Unfederated Malay States

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Unfederated Malay States

Negeri-negeri Melayu Tidak Bersekutu
1826–1942
Japanese Occupation: 1942–45
1945–46
British Malaya circa 1922.PNG
Malaya in 1922:
  Unfederated Malay States
  Federated Malay States
  Straits Settlements
StatusProtectorate of  British Empire
Common languages
Government
Monarch  
 1826–30
George IV
 1830–37
William IV
 1837–1901
Victoria
 1901–10
Edward VII
 1910–36
George V
 1936
Edward VIII
 1936–42; 1945–46
George VI
Historical era British Empire
 Established
1826
 Disestablished
1946
Currency
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of Johor.svg Johor
Flag of Kedah (18th century - 1912).svg Kedah
Flag of Kelantan (1912 - 1923).svg Kelantan
Flag of Perlis.svg Perlis
Flag of Terengganu (1912 - 1933).svg Terengganu
Japanese occupation of Malaya Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg
British Military Administration (Malaya) Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Malayan Union Flag of the Federated Malay States (1895-1946).svg
Today part ofMalaysia

The term Unfederated Malay States (Malay : Negeri-negeri Melayu Tidak Bersekutu) was the collective name given to five British protected states in the Malay peninsula in the first half of the twentieth century. These states were Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis, and Terengganu. In contrast with the four adjoining Federated Malay States of Selangor, Perak, Pahang, and Negri Sembilan, the five Unfederated Malay States lacked common institutions, and did not form a single state in international law; they were in fact standalone British protectorates.

Contents

In 1946 the British colony of the Straits Settlements was dissolved. Penang and Malacca which had formed a part of the Straits Settlements were then grouped with the Unfederated Malay States and the Federated Malay States to form the Malayan Union. In 1948, the Malayan Union was reconstituted as a federation of eleven states known as the Federation of Malaya. Nine of the states of the new Federation of Malaya continued as British Protected States, while two of them, Penang and Malacca remained as British colonies. The Federation of Malaya gained full independence from the UK in August 1957.

History

Johor accepted a treaty of protection with the United Kingdom in 1885, and eventually succumbed to British pressure to accept a resident "Advisor" in 1914. Unlike the other Malay states under British protection, however, Johor remained outside of the Federated Malay States (formed in 1895).

Under the Bangkok Treaty of 1909, Siam transferred its rights over some of the northern Malay states (Kelantan, Terengganu, Kedah, and Perlis) to the United Kingdom. [1] These states then became British Protected States. With the assistance of Japan, they temporarily returned to Thai jurisdiction for the latter part of the Second World War.

Administration and language

The chief officer of the British colonial administration was the "Advisor". In contrast with the Federated Malay States, the Unfederated Malay States enjoyed greater autonomy. The de facto official language of the Unfederated Malay States was Malay (written with the Jawi script).

Evolution of Malaysia Malaysia tree diagram.svg
Evolution of Malaysia

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References

  1. John Haywood (2002). Historical Atlas of the 19th Century World 1783 – 1914. Barnes and Noble. p. 22. ISBN   0-7607-3203-5.