Umaji Naik Khomane

Last updated

Umaji Naik (Ramoshi)
Born7 September 1791
Died3 February 1832(1832-02-03) (aged 40) Pune, India
Cause of deathHanging
Nationality Indian
Other namesvishwa krantiveer narveer raje Umaji Naik
Known for Indian Independence Movement
Parent(s)Dadoji Naik Khomane
Lakshmibai Naik Khomane

Umaji Naik also known as honorofically vishwa krantiveer narveer Raje Umaji Naik (7 September 1791 3 February 1832) was an Indian revolutionary who challenged the British rule in India around 1826 to 1832.He was one of the earliest freedom fighter of India.He fought against East India company and company rule [1]

Contents

Soon after the fall of Maratha Empire Umaji raised a tiny army against the British. His anti-British manifesto asked the country-men to fight against the foreign rulers. To capture him, the British Government announced a bounty of 10,000 rupees. Betrayed by a Ramoshi named Nana Raghu Chavan British arrested him, enquired then hold him guilty and hanged till death on 3 Feb 1834. He gave a message to the British and British forces came to arrest him. Though he fought against them, the forces sent were able to arrest him. After his capture, he was hanged in Pune. [2] [ clarification needed ]

Early life

Umaji Naik was born on 7 September 1791 in the Ramoshi tribe. Umaji's brother's name was Krishnaji Naik [3]

He was a freedom fighter and revolutionary leader in Maharashtra (then Maratha Empire) and belonged to the Ramoshi community, which migrated from Telangana and settled down in Maharashtra during the Maratha period but was later branded as a tribe of thieves during the rule. [4]

Fight against British rule

Before the East India company rule, Ramoshis use to work under Maratha rule. These Ramoshis used to work for surveillance of Maratha region and for security of Maratha forts in Maharashtra during the Maratha period. The Ramoshi(s) were entrusted with night patrolling and policing by the Marathas. [5]

Because of this work they had the right to take taxes from few specific villages. But after defeat of the Maratha kingdom by the British, this right got violated because of which Ramoshis started a struggle against the Britishers.

Soon after the fall of the Maratha empire, Umaji Naik raised a tiny army against Britishers.[ citation needed ] In 1826 Umaji Naik declared himself a king. In 1831 he spread his command, with a proclamation to kill British infantry and cavalry and to loot their property. Umaji lived in mountains of Satara, Kurud, Mand devi Kalbai's mountain, Khopoli Khandala and Borghat during his struggle against British Raj. He issued his stamp in which he wrote ' Umajiraje Naik, Mukkam Dongar' (Eng : King Umaji, lives in Mountains).

Umaji attacked Jejuri's police station/headquarter and killed policemen there. Ramoshi people used to punish those who were loyal to the Britishers and British Raj. Umaji would loot money of the British government and Savkars (exploiters of poor farmers) and give it to poor people. Because of his good work, Umaji was loved by poor. Due this British government were not able to capture him initially. Umaji extracted huge amount sums from Britishers and British loyals in the region of Pune and Satara districts.

In 1828 the Britishers not able to control him, entered into a pact with him. According to which the Britishers gave him 120 bigha land and promised to give government jobs to Ramoshi people. After this pact Umaji stopped war against British for some time. But the peace did not last long and Umaji again rose in revolt. [6]

Arrest

To capture Umaji Naik Ramoshi ; British East India company appointed Officer Makcintosh. [7] Under command of Makcintosh big British police officers like captain Wide, Livingston, Lukan planned and launched operation to arrest Umaji. In spite of that he did not get captured "Makcintosh bribed Umaji's sister Jijai by giving her ownership of four villages and arrested Umaji Naik". According to Gazetteer of Bombay presidency : Satara ' a Ramoshi name Nana Raghu Chavan who about 1831 received £1000 ( India rupee 10,000) from government for arrest of great Ramoshi bandit Umaji Naik' this is told by a dismissed agent of pant sachiv to district magistrate Mr.Rose on 10 June 1857. It shows that a Ramoshi betrayed with Umaji Naik. [8] Nana Raghu Chavan got this money from Britishers because they (Britishers) kept £1000 (Indian rupee 10,000) bounty on Umaji. He was arrested and kept in prison in Pune, after which on 3 February 1832 the East India company gave him the death penalty in Pune.

In Pune Umaji Naik was hanged in this Tehsil office on February 3, 1832, by the British Government. His dead body was hung from a peepal tree for three days to strike terror into the hearts of the public.

The Haveli Tehsil office, located in the old part of the city. [9]

See also

Notes

  1. Hebbar, Prajakta (7 April 2013). "Forgotten freedom fighter". The Indian Express. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  2. "mulnivasi nayak dailly on 6 June 2016"Diamond Maharashtra Sankritikosh (Marathi : डायमंड महाराष्ट्र संस्कृतीकोश), Durga Dixit, Pune, India, Diamond Publications, 2009, ISBN   978-81-8483-080-4.
  3. Guha, Sumit (November 2019). History and Collective Memory in South Asia, 1200–2000. Washington DC, USA: University of Washington. p. 96. ISBN   9780295746234.
  4. Hebbar, Prajakta (29 April 2020). "Forgotten freedom fighter". The Indian Express. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  5. Hebbar, Prajakta (7 April 2013). "The Forgotten Freedom Fighter". Indian Express. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  6. Kathare, Anil (2015). Kathare, Anil (ed.). Adhunik Bharatacha Itihas[History of Modern India] (in Marathi). Jalgaon: Prashant Publication. pp. 250–251. ISBN   9789385021503.
  7. Dossal, Maloni; Mariam, Ruby (1999). State Intervention and Popular Response: Western India in the Nineteenth Century. Popular publication. p. 60.
  8. M. Campbell, James (1885). Written at Bombay ,India. Gazetteer of Bombay presidency : Satara . chapter 7- history - The British 1848- 1884. Bombay ,india: British Government of India. p. 1.
  9. Hebbar, Prajakta (7 April 2013). "The Forgotten Freedom Fighter Prajakta Hebbar". Indian Express. Retrieved 29 April 2020.

Related Research Articles

Sharad Pawar Indian politician

Sharad Govindrao Pawar, is an Indian politician with over sixty years of public service. He holds a position of prominence in Indian politics as well as in the regional politics of Maharashtra. During his long career, Pawar has served as the Chief Minister of Maharashtra on three occasions and held the posts of Minister of Defence and Minister of Agriculture in the Government of India. He is president of the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP), which he founded in 1999, after separating from the Indian National Congress. He leads the NCP delegation in the Rajya Sabha, the upper chamber of the Indian parliament. He is one of the founders of Maha Vikas Aghadi, a post-poll alliance in Maharashtra between Shivsena, NCP, and INC.

Desh or Desha is a region adjacent to the Western Ghats between the Godavari River and Krishna River, a part of Deccan plateau, in the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The region is hilly and slopes towards the east, and is drained by the upper reaches of the Godavari and Krishna rivers and their tributaries.

Yashwantrao Chavan Indian politician

Yashwantrao Balwantrao Chavan was an Indian politician. He served as the last Chief Minister of Bombay State and the first of Maharashtra after latter was created by the division of Bombay state. His last significant ministerial post was as the Deputy Prime Minister of India in the short lived Charan Singh government in 1979. He was a strong Congress leader, co-operative leader, social activist and writer. He was popularly known as Leader of Common People. He advocated social democracy in his speeches and articles and was instrumental in establishing co-operatives in Maharashtra for the betterment of the farmers.

Satara district District of Maharashtra in India

Satara district is a district of Maharashtra state in western India with an area of 10,480 km² and a population of 3,003,741 of which 14.17% were urban. Satara is the capital of the district and other major towns include Medha, Wai, Karad, Koregaon, Dahiwadi, Koynanagar, Rahimatpur, Phaltan, Mahabaleshwar, Vaduj and Panchgani. This district comes under Pune Administrative Division along with Pune, Sangli, Solapur and Kolhapur. The district of Pune bounds it to the north, Raigad bounds it to the north-west, Solapur the east, Sangli to the south, and Ratnagiri to the west.

Narhar Vishnu Gadgil

Narhar Vishnu Gadgil was an Indian freedom fighter and politician from Maharashtra, India. He was also a writer. He wrote in both Marathi and English. His son Vitthalrao Gadgil also represented Congress later as minister and ideologue.

Vasudev Balwant Phadke tanishka Tanaji mane

Vasudev Balwant Phadke also known as ‘Father Of Indian Armed Rebellion’ was an Indian independence activist and revolutionary who sought India's independence from colonial rule. Phadke was moved by the plight of the farming community and believed that Swaraj was the only remedy for their ills. With the help of the Koli, Bhil, Mahar, Mang, Ramoshi and Dhangar communities in the region, he formed a revolutionary group of the Ramoshi people. The group started an armed struggle to overthrow the colonial government, launching raids on wealth European businessmen to obtain funds for the purpose. Phadke came to prominence when he got control of the city of Pune for a few days after catching colonial soldiers off-guard during one a surprise attack.

Phaltan Town, taluka and council in Maharashtra, India

Phaltan is a town, a taluka and a municipal council in Satara district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. The town is about 59 kilometres (37 mi) northeast of the city of Satara and about 110 km from Pune.

Jejuri City in Maharashtra, India

Jejuri is a city and a municipal council in Pune district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is famous for the main temple of Lord Khandoba. It is a famous temple town being the family deity of many houses in Maharashtra and Karnataka. Its economy is centered on businesses catering to the numerous devotees coming to worship the Khandoba Temple there. Recently the increase in property rates and the planning of an international airport near the town has seen a spurt of development happening there.

Narendra Dabholkar Indian rationalist and the Founder and former President of the MANS

Narendra Achyut Dabholkar was an Indian medical doctor, social activist, rationalist and author from Maharashtra, India. In 1989 he founded and became president of the Maharashtra Andhashraddha Nirmoolan Samiti (MANS),. Triggered by his murder on 20 August 2013, the pending Anti-Superstition and Black Magic Ordinance was promulgated in the state of Maharashtra, four days later. In 2014, he was posthumously awarded the Padma Shri for social work.

Bhoite is a surname found amongst the Maratha caste, mainly in the state of Maharashtra in India but it also appears in Indian states bordering Maharashtra.

Sawant is a Hindu religion surname of a Kshatriya Maratha clan, found mainly in the state of Maharashtra and neighbouring states in India. Origin Sawants are considered as Royal Knights of the Shilahara Dynasty who Ruled Konkan and were ruled by kings such as Khem Raje Sawant and Fond Raje Sawant. Sawant is the surname of a Maratha clan among the 96 royal clans of the Kshatriya Cast. Sawant possess commonly used Maratha honorific titles such as Sardar, Raje and Patil and they were active, having a historic presence in Maharashtra, Karnataka( predominantly in Karwar region ), Baroda, Nagpur, Satara, Sangli, Kolhapur, Goa and other Maratha-dominated regions of India. Sawant (Savant) word is derived from samant ("feudatory"). However, Maratha Sawants are from different clans such as Chandravanshi Sawant, Sawant-Bhosale (Sisodiya descendant), Sawant - Salunkhe, Sawant-Patel (Parmar descendant). Sawant was also a high rank feudal title given to Salunkhe-Patankar clan by Bahamani sultans. The Sawant branches are related to the kings and sardars of the Maratha clans. Bhirawade is one of the village who known for "Sawant Patel's" Armor. Titles The Sawant clan enjoyed the numerous feudal titles like Patil, Deshmukh, Desai, Sardesai, Naik, Sarpatil, Sardar, Sarkar under different Administrative powers like the Shilahars, the Bahamanis, the Mughals, the Marathas and the Britishers etc.

Keshavrao Marutrao Jedhe (1896-1959) was a leading Freedom Fighter and Congress Leader from Pune at the time of Indian Independence and leader of the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement. The Famous Swargate chowk in Pune is named after him.

Jat, Sangli Tehsil in Maharashtra, India

Jath is a town and taluka headquarters in Miraj subdivision of Sangli district in southern Maharashtra. Jath is one of the largest tehsils in Maharashtra state. Demographically, it has historically been a part of Man Desh. It is spelled in different ways like जत in Marathi and Jat or Jath in English.

Rango Bāpuji Gupte born into a marathi "Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu" family was an Indian diplomat, freedom fighter, and a revolutionary.

Shivrai was a copper coin minted during the rule of Marathas and remained in circulation till the end of the 19th century, primarily in the Bombay Presidency region.

History of Maharashtra

Maharashtra is a state in the western region of India. It is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area, and includes the major cities of Mumbai, Pune, Nagpur, Aurangabad and Nashik. The region that comprises the state has a long history dating back to the 4th century BCE, although the present-day state was not established until 1960 CE.

Bahirji Naik was an Indian spy and military commander in the army of Chatrapati Shivaji during a time when the Maratha Empire and Mughal Empire were at war. He is assumed to be a Maratha by his clan name Jadhav, but there is a tradition which claims him to be of the Ramoshi community, whose members were known for their resilience and as strong fighters.

Pratap Singh, Raja of Satara Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire

Pratap Singh Bhosale was the last Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire, Satara from 1808 to 1819. However, political power was under the control of Peshwas. He was also the Raja of Satara until 1839, when he was deposed by the British.

Vele, Satara Village in Maharashtra

Vele is a village in the Western region of Maharashtra state in India. It is located in Satara district of Maharashtra. Before it was a part of Bombay State and Princely state of Satara. It is located adjacent to Kanher Dam built on Venna River. There is a big temple of Bhairava at the village entrance. Also there are number of temples in closed vicinity of village. Surrounded by greenery and farms, agriculture is the main occupation in the village with more than 80% of the total area being used for agricultural activities. Though agriculture constitutes a mainstay of the economy of this village, besides a sizeable population working at various plum government positions does bolster the financial position.

Raghoji Bhangare

Raghojirao Ramjirao Bhangre also spell Bhangaria was an Indian revolutionary who challenged and defied the British power in Maharashtra. He was the son of Ramji Bhangre, a Koli who also resisted the British rule and was subsequently hanged in Cellular Jail. he was only ten years old when he took up arms against British rule in Maharashtra.