Umaji Naik Khomane

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Umaji Naik (Ramoshi)
Born7 September 1791
Died3 February 1832(1832-02-03) (aged 40) Pune, India
Cause of deathHanging
Nationality Indian
Other namesvishwa krantiveer narveer raje Umaji Naik
Known for Indian Independence Movement
Parent(s)Dadoji Naik Khomane
Lakshmibai Naik Khomane

Umaji Naik also known as honorofically vishwa krantiveer narveer Raje Umaji Naik (7 September 1791 3 February 1832) was an Indian revolutionary who challenged the British rule in India around 1826 to 1832.He was one of the earliest freedom fighter of India.He fought against East India company and company rule [1]


Soon after the fall of Maratha Empire Umaji raised a tiny army against the British. His anti-British manifesto asked the country-men to fight against the foreign rulers. To capture him, the British Government announced a bounty of 10,000 rupees. Betrayed by a Ramoshi named Nana Raghu Chavan British arrested him, enquired then hold him guilty and hanged till death on 3 Feb 1834. He gave a message to the British and British forces came to arrest him. Though he fought against them, the forces sent were able to arrest him. After his capture, he was hanged in Pune. [2] [ clarification needed ]

Early life

Umaji Naik was born on 7 September 1791 in the Ramoshi tribe. Umaji's brother's name was Krishnaji Naik [3]

He was a freedom fighter and revolutionary leader in Maharashtra (then Maratha Empire) and belonged to the Ramoshi community, which migrated from Telangana and settled down in Maharashtra during the Maratha period but was later branded as a tribe of thieves during the rule. [4]

Fight against British rule

Before the East India company rule, Ramoshis use to work under Maratha rule. These Ramoshis used to work for surveillance of Maratha region and for security of Maratha forts in Maharashtra during the Maratha period. The Ramoshi(s) were entrusted with night patrolling and policing by the Marathas. [5]

Because of this work they had the right to take taxes from few specific villages. But after defeat of the Maratha kingdom by the British, this right got violated because of which Ramoshis started a struggle against the Britishers.

Soon after the fall of the Maratha empire, Umaji Naik raised a tiny army against Britishers.[ citation needed ] In 1826 Umaji Naik declared himself a king. In 1831 he spread his command, with a proclamation to kill British infantry and cavalry and to loot their property. Umaji lived in mountains of Satara, Kurud, Mand devi Kalbai's mountain, Khopoli Khandala and Borghat during his struggle against British Raj. He issued his stamp in which he wrote ' Umajiraje Naik, Mukkam Dongar' (Eng : King Umaji, lives in Mountains).

Umaji attacked Jejuri's police station/headquarter and killed policemen there. Ramoshi people used to punish those who were loyal to the Britishers and British Raj. Umaji would loot money of the British government and Savkars (exploiters of poor farmers) and give it to poor people. Because of his good work, Umaji was loved by poor. Due this British government were not able to capture him initially. Umaji extracted huge amount sums from Britishers and British loyals in the region of Pune and Satara districts.

In 1828 the Britishers not able to control him, entered into a pact with him. According to which the Britishers gave him 120 bigha land and promised to give government jobs to Ramoshi people. After this pact Umaji stopped war against British for some time. But the peace did not last long and Umaji again rose in revolt. [6]


To capture Umaji Naik Ramoshi ; British East India company appointed Officer Makcintosh. [7] Under command of Makcintosh big British police officers like captain Wide, Livingston, Lukan planned and launched operation to arrest Umaji. In spite of that he did not get captured "Makcintosh bribed Umaji's sister Jijai by giving her ownership of four villages and arrested Umaji Naik". According to Gazetteer of Bombay presidency : Satara ' a Ramoshi name Nana Raghu Chavan who about 1831 received £1000 ( India rupee 10,000) from government for arrest of great Ramoshi bandit Umaji Naik' this is told by a dismissed agent of pant sachiv to district magistrate Mr.Rose on 10 June 1857. It shows that a Ramoshi betrayed with Umaji Naik. [8] Nana Raghu Chavan got this money from Britishers because they (Britishers) kept £1000 (Indian rupee 10,000) bounty on Umaji. He was arrested and kept in prison in Pune, after which on 3 February 1832 the East India company gave him the death penalty in Pune.

In Pune Umaji Naik was hanged in this Tehsil office on February 3, 1832, by the British Government. His dead body was hung from a peepal tree for three days to strike terror into the hearts of the public.

The Haveli Tehsil office, located in the old part of the city. [9]

See also


  1. Hebbar, Prajakta (7 April 2013). "Forgotten freedom fighter". The Indian Express. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  2. "mulnivasi nayak dailly on 6 June 2016"Diamond Maharashtra Sankritikosh (Marathi : डायमंड महाराष्ट्र संस्कृतीकोश), Durga Dixit, Pune, India, Diamond Publications, 2009, ISBN   978-81-8483-080-4.
  3. Guha, Sumit (November 2019). History and Collective Memory in South Asia, 1200–2000. Washington DC, USA: University of Washington. p. 96. ISBN   9780295746234.
  4. Hebbar, Prajakta (29 April 2020). "Forgotten freedom fighter". The Indian Express. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  5. Hebbar, Prajakta (7 April 2013). "The Forgotten Freedom Fighter". Indian Express. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  6. Kathare, Anil (2015). Kathare, Anil (ed.). Adhunik Bharatacha Itihas[History of Modern India] (in Marathi). Jalgaon: Prashant Publication. pp. 250–251. ISBN   9789385021503.
  7. Dossal, Maloni; Mariam, Ruby (1999). State Intervention and Popular Response: Western India in the Nineteenth Century. Popular publication. p. 60.
  8. M. Campbell, James (1885). Written at Bombay ,India. Gazetteer of Bombay presidency : Satara . chapter 7- history - The British 1848- 1884. Bombay ,india: British Government of India. p. 1.
  9. Hebbar, Prajakta (7 April 2013). "The Forgotten Freedom Fighter Prajakta Hebbar". Indian Express. Retrieved 29 April 2020.

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