over time both ears may become involved. Episodes generally last from 20 minutes to a few hours. The time between episodes varies. The hearing loss and ringing in the ears can become constant over time.
A central venous catheter (CVC), also known as a central line, central venous line, or central venous access catheter, is a catheter placed into a large vein. It is a form of venous access. Placement of larger catheters in more centrally located veins is often needed in critically ill patients, or in those requiring prolonged intravenous therapies, for more reliable vascular access. These catheters are commonly placed in veins in the neck, chest, groin, or through veins in the arms.
Bronchiolitis is blockage of the small airways in the lungs due to a viral infection. It usually only occurs in children less than two years of age. Symptoms may include fever, cough, runny nose, wheezing, and breathing problems. More severe cases may be associated with nasal flaring, grunting, or the skin between the ribs pulling in with breathing. If the child has not been able to feed properly, signs of dehydration may be present.
Peripheral neuropathy, often shortened to neuropathy, is a general term describing disease affecting the peripheral nerves, meaning nerves beyond the brain and spinal cord. Damage to peripheral nerves may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function depending on which nerves are affected; in other words, neuropathy affecting motor, sensory, or autonomic nerves result in different symptoms. More than one type of nerve may be affected simultaneously. Peripheral neuropathy may be acute or chronic, and may be reversible or permanent.
Heavy menstrual bleeding, previously known as menorrhagia, is a menstrual period with excessively heavy flow. It is a type of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB).
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is the use of electric current produced by a device to stimulate the nerves for therapeutic purposes. TENS, by definition, covers the complete range of transcutaneously applied currents used for nerve excitation although the term is often used with a more restrictive intent, namely to describe the kind of pulses produced by portable stimulators used to reduce pain. The unit is usually connected to the skin using two or more electrodes which are typically conductive gel pads. A typical battery-operated TENS unit is able to modulate pulse width, frequency and intensity. Generally TENS is applied at high frequency (>50 Hz) with an intensity below motor contraction or low frequency (<10 Hz) with an intensity that produces motor contraction. While the use of TENS has proved effective in clinical studies, there is controversy over which conditions the device should be used to treat.
External cephalic version (ECV) is a process by which a breech baby can sometimes be turned from buttocks or foot first to head first. It is a manual procedure that is recommended by national guidelines for breech presentation of a pregnancy with a single baby, in order to enable vaginal delivery. It is usually performed late in pregnancy, that is, after 36 gestational weeks, but preferably 37 weeks, and can even be performed in early labour.
Epidural administration is a method of medication administration in which a medicine is injected into the epidural space around the spinal cord. The epidural route is used by physicians and nurse anesthetists to administer local anesthetic agents, analgesics, diagnostic medicines such as radiocontrast agents, and other medicines such as glucocorticoids. Epidural administration involves the placement of a catheter into the epidural space, which may remain in place for the duration of the treatment. The technique of intentional epidural administration of medication was first described in 1921 by Spanish military surgeon Fidel Pagés. In the United States, over 50% of childbirths involve the use of epidural anesthesia.
Labor induction is the process or treatment that stimulates childbirth and delivery. Inducing (starting) labor can be accomplished with pharmaceutical or non-pharmaceutical methods. In Western countries, it is estimated that one-quarter of pregnant women have their labor medically induced with drug treatment. Inductions are most often performed either with prostaglandin drug treatment alone, or with a combination of prostaglandin and intravenous oxytocin treatment.
Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is neuropathic pain that occurs due to damage to a peripheral nerve caused by the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. Typically, the nerve pain (neuralgia) is confined to an area of skin innervated by a single sensory nerve, which is known as a dermatome. PHN is defined as dermatomal nerve pain that persists for more than 90 days after an outbreak of herpes zoster affecting the same dermatome. Several types of pain may occur with PHN including continuous burning pain, episodes of severe shooting or electric-like pain, and a heightened sensitivity to gentle touch which would not otherwise cause pain or to painful stimuli (hyperalgesia). Abnormal sensations and itching may also occur.
Nerve block or regional nerve blockade is any deliberate interruption of signals traveling along a nerve, often for the purpose of pain relief. Local anesthetic nerve block is a short-term block, usually lasting hours or days, involving the injection of an anesthetic, a corticosteroid, and other agents onto or near a nerve. Neurolytic block, the deliberate temporary degeneration of nerve fibers through the application of chemicals, heat, or freezing, produces a block that may persist for weeks, months, or indefinitely. Neurectomy, the cutting through or removal of a nerve or a section of a nerve, usually produces a permanent block. Because neurectomy of a sensory nerve is often followed, months later, by the emergence of new, more intense pain, sensory nerve neurectomy is rarely performed.
Sugammadex, sold under the brand name Bridion, is a medication for the reversal of neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium and vecuronium in general anaesthesia. It is the first selective relaxant binding agent (SRBA).
Postoperative residual curarization (PORC) or residual neuromuscular blockade (RNMB) is a residual paresis after emergence from general anesthesia that may occur with the use of neuromuscular-blocking drugs. Today residual neuromuscular blockade is defined as a train of four ratio of less than 0.9 when measuring the response to ulnar nerve stimulation at the adductor pollicis muscle using mechanomyography or electromyography. A meta-analysis reported that the incidence of residual neuromuscular paralysis was 41% in patients receiving intermediate neuromuscular blocking agents during anaesthesia. It is possible that > 100,000 patients annually in the USA alone, are at risk of adverse events associated with undetected residual neuromuscular blockade. Neuromuscular function monitoring and the use of the appropriate dosage of sugammadex to reverse blockade produced by rocuronium can reduce the incidence of postoperative residual curarization. In this study, with usual care group receiving reversal with neostigmine resulted in a residual blockade rate of 43%.
Local anesthetic nerve block is a short-term nerve block involving the injection of local anesthetic as close to the nerve as possible for pain relief. The local anesthetic bathes the nerve and numbs the area of the body that is supplied by that nerve. The goal of the nerve block is to prevent pain by blocking the transmission of pain signals from the surgical site. The block provides pain relief during and after the surgery. The advantages of nerve blocks over general anesthesia include faster recovery, monitored anesthesia care vs. intubation with an airway tube, and much less postoperative pain.
Cerebrolysin is a mixture of peptides purified from pig brains, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF).
Hypertension is managed using lifestyle modification and antihypertensive medications. Hypertension is usually treated to achieve a blood pressure of below 140/90 mmHg to 160/100 mmHg. According to one 2003 review, reduction of the blood pressure by 5 mmHg can decrease the risk of stroke by 34%, of ischaemic heart disease by 21%, and reduce the likelihood of dementia, heart failure, and mortality from cardiovascular disease.
Fascia iliaca blocks is a local anesthetic nerve block, a type of regional anesthesia technique, used to provide analgesia or anaesthesia to the hip and thigh. FICB can performed by using ultrasound or with a loss of resistance technique, the latter sometimes referred to as the "two-pop-method". FICB works by affecting the femoral, obturator and the lateral cutaneous nerves with a local anesthetic.
Cochrane Eyes and Vision (CEV) is a collaboration of researchers and healthcare professionals who prepare systematic reviews to study interventions pertaining to the treatment of eye disease and visual impairment. Though many of the systematic reviews focus on common eye diseases, reviews have been prepared for varied eye topics, including screening prevention and rarer eye diseases. CEV was officially registered in 1997, and currently operates from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and is funded by the National Institute for Health Research. The joint Co-ordinating Editors of CEV are Mr Richard Wormald and Dr Jennifer Evans.
Pain management during childbirth is the treatment or prevention of pain that a woman may experience during labor and delivery. The amount of pain a woman feels during labor depends partly on the size and position of her baby, the size of her pelvis, her emotions, the strength of the contractions, and her outlook. Tension increases pain during labor. Virtually all women worry about how they will cope with the pain of labor and delivery. Childbirth is different for each woman and predicting the amount of pain experienced during birth and delivery can not be certain.
Pain management in children is the assessment and treatment of pain in infants and children.