Umayyad dynasty

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The Banu Umayya (Arabic : بَنُو أُمَيَّة, romanized: Banū Umayya, lit.  'Sons of Umayya ') or Umayyads (الأمويون), were the ruling family of the caliphate between 661 and 750 and later of Islamic Spain between 756 and 1031. In the pre-Islamic period, they were a prominent clan of the Quraysh tribe descended from Umayya ibn Abd Shams. Despite staunch opposition to the Islamic prophet Muhammad, the Umayyads embraced Islam before the latter's death in 632. A member of the clan, Uthman, went on to become the third Rashidun caliph in 644–656, while other members held various governorships. One of these governors, Mu'awiya I, won the First Muslim Civil War in 661 and established the Umayyad Caliphate with its capital in Damascus, Syria. This marked the beginning of the Umayyad dynasty, the first hereditary dynasty in the history of Islam, and the only one to rule over the entire Islamic world of its time.

The romanization of Arabic writes written and spoken Arabic in the Latin script in one of various systematic ways. Romanized Arabic is used for a number of different purposes, among them transcription of names and titles, cataloging Arabic language works, language education when used in lieu of or alongside the Arabic script, and representation of the language in scientific publications by linguists. These formal systems, which often make use of diacritics and non-standard Latin characters and are used in academic settings or for the benefit of non-speakers, contrast with informal means of written communication used by speakers such as the Latin-based Arabic chat alphabet.

Literal translation, direct translation, or word-for-word translation is the rendering of text from one language to another one word at a time with or without conveying the sense of the original whole.

Umayya ibn Abd Shams was the son of Abd Shams and is the progenitor of the line of the Umayyad Caliphs. Anti-Umayyad polemic says that his name is derived from 'afa', a diminutive of the word for slave-girl and instead of being the legitimate son of Abd Shams, Ibn al-Kalbi claim that he was adopted by him, however Ibn al-Kalbi is acknowledged as unreliable reporter. The clan of Banu Umayya as well as the dynasty that ruled the Umayyad Caliphate are named after Umayya ibn Abd Shams.

Contents

The Sufyanid line founded by Mu'awiya failed in 683 and Umayyad authority was challenged in the Second Muslim Civil War, but the dynasty ultimately prevailed under Marwan I, who founded the Marwanid line of Umayyad caliphs. The Umayyads drove on the early Muslim conquests, including North Africa, Spain, Central Asia, and Sindh, but the constant warfare exhausted the state's military resources, while Alid revolts and tribal rivalries weakened the regime from within. Finally, in 750 the Abbasid Revolution overthrew Caliph Marwan II and massacred most of the family. One of the survivors, Abd al-Rahman, a grandson of Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, escaped to Muslim Spain (al-Andalus), where he founded the Umayyad Emirate of Córdoba, which Abd al-Rahman III elevated to the status of a caliphate in 929. After a brief golden era, the Caliphate of Córdoba disintegrated into several independent taifa kingdoms in 1031, thus marking a definitive end to the Umayyad dynasty.

Second Fitna period of general political and military disorder during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the first Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I

The Second Fitna or the Second Islamic Civil War was a period of general political and military disorder and conflicts in the Islamic community during the early Umayyad caliphate. It followed the death of the first Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I in 680 and lasted for about twelve years. The war involved the suppression of two challenges to the Umayyad dynasty, the first by Husayn ibn Ali, as well as his supporters including Sulayman ibn Surad and Mukhtar al-Thaqafi who rallied for his revenge in Iraq, and the second by Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr.

Marwān ibn al-Ḥakam ibn Abi al-ʿAs ibn Umayya, commonly known as Marwan I was the fourth caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate. He ruled for less than a year in 684–685, founding the Marwanid ruling house, which took over power from the Sufyanid branch of the Umayyad dynasty and remained in power until 750. Marwan had known the Islamic prophet Muhammad and is thus considered a ṣaḥābī (companion). He served as the secretary and right-hand man of his kinsman Caliph Uthman and participated in the defense of his house during a rebel siege. Uthman was killed by the rebels, prompting Marwan to kill Talha ibn Ubayd Allah, whom he held culpable, during the Battle of the Camel in 656. He subsequently gave allegiance to Caliph Ali and later served as governor of Medina under his kinsman Caliph Mu'awiya I, founder of the Umayyad Caliphate.

Early Muslim conquests Historical process in 7th-8th centuries CE

The early Muslim conquests, also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century. He established a new unified polity in the Arabian Peninsula which under the subsequent Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates saw a century of rapid expansion.

History

Pre-Islamic origins

The Umayyads, or Banu Umayya, were a clan of the larger Quraysh tribe, which dominated Mecca in the pre-Islamic era. [1] The Quraysh derived prestige among the Arab tribes through their protection and maintenance of the Ka'aba, which at the time was regarded by the largely polytheistic Arabs across the Arabian Peninsula as their most sacred sanctuary. [1] A certain Qurashi tribesman, Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy, who based on his place in the genealogical tradition would have lived in the latter half of the 5th century, was apparently charged with the maintenance and protection of the Ka'aba and its pilgrims. [2] These roles passed to his sons Abd Shams, Hashim and others. [2] Abd Shams was the father of Umayya, the eponymous progenitor of the Umayyads. [3]

Quraysh Arabic tribe

The Quraysh were a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca and its Ka'bah. The Islamic prophet Muhammad was born into the Hashemite clan of this tribe. Despite this, many of the Qurayshi tribe staunchly opposed Muhammad, until converting to Islam en masse in 630 CE. Afterward, leadership of the Muslim community traditionally passed to a member of the Quraysh, as was the case with the Rashidun, Umayyad, and Abbasid caliphs.

Mecca Saudi Arabian city and capital of the Makkah province

Mecca, also spelled Makkah, is a city in the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia. 70 km (43 mi) inland from Jeddah, in a narrow valley 277 m (909 ft) above sea level, 340 kilometres (210 mi) south of Medina, its population in 2012 was 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj ("Pilgrimage"), held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah.

Pre-Islamic Arabia Arabic civilization which existed in the Arabian Peninsula before the rise of Islam in the 630s

Pre-Islamic Arabia is the Arabian Peninsula prior to Muhammad's preaching of Islam in 610 CE.

Umayya succeeded Abd Shams as the qāʾid (wartime commander) of the Meccans. [4] This position was apparently an occasional political post whose holder oversaw the direction of Mecca's military affairs in times of war instead of an actual field command. [4] This proved instructive as later Umayyads were known for possessing considerable political and military organizational skills. [4] Historian Giorgio Levi Della Vida suggests that information in Muslim traditional sources about Umayya, as with all the ancient progenitors of the tribes of Arabia, "be accepted with caution", but "that too great skepticism with regard to tradition would be as ill-advised as absolute faith in its statements". [3] Della Vida further asserts that since the Umayyads who appear at the beginning of Muslim history in the early 7th century were no later than third-generation descendants of Umayya, the latter's existence is quite plausible. [3]

Qaid title

Qaid, also spelled kaid or caïd, is a word meaning "commander" or "leader." It was a title in the Norman kingdom of Sicily, applied to palatine officials and members of the curia, usually to those who were Muslims or converts to Islam. The word entered the Latin language as Latin: gaitus or Latin: gaytus. Later the word was used in North Africa for the governor of a fortress or the warden of a prison, also in Spain and Portugal in the form with the definite article "alcayde" (Spanish) "alcaide" (Portuguese). It is also used as a male Arabic given name.

Giorgio Levi Della Vida was an Italian Jewish linguist whose expertise lay in Hebrew, Arabic, and other Semitic languages, as well as on the history and culture of the Near East.

The tribes of Arabia are the clans that originated in the Arabian Peninsula.

By circa 600, the Quraysh had developed trans-Arabian trade networks, organizing caravans to Syria in the north and Yemen in the south. [1] The Banu Umayya and the Banu Makhzum dominated these trade networks and developed economic and military alliances with the nomadic Arab tribes that controlled the northern and central Arabian desert expanses, gaining them a degree of political power in Arabia. [5]

Levant Geographic and cultural region consisting of the eastern Mediterranean between Anatolia and Egypt

The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean, primarily in Western Asia. In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria. In its widest historical sense, the Levant included all of the eastern Mediterranean with its islands; that is, it included all of the countries along the Eastern Mediterranean shores, extending from Greece to Cyrenaica.

Yemen Republic in Western Asia

Yemen, officially the Republic of Yemen, is a country at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is the second-largest Arab sovereign state in the peninsula, occupying 527,970 square kilometres. The coastline stretches for about 2,000 kilometres. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Guardafui Channel to the south, and the Arabian Sea and Oman to the east. Yemen's territory encompasses more than 200 islands, including the largest island in the Middle East, Socotra. Yemen is a member of the Arab League, United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

Banū Makhzūm was one of the wealthy clans of Quraysh. They are regarded as one of three most powerful and influential Tribes in Mecca before the advent of Islam, the other two being Banu Hashim-the Islamic prophet Muhammad- and Banu Umayya Members of this clan still live in present-day Saudi Arabia and Syria.

Opposition and embrace of Islam

When the Islamic prophet Muhammad, a member from the Banu Hashim, a politically weaker and less wealthy clan of the Quraysh related to the Banu Umayya through their shared ancestor, Abd Manaf, began his religious teachings in Mecca, he was opposed by most of the Quraysh. [6] [7] He ultimately found support from the inhabitants of Medina and relocated there with his followers in 622. [8] The descendants of Abd Shams, including the Umayyads, were among the principal leaders of Qurashi opposition to the Islamic prophet Muhammad, a member of the Banu Hashim. [9] They superseded the Banu Makhzum led by Abu Jahl as a result of the heavy losses that its leadership incurred fighting the Muslims at the Battle of Badr in 624. [10] An Umayyad chieftain, Abu Sufyan, thereafter became the leader of the Meccan army that fought the Muslims under Muhammad at the battles of Uhud and the Trench. [9]

Muhammad Founder of Islam

Muhammad was an Arab political, social and religious leader and the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. He is viewed as the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief. He is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mahamad, Muhamad and many others.

Banu Hashim clan in the Quraysh tribe

Banū Hāshim is a clan in the Quraysh tribe. The Islamic prophet, Muhammad was a member of this Arab tribe; his great-grandfather was Hashim ibn Abd Manaf, for whom the clan is named. Members of this clan are referred to as Hashemites. Descendants of Muhammed usually carry the titles Sayyid, Syed, Hashmi, Sayed and Sharif, or the Ashraf clan.

Medina City in Al Madinah, Saudi Arabia

Medina, also transliterated as Madīnah, is the capital of the Al-Madinah Region in Saudi Arabia. At the city's heart is al-Masjid an-Nabawi, which is the burial place of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, and it is one of two holiest cities in Islam, the other being Mecca.

Abu Sufyan and his sons, along with most of the Umayyads, ultimately embraced Islam toward the end of Muhammad's life, following the Muslim victory over the Meccans at the Battle of Hunayn in 629. [9] To secure the loyalty of certain prominent Umayyad leaders, including Abu Sufyan, Muhammad offered them gifts and positions of importance in the nascent Muslim state. [9] He installed another member of the clan, Attab ibn Asid ibn Abi'l-'Is, as the first governor of Mecca. [11] Though Mecca retained its paramountcy as a religious center, Medina continued to serve as the political center of the Muslims. Abu Sufyan and the Banu Umayya relocated to the city to maintain their growing political influence. [12]

Following Muhammad's death in 632, a succession crisis ensued and nomadic tribes throughout Arabia that had embraced Islam defected from the nascent, Medina-based Muslim state. [13] Abu Bakr, trusted by the Ansar and the Muhajirun (Muhammad's initial supporters from Medina and Mecca, respectively) as one of Muhammad's oldest friends and earliest converts to Islam and accepted by the late converts from the Quraysh as a native Meccan who assured their influential role in state matters, was elected caliph (paramount political and religious leader of the Muslim community). [14] Abu Bakr showed favor to the Umayyads by awarding them a prominent role in the Muslim conquest of Syria. He first assigned the Umayyad Khalid ibn Sa'id ibn al-As as commander of the expedition, then replaced him with four commanders, among whom was Yazid, the son of Abu Sufyan, who owned property and maintained trade networks in Syria. [15] [16]

Abu Bakr's successor, Caliph Umar (r. 634–644), though he actively curtailed the influence of the Qurayshi elite in favor of Muhammad's earlier supporters in the administration and military, did not disturb the growing foothold of Abu Sufyan's sons in Syria, which was all but conquered by 638. [17] When his overall commander over the province, Abu Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah, died in 639, he appointed Yazid governor of its Damascus, Palestine and Jordan districts. [17] Yazid died shortly after and Umar installed his brother Mu'awiya in his place. [18] Umar's exceptional treatment of Abu Sufyan's sons may have stemmed from his respect for the family, their burgeoning alliance with the powerful Banu Kalb tribe as a counterbalance to the influence of the Himyarite tribes who entered the Homs district during the conquest or the lack of a suitable candidate at the time, particularly amid the plague of Amwas which had already killed Abu Ubayda and Yazid. [18]

Empowerment by Caliph Uthman

Uthman ibn Affan, a wealthy Umayyad merchant, early convert to Islam and son-in-law and close companion of Muhammad succeeded Caliph Umar upon the latter's death in 644. [19] Uthman initially kept his predecessors' appointees in their provincial posts, but gradually replaced many with Umayyads or his maternal kinsmen from the Banu Umayya's parent clan, the Banu Abd Shams: [20] Mu'awiya, who had been appointed governor of Syria by Umar, retained his post; al-Walid ibn Uqba and Sa'id ibn al-'As were successively appointed to Kufa, one of the two main garrisons and administrative centers of Iraq; and Marwan ibn al-Hakam became his chief adviser. [20] Though a prominent member of the clan, Uthman is not considered part of the Umayyad dynasty because he was chosen by consensus (shura) among the inner circle of Muslim leadership and never attempted to nominate an Umayyad as his successor. [21] Nonetheless, as a result of Uthman's policies, the Umayyads regained a measure of the power they had lost after the Muslim conquest of Mecca. [21]

The assassination of Uthman in 656 became a rallying cry for the Qurashi opposition to his successor and cousin of Muhammad, Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib of the Banu Hashim. [22] The Qurashi elite did not hold Ali responsible, but opposed his accession under the circumstances of Uthman's demise. Following their defeat at the Battle of the Camel near Basra, which saw the deaths of their leaders Talha ibn Ubayd Allah and al-Zubayr ibn Awwam, both potential contenders of the caliphate, the mantle of opposition to Ali was taken up chiefly by Mu'awiya. [22] Initially, he refrained from openly claiming the caliphate, focusing instead on undermining Ali's authority and consolidating his position in Syria, all in the name of avenging Uthman's death. [23] Mu'awiya and Ali with their respective Syrian and Iraqi supporters fought a stalemate at the Battle of Siffin in 657. [24] It ultimately led to an indecisive arbitration, which ultimately weakened Ali's command over his partisans, while raising the stature of Mu'awiya as Ali's equal. [25] As Ali was bogged down combating his former partisans, who became known as the Kharijites, Mu'awiya was recognized as caliph by his core supporters, the Syrian Arab tribes, in 659 or 660. [26] When Ali was assassinated by a Kharijite in 661, Mu'awiya took the opportunity to march on Kufa where he ultimately compelled Ali's son Hasan to cede caliphal authority and gain recognition from the region's Arab tribal nobility. [26] As a result, Mu'awiya became widely accepted as caliph, though opposition by the Kharijites and some of Ali's loyalists persisted, albeit at a less consistent level. [27]

Establishment of caliphate in Damascus

The reunification of the Muslim community under Mu'awiya's leadership marked the establishment of the Umayyad dynasty. [27] Based on the accounts of the traditional Muslim sources, Hawting writes that

... the Umayyads, leading representatives of those who had opposed the Prophet [Muhammad] until the latest possible moment, had within thirty years of his death reestablished their position to the extent that they were now at the head of the community which he had founded.

Branches

In the early 7th century, prior to their conversion to Islam, the main branches of the Umayyads were the Aʿyās and the ʿAnābisa. [4] The former grouped the descendants of Umayya's sons Abūʾl-ʿĀṣ, al-ʿĀṣ, Abūʾl-Īṣ and al-ʿUwayṣ, all of whose names shared the same or similar root, hence the eponymous label, "Aʿyās". [4] The ʿAnābisa, which is the plural form of ʿAnbasa, a common name in this branch of the clan, gathered the descendants of Umayya's sons Ḥarb, Abū Ḥarb, Abū Sufyān ʿAnbasa, Sufyān, ʿAmr and Umayya's possibly adopted son, Abū ʿAmr Dhakwān. [4]

Two of the sons of Abūʾl-ʿĀṣ, ʿAffān and al-Ḥakam, each fathered future caliphs, ʿUthmān and Marwān I, respectively. [4] From the latter's descendants, known as the Marwanids, came the Umayyad caliphs of Damascus who reigned successively between 684 and 750, and then the Cordoba-based emirs and caliphs of al-Andalus (Muslim Spain), who held office until 1031. [4] Other than those who had escaped to al-Andalus, most of the Marwanids were killed in the Abbasid purges of 750. However, a number of them settled in Egypt and Iran, where one of them, Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani, authored the famous source of Arab history, the Kitab al-Aghani . [4] Uthman, the third Rashidun caliph, who ruled between 644 and 656, left several descendants, some of whom served political posts under the Umayyad caliphs. [4] From the Abu'l-'Is line came the politically important family of Asid ibn Abu'l-'Is, whose members served military and gubernatorial posts under various Rashidun and Umayyad caliphs. [4] The al-'As line, meanwhile, produced Sa'id ibn al-'As, who served as one of Uthman's governors in Kufa. [4]

The most well-known family of the 'Anabisa branch was that of Harb's son Abu Sufyan Sakhr. [28] From his descendants, the Sufyanids, came Mu'awiya I, who founded the Umayyad Caliphate in 661, and Mu'awiya I's son and successor, Yazid I. [29] Sufyanid rule ceased with the death of the latter's son Mu'awiya II in 684, though Yazid's other sons Khalid and Abd Allah continued to play political roles in the caliphate with the former being credited as the founder of Arabic alchemy. [29] Abd Allah's son Abu Muhammad Ziyad al-Sufyani, meanwhile, led a rebellion against the Abbasids in 750, but was ultimately slain. [29] Abu Sufyan's other sons were Yazid, who preceded Mu'awiya I as governor of Syria, 'Amr, 'Anbasa, Muhammad and 'Utba. [29] Only the last two left progeny. [29] Another important family of the 'Anabisa were the descendants of Abu 'Amr, known as the Banu Abu Mu'ayt. [29] Abu 'Amr's grandson ʿUqba ibn Abī Muʿayt was captured and executed on Muhammad's orders during the Battle of Badr for his previously harsh incitement against the prophet. [29] 'Uqba's son, al-Walid, served as 'Uthman's governor in Kufa for a brief period. [29] The Banu Abu Mu'ayt made Iraq and Upper Mesopotamia their home. [29]

Family tree of Umayyad rulers

Umayads.gif
Key
   Uthman ibn Affan (Rashidun Caliph, 644–656)
   Umayyad Caliphs of Damascus (661–750)
   Umayyad Emirs of Córdoba (756–929)
   Umayyad Caliphs of Córdoba (929–1031)

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Abū Unaysal-Ḍaḥḥak ibn Qays al-Fihrī was an Umayyad general, head of security forces and governor of Damascus during the reigns of caliphs Mu'awiya I, Yazid I and Mu'awiya II. Though long an Umayyad loyalist, after the latter's death, al-Dahhak defected to the anti-Umayyad claimant to the caliphate, Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr.

The Hashemite–Umayyad rivalry was a feud between the clans of Banu Hashim and Banu Umayya, both belonging to the Meccan Arab tribe of Quraysh, in the 7th and 8th centuries. The rivalry is important as it influenced key events in the course of early Islamic history.

Muslim ibn ʿUqba al-Murrī (pre-622–683) was a general of the Umayyad Caliphate during the reigns of caliphs Mu'awiya I and his son and successor Yazid I (680–683). The latter assigned Muslim, a staunch loyalist who had distinguished himself at the Battle of Siffin, to be the commander of an expedition against the people of Medina for refusing to give Yazid the oath of allegiance. The victory of Muslim at the Battle of al-Harrah in 683 and the subsequent pillaging of Medina by his army was considered among the major injustices carried out by the Umayyads. Muslim died shortly after.

Al-Walīd ibn ʿUtba ibn Abī Sufyān was a Umayyad ruling family member and statesman during the reigns of the Umayyad caliphs Mu'awiya I and Yazid I. He served two stints as the governor of Medina in 677/78–680 and 681–682. He was dismissed during his first term for failing to secure oaths of allegiance from Husayn ibn Ali and other senior Muslim figures who opposed Yazid's accession. After his relocation to Damascus during the Second Fitna, he was imprisoned in 684 for proclaiming his support for continued Umayyad rule and condemning the anti-Umayyad caliph Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr. He was freed shortly after by his kinsman, Khalid ibn Yazid and the pro-Umayyad Banu Kalb tribe.

ʿUthman ibn Muḥammad ibn Abī Sufyān was a member of the Umayyad ruling family who served as the governor of Medina under the Umayyad caliph Yazid I in 682 until being expelled by its townspeople in 683 during the Second Fitna.

ʿUtba ibn Abī Sufyān ibn Ḥarb was a member of the Umayyad ruling family and served as the Umayyad governor of Egypt in 664–665, during the reign of his brother, Caliph Mu'awiya I.

Nuʿmān ibn Bashīr al-Ansārī was a commander and statesman of the Umayyad Caliphate. A supporter of Mu'awiya ibn Abi Sufyan during the First Muslim Civil War, he was appointed by him governor of Kufa in 678–680. Afterward, he was made governor of Homs by Caliph Yazid I. After the latter's death, he gave allegiance to the Mecca-based, Caliph Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr. When pro-Umayyad forces routed Ibn al-Zubayr's supporters in Syria, he fled Homs but was slain during his escape.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Watt 1986, p. 434.
  2. 1 2 Hawting 2000, pp. 21-22.
  3. 1 2 3 Della Vida 2000, p. 837.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Della Vida 2000, p. 838.
  5. Donner 1981, p. 51.
  6. Donner 1981, p. 53.
  7. Wellhausen 1927, pp. 40–41.
  8. Donner 1981, p. 54.
  9. 1 2 3 4 Hawting 2000, p. 841.
  10. Wellhausen 1927, p. 41.
  11. Poonawala 1990, p. 8.
  12. Wellhausen 1927, pp. 20–21.
  13. Donner 1981, p. 82.
  14. Donner 1981, pp. 83–84.
  15. Madelung 1997, p. 45.
  16. Donner 1981, p. 114.
  17. 1 2 Madelung 1997, pp. 60–61.
  18. 1 2 Madelung 1997, p. 61.
  19. Ahmed 2010, p. 106.
  20. 1 2 Ahmed 2010, p. 107.
  21. 1 2 Hawting 2000, p. 26.
  22. 1 2 Hawting 2000, p. 27.
  23. Hawting 2000, pp. 27–28.
  24. Hawting 2000, p. 28.
  25. Hawting 2000, pp. 28–29.
  26. 1 2 Hawting 2000, p. 30.
  27. 1 2 Hawting 2000, p. 31.
  28. Della Vida 2000, pp. 838-839.
  29. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Della Vida 2000, p. 839.

Sources

Cadet branch of the Quraysh
Rashidun Caliphate as elective caliphate Caliphate dynasty
661 – 6 August 750
Succeeded by
Abbasid dynasty
Preceded by
Umayyad dynasty as caliphal dynasty
Ruling house of the Emirate of Córdoba
15 May 756 – 16 January 929
Emirate elevated to Caliphate
New title
Ruling house of the Caliphate of Córdoba
16 January 929 – 1017
Succeeded by
Hammudid dynasty
Preceded by
Hammudid dynasty
Ruling house of the Caliphate of Córdoba
1023 – 1025
Succeeded by
Hammudid dynasty
Preceded by
Hammudid dynasty
Ruling house of the Caliphate of Córdoba
1026 – 1031
Caliphate dissolved
into Taifa kingdoms