Uniform k 21 polytope

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In geometry, a uniform k21 polytope is a polytope in k + 4 dimensions constructed from the En Coxeter group, and having only regular polytope facets. The family was named by their Coxeter symbol k21 by its bifurcating Coxeter–Dynkin diagram, with a single ring on the end of the k-node sequence.

Contents

Thorold Gosset discovered this family as a part of his 1900 enumeration of the regular and semiregular polytopes, and so they are sometimes called Gosset's semiregular figures. Gosset named them by their dimension from 5 to 9, for example the 5-ic semiregular figure.

Family members

The sequence as identified by Gosset ends as an infinite tessellation (space-filling honeycomb) in 8-space, called the E8 lattice. (A final form was not discovered by Gosset and is called the E9 lattice: 621. It is a tessellation of hyperbolic 9-space constructed of ∞ 9-simplex and ∞ 9-orthoplex facets with all vertices at infinity.)

The family starts uniquely as 6-polytopes. The triangular prism and rectified 5-cell are included at the beginning for completeness. The demipenteract also exists in the demihypercube family.

They are also sometimes named by their symmetry group, like E6 polytope, although there are many uniform polytopes within the E6 symmetry.

The complete family of Gosset semiregular polytopes are:

  1. triangular prism: −121 (2 triangles and 3 square faces)
  2. rectified 5-cell: 021, Tetroctahedric (5 tetrahedra and 5 octahedra cells)
  3. demipenteract: 121, 5-ic semiregular figure (16 5-cell and 10 16-cell facets)
  4. 2 21 polytope: 221, 6-ic semiregular figure (72 5-simplex and 27 5-orthoplex facets)
  5. 3 21 polytope: 321, 7-ic semiregular figure (576 6-simplex and 126 6-orthoplex facets)
  6. 4 21 polytope: 421, 8-ic semiregular figure (17280 7-simplex and 2160 7-orthoplex facets)
  7. 5 21 honeycomb: 521, 9-ic semiregular check tessellates Euclidean 8-space (∞ 8-simplex and ∞ 8-orthoplex facets)
  8. 6 21 honeycomb: 621, tessellates hyperbolic 9-space (∞ 9-simplex and ∞ 9-orthoplex facets)

Each polytope is constructed from (n  1)-simplex and (n  1)-orthoplex facets.

The orthoplex faces are constructed from the Coxeter group Dn1 and have a Schläfli symbol of {31,n1,1} rather than the regular {3n2,4}. This construction is an implication of two "facet types". Half the facets around each orthoplex ridge are attached to another orthoplex, and the others are attached to a simplex. In contrast, every simplex ridge is attached to an orthoplex.

Each has a vertex figure as the previous form. For example, the rectified 5-cell has a vertex figure as a triangular prism.

Elements

Gosset semiregular figures
n-ick21 Graph Name
Coxeter
diagram
Facets Elements
(n  1)-simplex
{3n2}
(n  1)-orthoplex
{3n4,1,1}
Vertices Edges Faces Cells 4-faces5-faces6-faces7-faces
3-ic121 Triangular prism graphs.png Triangular prism
CDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
2 triangles
2-simplex t0.svg Triangular prism simplex.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
3 squares
2-orthoplex.svg Triangular prism orthoplex.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
695     
4-ic021 E4 graph ortho.png Rectified 5-cell
CDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch 10.png
5 tetrahedron
3-simplex t0.svg Uniform polyhedron-33-t0.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
5 octahedron
3-orthoplex.svg Uniform polyhedron-33-t1.png
CDel branch 10.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.png
10303010    
5-ic121 Demipenteract graph ortho.svg Demipenteract
CDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea 1.png
16 5-cell
4-simplex t0.svg Schlegel wireframe 5-cell.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
10 16-cell
4-orthoplex.svg Schlegel wireframe 16-cell.png
CDel nodea 1.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.png
168016012026   
6-ic221 E6 graph.svg 221 polytope
CDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea 1.png
72 5-simplexes
5-simplex t0.svg
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
27 5-orthoplexes
5-orthoplex.svg
CDel nodea 1.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.png
27216720108064899  
7-ic321 E7 graph.svg 321 polytope
CDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea 1.png
576 6-simplexes
6-simplex t0.svg
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
126 6-orthoplexes
6-orthoplex.svg
CDel nodea 1.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.png
56756403210080120966048702 
8-ic421 E8 graph.svg 421 polytope
CDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea 1.png
17280 7-simplexes
7-simplex t0.svg
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
2160 7-orthoplexes
7-orthoplex.svg
CDel nodea 1.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.png
24067206048024192048384048384020736019440
9-ic521 521 honeycomb
CDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea 1.png
8-simplexes
8-simplex t0.svg
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
8-orthoplexes
8-orthoplex.svg
CDel nodea 1.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.png
10-ic621 621 honeycomb
CDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea 1.png
9-simplexes
9-simplex t0.svg
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
9-orthoplexes
9-orthoplex.svg
CDel nodea 1.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.png

See also

Related Research Articles

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2<sub> 21</sub> polytope

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3<sub> 21</sub> polytope

In 7-dimensional geometry, the 321 polytope is a uniform 7-polytope, constructed within the symmetry of the E7 group. It was discovered by Thorold Gosset, published in his 1900 paper. He called it an 7-ic semi-regular figure.

6-polytope

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Rectified 8-simplexes

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In geometry, an E9 honeycomb is a tessellation of uniform polytopes in hyperbolic 9-dimensional space. , also (E10) is a paracompact hyperbolic group, so either facets or vertex figures will not be bounded.

References

Family An Bn I2(p) / Dn E6 / E7 / E8 / F4 / G2 Hn
Regular polygon Triangle Square p-gon Hexagon Pentagon
Uniform polyhedron Tetrahedron OctahedronCube Demicube DodecahedronIcosahedron
Uniform polychoron Pentachoron 16-cellTesseract Demitesseract 24-cell 120-cell600-cell
Uniform 5-polytope 5-simplex 5-orthoplex5-cube 5-demicube
Uniform 6-polytope 6-simplex 6-orthoplex6-cube 6-demicube 122221
Uniform 7-polytope 7-simplex 7-orthoplex7-cube 7-demicube 132231321
Uniform 8-polytope 8-simplex 8-orthoplex8-cube 8-demicube 142241421
Uniform 9-polytope 9-simplex 9-orthoplex9-cube 9-demicube
Uniform 10-polytope 10-simplex 10-orthoplex10-cube 10-demicube
Uniform n-polytope n-simplex n-orthoplexn-cube n-demicube 1k22k1k21 n-pentagonal polytope
Topics: Polytope familiesRegular polytopeList of regular polytopes and compounds
Space Family / /
E2 Uniform tiling {3[3]} δ3 hδ3 qδ3 Hexagonal
E3 Uniform convex honeycomb {3[4]} δ4 hδ4 qδ4
E4 Uniform 4-honeycomb {3[5]} δ5 hδ5 qδ5 24-cell honeycomb
E5 Uniform 5-honeycomb {3[6]} δ6 hδ6 qδ6
E6 Uniform 6-honeycomb {3[7]} δ7 hδ7 qδ7 222
E7 Uniform 7-honeycomb {3[8]} δ8 hδ8 qδ8 133331
E8 Uniform 8-honeycomb {3[9]} δ9 hδ9 qδ9 152251521
E9 Uniform 9-honeycomb {3[10]}δ10hδ10qδ10
E10Uniform 10-honeycomb{3[11]}δ11hδ11qδ11
En-1Uniform (n-1)-honeycomb {3[n]} δn hδn qδn 1k22k1k21