Unemployment in Hungary measured by the Hungarian Central Statistical Office (Központi Statisztikai Hivatal, KSH) shows the rate of unemployed individuals out of the labor force. The European Union's own statistical office, Eurostat also makes reports and predictions about the Hungarian job market and the unemployment rate in the country. The KSH's most recent unemployment data shows the unemployment rate for men 15-74 to be 3.3% and 4.1% for women.
Article XII in Hungary's Constitution states: '(2) Hungary seeks to create the conditions for all people who have the ability to work and want to work to get work.' Furthermore, stands in Article XVIII: '(2) Hungary provides specific measures for the protection of young people and parents at work.' As well as according to Article XIX: '(1) Hungary seeks to provide social security for all of its citizens. In the case of maternity, sickness, disability, widowhood, orphanage and involuntary unemployment, all Hungarian citizens are entitled to a statutory allowance. "
To qualify for unemployment benefits in Hungary, a person must first qualify and be registered with their local County Government Office as a job-seeker.To qualify as a job-seeker, an individual must not be a full-time student, person seeking old-age pension, or receiving steady supplemental income. Once a job-seeker is verified to have worked at least 360 days in the past 3 years, they can receive 1 day's benefits for every 10 days worked. Job-seekers are entitled to pay at 60% of their previous average wage for a minimum 36 days and maximum 90 days, or at 130% of the minimum wage if the worker's average wage cannot be calculated.
Hungary implements both active and passive labor market policies to bring workers back into the labor market. Active labor market policy tools include job search tips, career counseling, local job offers, while passive tools include offering training or business start-up programs.Job-seekers that enroll in training programs are paid minimum wage through completion of the program. Employers are actively involved in many job training programs in order to both ensure that employees are being accurately trained and that they will be secured a job at that site.
Following the severe economic crisis in 2008 and 2009, Hungary created the Public Works Scheme (PWS) in 2010 to bring long-term unemployed individuals, particularly those with little to no education or professional skills, back into the labor market.Public employment programmes typically last 12 months, but can be extended by 6 months if necessary. Though wages for public employment are between social welfare levels and the minimum wage, employees are still eligible for social insurance and pensions.
Funding for public employment programs is granted based on each individual county's labor market performance and allocated to county's that may need more assistance.Public works programs may including road maintenance, agricultural tending, water drainage, or eliminating illegal waste dumps. Despite the good intention, surveys have shown that public works programs are not as effective as initially thought and may be trapping employees in low-wage low-skill work.
In late 2018, Hungary faced an extreme labor shortage and reached its lowest unemployment rate in 40 years.As a result, the private sector began seeking out "fostered workers", those on public employment, leading to a nearly 20% drop in workers on public employment.
Roma in Hungary face employment discrimination, poverty, and social exclusion. Nearly one third of Roma are unemployed and two thirds are in low-skill or semi-skilled jobs.These unemployment rates can fluctuate from three to five times the unemployment rate for non-Roma. Roma often face employment discrimination in local labour offices, where they may not be allowed to apply for jobs or labour office officials adhere to employer's requests to not refer Roma job-seekers. In 2014, the Commissioner for Human Rights on the Council of Europe raised concerns that Roma in Hungary were not being given the opportunity to break out of cycles of poverty.
A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their workers—the price floor below which workers may not sell their labor. Most countries had introduced minimum wage legislation by the end of the 20th century.
Unemployment, according to the OECD, is persons above a specified age not being in paid employment or self-employment but currently available for work during the reference period.
Full employment is a situation in which there is no cyclical or deficient-demand unemployment. Full employment does not entail the disappearance of all unemployment, as other kinds of unemployment, namely structural and frictional may remain. For instance, workers who are "Between jobs" for short periods of time as they search for better employment are not counted against full employment, as such unemployment is frictional rather than cyclical. An economy with full employment might also have unemployment or underemployment where part-time workers cannot find jobs appropriate to their skill level, as such unemployment is considered structural rather than cyclical. Full employment marks the point past which Keynesian economics government policy cannot reduce unemployment any further.
Unemployment benefits, also called unemployment insurance, unemployment payment or unemployment compensation, are payments made by authorized bodies to unemployed people. In the United States, benefits are funded by a compulsory governmental insurance system, not taxes on individual citizens. Depending on the jurisdiction and the status of the person, those sums may be small, covering only basic needs, or may compensate the lost time proportionally to the previous earned salary.
Frictional unemployment is a type of unemployment. It is sometimes called search unemployment and can be based on the circumstances of the individual. It is time spent between jobs when a worker is searching for a job or transferring from one job to another. Frictional unemployment is one of the three broad categories of unemployment, the others being structural unemployment and cyclical unemployment. A person may be looking for a job change for better opportunities, services, salary and wages, or because of dissatisfaction with the previous job. Strikes by trade unions also give rise to frictional unemployment.
The Oklahoma Employment Security Commission (OESC) is an independent agency of the state of Oklahoma responsible for providing employment services to the citizens of Oklahoma. The Commission is part of a national network of employment service agencies and is funded by money from the United States Department of Labor. The Commission is also responsible for administering the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 on behalf of the state.
Unemployment benefits in Sweden are payments made by the state or other authorized bodies to unemployed people. They can be divided into a voluntary scheme with income-related compensation up to a certain level, or a comprehensive scheme that provides a lower level of basic support.
The insider-outsider theory is a theory of labor economics that explains how firm behavior, national welfare, and wage negotiations are affected by a group in a more privileged position. The theory was developed by Assar Lindbeck and Dennis Snower in a series of publications beginning in 1984.
A job guarantee (JG) is an economic policy proposal aimed at providing a sustainable solution to the dual problems of inflation and unemployment. Its aim is to create full employment and price stability, by having the state promise to hire unemployed workers as an employer of last resort (ELR).
Non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment (NAIRU) is a theoretical level of unemployment below which inflation would be expected to rise. It was first introduced as NIRU by Franco Modigliani and Lucas Papademos in 1975, as an improvement over the "natural rate of unemployment" concept, which was proposed earlier by Milton Friedman.
Youth unemployment in the United Kingdom is the level of unemployment among young people, typically defined as those aged 18–25. A related concept is graduate unemployment which is the level of unemployment among university graduates. Statistics for June 2010 show that there are 926,000 young people under the age of 25 who are unemployed which equates to an unemployment rate of 19.6% among young people. This is the highest youth unemployment rate in 17 years. In November 2011 youth unemployment hit 1.02 million, but had fallen to 767,000 by August 2014. The high levels of youth unemployment in the United Kingdom have led some politicians and media commentators to talk of a "lost generation".
Unemployment in the United States discusses the causes and measures of U.S. unemployment and strategies for reducing it. Job creation and unemployment are affected by factors such as economic conditions, global competition, education, automation, and demographics. These factors can affect the number of workers, the duration of unemployment, and wage levels.
The Labor policy in the Philippines is specified mainly by the country's Labor Code of the Philippines and through other labor laws. They cover 38 million Filipinos who belong to the labor force and to some extent, as well as overseas workers. They aim to address Filipino workers’ legal rights and their limitations with regard to the hiring process, working conditions, benefits, policymaking on labor within the company, activities, and relations with employees.
Unemployment benefits in Spain are contributory and non-contributory. They are part of social security system in Spain and are managed by the State Public Employment Service (SEPE). Employers and employees contribute to the unemployment contingency fund and if an unemployed person fulfills certain criteria they can claim an allowance which is based on the time they have contributed and their average wage. A non-contributory benefit is also available to those who no longer receive a contributory benefit dependent on a maximum level of income.
Unemployment insurance, also known as 失業保険 is the "user pays" system of unemployment benefits that operates in Japan. It is paired with Workers' Accident Compensation Insurance and referred to collectively as Labour insurance. It is managed by Hello Work.
Youth unemployment is the situation of young people who are looking for a job, but cannot find a job, with the age range being that defined by the United Nations as 15–24 years old. An unemployed person is defined as someone who does not have a job but is actively seeking work. In order to qualify as unemployed for official and statistical measurement, the individual must be without employment, willing and able to work, of the officially designated "working age" and actively searching for a position. Youth unemployment rates tend to be higher than the adult rates in every country in the world.
As unemployed according to the art. 2 of the Ukrainian Law on Employment of Population are qualified citizens capable of work and of employable age, who due to lack of a job do not have any income or other earnings laid down by the law and are registered in the State Employment Center as looking for work, ready and able to start working. This definition also includes persons with disabilities who not attained retirement age and are registered as seeking employment.
Pierre Cahuc is a French economist who currently works as Professor of Economics at Sciences Po. He is Program Director for the IZA Institute of Labor Economics's programme "Labour Markets" and research fellow at CEPR. His research focuses mainly on labour economics and its relationship with macroeconomics. In 2001, he was awarded the Prize of the Best Young Economist of France for his contributions to economic research. He belongs to the most highly cited economists in France and Europe's leading labour economists.
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Europe consisting of the Jutland Peninsula and numerous islands. Typically, Denmark has had relatively low unemployment rates. Currently, Denmark has generous unemployment benefits in the form of private insurance funds. Unemployment benefits are typically payments made by the state or other authorized actors to unemployed persons.
The unemployment rate in the Republic of Korea as of April 2019 is 4.8 per cent, or about 1,197,000 people. Since its rapid globalisation and democratisation, the unemployment rate has been comparatively low compared to most OECD countries. However, in the past decade, the unemployment rate has been rising steadily, going against the OECD average of a 1.6 percent drop over the same amount of time. Despite being Asia’s fourth-largest economy, the country's booming exports are mostly due to major manufacturing companies relying on outsourcing lower-paid roles to mitigate the country’s mandatory minimum wage increase, and automating the majority of manual jobs as the country’s technological boom sends South Korea to the top of the International Federation of Robotics (IFR)’s robot density list - 631 robots per 10,000 employees. Cultural issues such as the gender pay gap and historical views about the role of women and men in the workforce and at home are also contributing to rising unemployment rates as there is a push for contractual, non-standard work and self-employment to compensate for the continual minimum wage increase set by the South Korean government. The emphasis on higher education in the Republic of Korea further raises the unemployment rate due to many young adults choosing to complete tertiary and further qualifications as opposed to immediately joining the workforce. There are also several measurement differences between the standard of measurement set by the International Labour Organisation and the official measurement of unemployment in the Republic of Korea, set by Statistics Korea, that contribute to an inflated unemployment rate when compared to other countries that abide more strictly by the standard set by the International Labour Organisation.