The Umkehr is the time variation of the ratio of the scattered intensity at two different wavelengths. The word means 'reversal' in German. The Umkehr effect is observed when measurements are made with ultraviolet spectrophotometer of the ratio of the zenith sky light intensities of two wavelengths in the solar ultraviolet when the sun is near the horizon. The shorter of two wavelengths (intensity I) is strongly absorbed and other (intensity I' ) is weakly absorbed. If the value of log(I/I' ) is plotted against the sun's zenith angle, it is observed that this log-intensity ratio decreases as the zenith angle increases until a minimum is reached for a zenith angle of about 80 (when the wavelengths are 3114 and 3324 A0).This effect was first noticed by Götz in 1930. The Umkehr measurement is known as customarily N-value and is given by the logarithm base 10 of the ratio of cloudless zenith sky intensities at two different wavelengths scaled by a multiplicative factor 100 plus a constant which depends on instruments and extraterrestrial radiation. Methods for deriving vertical distribution from the umkehr measurements were developed by Götz, Dobson and Meetham in 1934, using the Dobson ozone spectrophotometer developed by Gordon Dobson. In 1964 Carlton Mateer provided analysis on information content in umkehr measurements.
Ultraviolet (UV) designates a band of the electromagnetic spectrum with wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays. UV radiation is present in sunlight, and contributes about 10% of the total electromagnetic radiation output from the Sun. It is also produced by electric arcs and specialized lights, such as mercury-vapor lamps, tanning lamps, and black lights. Although long-wavelength ultraviolet is not considered an ionizing radiation because its photons lack the energy to ionize atoms, it can cause chemical reactions and causes many substances to glow or fluoresce. Consequently, the chemical and biological effects of UV are greater than simple heating effects, and many practical applications of UV radiation derive from its interactions with organic molecules.
The zenith is an imaginary point directly "above" a particular location, on the imaginary celestial sphere. "Above" means in the vertical direction opposite to the apparent gravitational force at that location. The opposite direction, i.e. the direction in which gravity pulls, is toward the nadir. The zenith is the "highest" point on the celestial sphere.
The Dobson spectrophotometer, also known as Dobsonmeter, Dobson spectrometer, or just Dobson is one of the earliest instruments used to measure atmospheric ozone.
Considering light which is scattered only once in the atmosphere, the light received by the instrument at surface is contributed by light scattered downward from all the levels in the atmosphere. The amount of light contributed by scattering at any particular level depends on (a) the number of air molecules at that level and (b) the absorption by ozone and scattering by air molecules both before and after scattering. As the height increases contribution of effect (a) decreases and contribution of effect (b) increases. For a given zenith angle, the scattered light contribution comes from well defined layer of atmosphere, which can be termed as an effective scattering height. The effective scattering height depends on the ozone absorption coefficient and on the solar zenith angle, increasing as with each of these. The effective scattering height will always be higher for shorter wavelength which is more strongly absorbed. As the sun approaches the horizon, the two intensities decreases, but intensity I decreasing more rapidly than I' . However, when the effective scattering height for the short wavelength is above the ozone maximum, I decreases more slowly than I' , because the ozone absorption occurs mostly in the shorter vertical path after the scattering event, and the ratio I/I' increases until the effective scattering height for I' is also above the ozone maximum. This reversal (Umkehr) or inversion implies the existence of maximum of ozone concentration at some level in the atmosphere.
The resulting ozone profile derived from reduction of these measurements is quite dependent on the algorithm used. The most current algorithm is I. Petropavlovskikh and P.K. Bhartia (2004).Current description can be found here: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/grad/research/umkehr/
When two particles interact, their mutual cross section is the area transverse to their relative motion within which they must meet in order to scatter from each other. If the particles are hard inelastic spheres that interact only upon contact, their scattering cross section is related to their geometric size. If the particles interact through some action-at-a-distance force, such as electromagnetism or gravity, their scattering cross section is generally larger than their geometric size. When a cross section is specified as a function of some final-state variable, such as particle angle or energy, it is called a differential cross section. When a cross section is integrated over all scattering angles, it is called a total cross section. Cross sections are typically denoted σ (sigma) and measured in units of area.
Rayleigh scattering, named after the nineteenth-century British physicist Lord Rayleigh, is the predominantly elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation. For light frequencies well below the resonance frequency of the scattering particle, the amount of scattering is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the wavelength.
In optics, Lambert's cosine law says that the radiant intensity or luminous intensity observed from an ideal diffusely reflecting surface or ideal diffuse radiator is directly proportional to the cosine of the angle θ between the direction of the incident light and the surface normal. The law is also known as the cosine emission law or Lambert's emission law. It is named after Johann Heinrich Lambert, from his Photometria, published in 1760.
Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Holly Compton, is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron. It results in a decrease in energy of the photon, called the Compton effect. Part of the energy of the photon is transferred to the recoiling electron. Inverse Compton scattering occurs when a charged particle transfers part of its energy to a photon.
Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in part of the ultraviolet and the full, adjacent visible spectral regions. This means it uses light in the visible and adjacent ranges. The absorption or reflectance in the visible range directly affects the perceived color of the chemicals involved. In this region of the electromagnetic spectrum, atoms and molecules undergo electronic transitions. Absorption spectroscopy is complementary to fluorescence spectroscopy, in that fluorescence deals with transitions from the excited state to the ground state, while absorption measures transitions from the ground state to the excited state.
The Mie solution to Maxwell's equations describes the scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave by a homogeneous sphere. The solution takes the form of an infinite series of spherical multipole partial waves. It is named after Gustav Mie.
In physics, Bragg's law, or Wulff–Bragg's condition, a special case of Laue diffraction, gives the angles for coherent and incoherent scattering from a crystal lattice. When X-rays are incident on an atom, they make the electronic cloud move, as does any electromagnetic wave. The movement of these charges re-radiates waves with the same frequency, blurred slightly due to a variety of effects; this phenomenon is known as Rayleigh scattering. The scattered waves can themselves be scattered but this secondary scattering is assumed to be negligible.
A monochromator is an optical device that transmits a mechanically selectable narrow band of wavelengths of light or other radiation chosen from a wider range of wavelengths available at the input. The name is from the Greek roots mono-, "single", and chroma, "colour", and the Latin suffix -ator, denoting an agent.
In radiometry, radiance is the radiant flux emitted, reflected, transmitted or received by a given surface, per unit solid angle per unit projected area. Spectral radiance is the radiance of a surface per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength. These are directional quantities. The SI unit of radiance is the watt per steradian per square metre, while that of spectral radiance in frequency is the watt per steradian per square metre per hertz and that of spectral radiance in wavelength is the watt per steradian per square metre, per metre —commonly the watt per steradian per square metre per nanometre. The microflick is also used to measure spectral radiance in some fields. Radiance is used to characterize diffuse emission and reflection of electromagnetic radiation, or to quantify emission of neutrinos and other particles. Historically, radiance is called "intensity" and spectral radiance is called "specific intensity". Many fields still use this nomenclature. It is especially dominant in heat transfer, astrophysics and astronomy. "Intensity" has many other meanings in physics, with the most common being power per unit area.
A photometer is an instrument that measures the strength of electromagnetic radiation in the range from ultraviolet to infrared and including the visible spectrum. Most photometers convert light into an electric current using a photoresistor, photodiode, or photomultiplier.
Limb darkening is an optical effect seen in stars, where the center part of the disk appears brighter than the edge or limb of the image. Its understanding offered early solar astronomers an opportunity to construct models with such gradients. This encouraged the development of the theory of radiative transfer.
Solar irradiance (SI) is the power per unit area, received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation as reported in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument. Solar irradiance is often integrated over a given time period in order to report the radiant energy emitted into the surrounding environment, during that time period. This integrated solar irradiance is called solar irradiation, solar exposure, solar insolation, or insolation.
Static light scattering is a technique in physical chemistry that measures the intensity of the scattered light to obtain the average molecular weight Mw of a macromolecule like a polymer or a protein in solution. Measurement of the scattering intensity at many angles allows calculation of the root mean square radius, also called the radius of gyration Rg. By measuring the scattering intensity for many samples of various concentrations, the second virial coefficient A2, can be calculated.
The air mass coefficient defines the direct optical path length through the Earth's atmosphere, expressed as a ratio relative to the path length vertically upwards, i.e. at the zenith. The air mass coefficient can be used to help characterize the solar spectrum after solar radiation has traveled through the atmosphere. The air mass coefficient is commonly used to characterize the performance of solar cells under standardized conditions, and is often referred to using the syntax "AM" followed by a number. "AM1.5" is almost universal when characterizing terrestrial power-generating panels.
Multiangle light scattering (MALS) describes a technique for measuring the light scattered by a sample into a plurality of angles. It is used for determining both the absolute molar mass and the average size of molecules in solution, by detecting how they scatter light. Collimated light from a laser source is most often used, in which case the technique can be referred to as multiangle laser light scattering (MALLS). The insertion of the word “laser” was intended to reassure those used to making light scattering measurements with conventional light sources such as Hg-arc lamps that low angle measurements could now be made. Until the advent of lasers and their associated fine beams of narrow width, the width of conventional light beams used to make such measurements prevented data collection at smaller scattering angles. In recent years, since all commercial light scattering instrumentation use laser sources, this need to mention the light source has been dropped and the term MALS used throughout.
The Rayleigh sky model describes the observed polarization pattern of the daytime sky. Within the atmosphere Rayleigh scattering of light from air molecules, water, dust, and aerosols causes the sky's light to have a defined polarization pattern. The same elastic scattering processes cause the sky to be blue. The polarization is characterized at each wavelength by its degree of polarization, and orientation.
In atmospheric chemistry, differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) is used to measure concentrations of trace gases. When combined with basic optical spectrometers such as prisms or diffraction gratings and automated, ground-based observation platforms, what we have is a cheap and powerful means for the measurement of such trace gas species as ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Typical setups allow for detection limits corresponding to optical depths of 0.0001 along lightpaths of up to typically 15 km and thus allow for the detection also of weak absorbers, such as water vapour, Nitrous acid, Formaldehyde, Tetraoxygen, Iodine oxide, Bromine oxide and Chlorine oxide.
Polymerscattering experiments are one of the main scientific methods used in chemistry, physics and other sciences to study the characteristics of polymeric systems: solutions, gels, compounds and more. As in most scattering experiments, it involves subjecting a polymeric sample to incident particles, and studying the characteristics of the scattered particles: angular distribution, intensity polarization and so on. This method is quite simple and straightforward, and does not require special manipulations of the samples which may alter their properties, and hence compromise exact results.
Chappuis absorption refers to the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by ozone, which is especially noticeable in the ozone layer, which absorbs a small part of sunlight in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Chappuis absorption bands occur at wavelengths between 400 and 650 nm. Within this range are two absorption maxima of similar height at 575 and 603 nm wavelengths. Compared to the absorption of ultraviolet light by the ozone layer, known as the Hartley and Huggins absorptions, Chappuis absorption is distinctly weaker. Along with Rayleigh scattering, it contributes to the blue color of the sky, and is noticeable when the light has to travel a long path through the atmosphere. For this reason, Chappuis absorption only has a significant effect on the color of the sky at dusk, during the so-called blue hour. It is named after the French chemist James Chappuis (1854–1934), who discovered this effect.