Union Square, Manhattan

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Union Square
1 new york city union square 2010.JPG
Union Square looking north from 14th Street (May 2010)
Location Manhattan, New York City
Coordinates Coordinates: 40°44′08″N73°59′26″W / 40.73556°N 73.99056°W / 40.73556; -73.99056
Built1882 (laid out c. 1832) [1]
Architect Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi, et al.
NRHP reference # 97001678 [2]
Significant dates
Added to NRHPDecember 9, 1997 [2]
Designated NHLDecember 9, 1997 [3]

Union Square is a historic intersection and surrounding neighborhood in Manhattan, New York City, located where Broadway and the former Bowery Road  – now Fourth Avenue [4]  – came together in the early 19th century; its name denotes that "here was the union of the two principal thoroughfares of the island". [5] The current Union Square Park is bounded by 14th Street on the south, Union Square West on the west side, 17th Street on the north, and on the east Union Square East, which links together Broadway and Park Avenue South to Fourth Avenue and the continuation of Broadway. The park is under the aegis of the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation.

Manhattan Borough in New York City and county in New York, United States

Manhattan, often referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, and historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U.S. state of New York. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson, East, and Harlem rivers; several small adjacent islands; and Marble Hill, a small neighborhood now on the U.S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower, Midtown, and Upper Manhattan.

New York City Largest city in the United States

The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2018 population of 8,398,748 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 19,979,477 people in its 2018 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 22,679,948 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.

Broadway (Manhattan) street in Manhattan

Broadway is a road in the U.S. state of New York. Broadway runs from State Street at Bowling Green for 13 mi (21 km) through the borough of Manhattan and 2 mi (3.2 km) through the Bronx, exiting north from the city to run an additional 18 mi (29 km) through the municipalities of Yonkers, Hastings-On-Hudson, Dobbs Ferry, Irvington, and Tarrytown, and terminating north of Sleepy Hollow in Westchester County.


Adjacent neighborhoods are the Flatiron District to the north, Chelsea to the west, Greenwich Village to the southwest, East Village to the southeast, and Gramercy Park to the east. Many buildings of The New School are near the square, [6] as are several dormitories of New York University. [7] The eastern side of the square is dominated by the four Zeckendorf Towers, the Consolidated Edison Building, on the former site of the bargain-priced department store, S. Klein, and the south side by the full-square block mixed-use One Union Square South (Davis Brody Bond, 1999). [8] It features a kinetic wall sculpture and digital clock expelling bursts of steam, titled Metronome . Among the heterogeneous assortment of buildings along the west side is the Decker Building.

Flatiron District neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City

The Flatiron District is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan, named after the Flatiron Building at 23rd Street, Broadway and Fifth Avenue.

Chelsea, Manhattan Neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City

Chelsea is a neighborhood on the West Side of the borough of Manhattan in New York City. The district's boundaries are roughly 14th Street to the south, the Hudson River and West Street to the west, and Sixth Avenue to the east, with its northern boundary variously described as near the upper 20s or 34th Street, the next major crosstown street to the north. To the northwest of Chelsea is the neighborhood of Hell's Kitchen, as well as Hudson Yards; to the northeast are the Garment District and the remainder of Midtown South; to the east are NoMad and the Flatiron District; to the southwest is the Meatpacking District; and to the south and southeast are the West Village and the remainder of Greenwich Village.

Greenwich Village Neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City

Greenwich Village often referred to by locals as simply "the Village", is a neighborhood on the west side of Manhattan, New York City, within Lower Manhattan. Broadly, Greenwich Village is bounded by 14th Street to the north, Broadway to the east, Houston Street to the south, and the Hudson River to the west. Greenwich Village also contains several subsections, including the West Village west of Seventh Avenue and the Meatpacking District in the northwest corner of Greenwich Village.

Union Square is noted for its impressive equestrian statue of U.S. President George Washington, modeled by Henry Kirke Brown and unveiled in 1856, the first public sculpture erected in New York City since the equestrian statue of George III in 1770, and the first American equestrian sculpture cast in bronze; the historic moment depicted is Evacuation Day, November 25, 1783, when the British left the city and General Washington triumphantly led his troops back into the city. [9] Other statues in the park include the Marquis de Lafayette, modeled by Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi and dedicated at the Centennial, July 4, 1876, Abraham Lincoln , modeled by Henry Kirke Brown (1870), and the James Fountain (1881), a Temperance fountain with the figure of Charity who empties her jug of water, aided by a child; it was donated by Daniel Willis James and sculpted by Adolf Donndorf. A statue of Mahatma Gandhi in the southwest corner of the park was added in 1986. [10]

President of the United States Head of state and of government of the United States

The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.

George Washington 1st president of the United States

George Washington was an American political leader, military general, statesman, and Founding Father who also served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. He led Patriot forces to victory in the nation's War of Independence, and he presided at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 which established the new federal government. He has been called the "Father of His Country" for his manifold leadership in the formative days of the new nation.

Henry Kirke Brown American artist

Henry Kirke Brown was an American sculptor.

The 14th Street – Union Square New York City Subway station, served by the 4 , 5 , 6 , <6> , L , N , Q , R , and W trains, is located under Union Square.

14th Street–Union Square (New York City Subway) New York City Subway station complex in Manhattan

14th Street–Union Square is a New York City Subway station complex shared by the BMT Broadway Line, the BMT Canarsie Line and the IRT Lexington Avenue Line. It is located at the intersection of Fourth Avenue and 14th Street, underneath Union Square in Manhattan, and is served by the:

New York City Subway Rapid transit system in New York City

The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, a subsidiary agency of the state-run Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA). Opened in 1904, the New York City Subway is one of the world's oldest public transit systems, one of the world's most used metro systems, and the metro system with the most stations. It offers service 24 hours per day on every day of the year, though some routes may operate only part-time.

4 (New York City Subway service) New York City Subway service

The 4 Lexington Avenue Express is a rapid transit service in the A Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored forest green since it uses the IRT Lexington Avenue Line in Manhattan.


Union Park New York (East side), New York Public Library Union Park New York (East side) (NYPL b13476046-EM11347).jpg
Union Park New York (East side), New York Public Library
Union Square in 1908 View of Union Square, New York.jpg
Union Square in 1908


At the time that John Randel was surveying the island in preparation for the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, the Bloomingdale Road (now Broadway) angled away from the Bowery at an acute angle that would have been so awkward to build on, that the Commissioners decided to form a square at the union. [11] In 1815, by act of the state legislature, this former potter's field became a public commons for the city, at first named Union Place. [5] [12]

John Randel Jr. American surveyor

John Randel, Jr. (1787–1865) was an American surveyor, cartographer, civil engineer and inventor from Albany, New York who completed a full survey of Manhattan Island from 1808–1817, in service of the creation of the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, which determined that New York City – which consisted at the time of only Manhattan – would in the future be laid out in a rectilinear grid of streets.

Commissioners Plan of 1811 Historic New York City street plan

The Commissioners' Plan of 1811 was the original design for the streets of Manhattan above Houston Street and below 155th Street, which put in place the rectangular grid plan of streets and lots that has defined Manhattan to this day. It has been called "the single most important document in New York City's development," and the plan has been described as encompassing the "republican predilection for control and balance ... [and] distrust of nature". It was described by the Commission that created it as combining "beauty, order and convenience."

Bowery street and neighborhood in Manhattan

The Bowery is a street and neighborhood in the southern portion of the New York City borough of Manhattan. The street runs from Chatham Square at Park Row, Worth Street, and Mott Street in the south to Cooper Square at 4th Street in the north. The eponymous neighborhood runs roughly from the Bowery east to Allen Street and First Avenue, and from Canal Street north to Cooper Square/East Fourth Street. To the south is Chinatown, to the east are the Lower East Side and the East Village, and to the west are Little Italy and NoHo. It has historically been considered a part of the Lower East Side.

In 1832, at a time when the space was surrounded by empty lots, Samuel Ruggles, one of the founders of the Bank of Commerce and the developer of Gramercy Park to the northeast, convinced the city to rename the area as "Union Square" and enlarge the commons to 17th Street on the north and extend the axis of University Place to form the square's west side. [13] Ruggles obtained a fifty-year lease on most of the surrounding lots from 15th to 19th Streets, where he built sidewalks and curbs. [14] In 1834, he convinced the Board of Aldermen to enclose and grade the square, then sold most of his leases and in 1839 built a four-storey house facing the east side of the Square.

Gramercy Park Neighborhood and park in Manhattan in New York City

Gramercy Park is the name of both a small, fenced-in private park and the surrounding neighborhood that is referred to also as Gramercy, in the New York City borough of Manhattan in New York, United States.

University Place (Manhattan)

University Place is a short north–south thoroughfare in Manhattan, New York City, which runs from Washington Square Park in the south as a continuation of Washington Square East, taking the position of Madison Avenue uptown, and terminates at East 14th Street just southwest of Union Square. Although the roadway continues north of 14th Street as Union Square West, the two streets run in opposite directions, both feeding into 14th Street. Until the late 1990s, University Place was a two-way street. The street contains numerous shops and restaurants, many of which cater to students at NYU and The New School.

An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions founded upon English law. The term may be titular, denoting a high-ranking member of a borough or county council, a council member chosen by the elected members themselves rather than by popular vote, or a council member elected by voters.

Union Square NYC c1870.jpg
George Washington (Henry Kirke Brown, 1856) in the middle of Fourth Avenue at 14th Street, c.1870
Henry Kirke Brown George Washington statue by David Shankbone.jpg
The statue in its current location in the middle of the park
May Day '13, strikers in Union Square - 19130501.jpg
May Day 1913, strikers and protesters rally in Union Square, with signs in Yiddish, Italian and English
NYC Union Square Lebanon protest Aug 3 2006.jpg
2006 Union Square protest

A fountain was built in the center of Union Square to receive water from the Croton Aqueduct, completed in 1842. In 1845, as the square finally began to fill with affluent houses, $116,000 was spent in paving the surrounding streets and planting the square, in part owing to the continued encouragement of Ruggles. The sole survivors of this early phase, though they have been much adapted and rebuilt, are a series of three- and four-story brick rowhouses, 862–866 Broadway, at the turn where Broadway exits the square at 17th Street. The Everett House on the corner of 17th Street and Fourth Avenue (built 1848, demolished 1908) was for decades one of the city's most fashionable hotels. [15]

In the early years of the park a fence surrounded the square's central oval planted with radiating walks lined with trees. In 1872, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux [16] were called in to replant the park, as an open glade with clumps of trees.

At first the square, the last public space that functioned as the entrance to New York City, [17] was largely residential – the Union League Club first occupied a house loaned for the purpose by Henry G. Marquand at the corner of 17th Street and Broadway – but after the Civil War the neighborhood became largely commercial, and the square began to lose social cachet at the turn of the twentieth century. Tiffany & Co., which had moved to the square from Broadway and Broome Street in 1870, left its premises on 15th Street to move uptown to 37th Street in 1905; the silversmiths Gorham Company moved up from 19th Street in 1906. The last of the neighborhood's free-standing private mansions, Peter Goelet's at the northeast corner of 19th Street, made way for a commercial building in 1897.

The Rialto

The Rialto, New York City's first commercial theater district, was located in and around Union Square beginning in the 1870s. It was called the Rialto after the commercial district in Venice. [18] [19] [20] The theater district gradually re-located northward, into less expensive and undeveloped uptown neighborhoods, and eventually into the current Theater District. [18] [21]

Before the Civil War, theatres in New York City were primarily located along Broadway and the Bowery up to 14th Street, with those on Broadway appealing more to the middle and upper classes and the Bowery theatres attracting immigrant audiences, clerks and the working class. After the war, the development of the Ladies' Mile shopping district along Fifth and Sixth Avenues above 14th Street had the effect of pulling the playhouses uptown, so that a "Rialto" theatrical strip came about on Broadway between 14th and 23rd Streets, between Union Square and Madison Square. [22]

At the same time, a transition from stock companies, in which a resident acting company was based around a star or impresario, to a "combination" system, in which productions were put together on a one-time basis to mount a specific play, expanded the amount of outside support needed to service the theatrical industry. Thus, suppliers of props, costumes, wigs, scenery, and other theatrical necessities grew up around the new theatres. The new system also needed an organized way to engage actors for these one-off productions, so talent brokers and theatrical agents sprang up, as did theatrical boardinghouses, stage photographers, publicity agencies, theatrical printers and play publishers. Along with the hotels and restaurants which serviced the theatregoers and shoppers of the area, the Union Square Rialto was, by the end of the century, a thriving theatrical neighborhood, which would soon nonetheless migrate uptown to what became known as "Broadway" as the Rialto became subsumed into the more vice-oriented Tenderloin entertainment district. [22]

A patriotic demonstration: Presentation of colors before the Union League Club, 1864, by Edward Lamson Henry Henry-Presentation of Colors (edit).JPG
A patriotic demonstration: Presentation of colors before the Union League Club , 1864, by Edward Lamson Henry

Social and political activism

The park has historically been the start or the end point for many political demonstrations. In April 1861, soon after the fall of Fort Sumter, it was the site of a patriotic rally of perhaps a quarter of a million people that is thought to have been the largest public gathering in North America up to that time. In the summer of 1864 the north side of the square was the site of the Metropolitan Fair.

Union Square has been a frequent gathering point for radicals of all stripes to make speeches or demonstrate. In 1865, the recently formed Irish republican Fenian Brotherhood came out publicly and rented Dr. John Moffat's brownstone rowhouse at 32 East 17th Street, next to the Everett House hotel facing the north side of the square, for the capitol of the government-in-exile they declared. [23] [24] On September 5, 1882, in the first Labor Day celebration, a crowd of at least 10,000 workers paraded up Broadway and filed past the reviewing stand at Union Square. Although the park was known for its labor union rallies and for the large 1861 gathering in support of Union troops, it was actually named for its location at the "union" of Bloomingdale Road (now Broadway) and Eastern Post Road (now extinct) decades before these gatherings. [25] On March 28, 1908, an anarchist set off a bomb in Union Square which only killed himself and another man. [26]

On August 21, 1893, Emma Goldman took the stage at Union Square to make her "Free Bread" speech to a crowd of overworked garment workers. She also addressed a crowd on May 20, 1916, on the need for free access to birth control which was banned by the Comstock laws. Her visits to Union Square pulled hundreds of followers; some of these rallies resulted in her arrest. Union Square has been used as a platform to raise awareness about the Black Lives Matter movement.

The Square's shopping district saw strikes in the S.Klein and Ohrbach department stores in 1934. White collar workers were among the worst paid in Great Depression era New York City, with union memberships being highly discouraged by store managers and often seen as fireable offenses. These strikes often involved acts of disobedience by the workers as many of them did not want to lose their jobs. [27] This period saw Union Square as a gathering point for many of the cities socialist and communist groups. The centennial of Union Square was seen as a thinly veiled effort to displace those elements with its draping of the square with flags and police demonstrations of anti protester drills. [28]

Union Square was named a National Historic Landmark in 1997, primarily to honor it as the site of the first Labor Day parade. [3] [29] [30]

In the days and weeks following the September 11 terrorist attacks in 2001, Union Square became a primary public gathering point for mourners. People created spontaneous candle and photograph memorials in the park and vigils were held to honor the victims. This was a natural role for the Square as Lower Manhattan below 14th Street, which forms Union Square's southern border, briefly became a "frozen zone," with no non-emergency vehicles allowed and pedestrians sometimes stopped and asked why they were venturing south by police and national guardsmen. In fact, for the first few days following the attacks, only those who could prove residency below 14th Street could pass. The Square's tradition as a meeting place in times of upheaval was also a factor.

The renovated pavilion at the north end of the park in February 2011. Union Square Park pavilion.jpg
The renovated pavilion at the north end of the park in February 2011.

North end renovation

In March 2008, an eighteen-month renovation began on the northern end of the park. Proponents of the plan describe it as the completion of a renovation of Union Square Park that began in the mid-1980s that will improve the park by increasing the amount and quality of playground space, improving the quality and function of the public plaza, rehabilitating the badly deteriorating bandshell structure, improving the working conditions for park employees, and maintaining the "eyes on the street" presence of a restaurant at the heart of the park. Protests and political action in response to the original renovation plans resulted in a reduction in the degree to which the pavilion was to be renovated, a reduction in the total amount of space that the restaurant would occupy, and an increase in the amount of dedicated play space, but stiff opposition remains to the idea that any commercial uses might occupy the pavilion. Despite the fact that the overall amount of play space in the park will be increased as a result of the renovation, those critical of the plan claim that the bandshell pavilion itself ought to be converted to play space. [31] [32] The fate of the historic pavilion building is uncertain and has been brought before the State Supreme Court. [33] [34] On March 30, 2009, a judge dismissed the lawsuit against the renovation, paving the way for a seasonal restaurant in the pavilion. [35]

One element of contention not related to the restaurant concession is the inclusion of a single line of street trees, spaced 30 feet (9.1 m) apart, along the north side of the plaza. Despite rumors to the contrary, the inclusion of trees was made possible without reducing the usable gathering space of the plaza by the simultaneous decision to remove a painted median strip, that had separated eastbound and westbound traffic along 17th Street, thus increasing the northern limits of the plaza by several feet. Some critics feel that this line of trees will make the space less useful for large rallies although no barriers to free movement across 17th Street are being introduced and the "temporary" metal rails, welded together to make a continuous fence along the north side of the site, will be removed as part of the renovation of the plaza. A double line of trees along 17th Street had been planted years earlier as a monument to victims of the Armenian Genocide.

During the renovation the Union Square Greenmarket was temporarily relocated to the west side of the park, returning to the north end by April 4, 2009.

Spectators watch as a street chess player plays bullet chess with a customer in Union Square. Union Square chess with spectators.jpg
Spectators watch as a street chess player plays bullet chess with a customer in Union Square.

Street chess

The Villager , a local newspaper, reported in 2013 that most of the street chess players at Washington Square Park—where Bobby Fischer had played—had moved their games to Union Square because the latter had more foot traffic. [36] Street chess players play fast chess with passers-by for three to five dollars a game, with time controls of five minutes on each side being the most common. [37] Writer Lauren Snetiker at the Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation also documents this migration of the historical Washington Square Park chess scene to Union Square, noting the "dozens of chess players [who] sit on crates and bring their own boards... as there are no permanent ones like there are in Washington Square Park". [38]

Greenmarkets and businesses

The outdoor Greenmarket Farmers Market, held four days each week Union Square Farmers Market.jpg
The outdoor Greenmarket Farmers Market, held four days each week

In 1976, the Council on the Environment of New York City (now GrowNYC) established the Greenmarket program, which provided regional small family farmers with opportunities to sell their fruits, vegetables and other farm products at open-air markets in the city. There were originally seven farmers at the first Greenmarket, and their selection sold out by noon. [39] That summer, two more markets opened in New York City. Despite some backlash from local merchants and supermarkets who believed the Greenmarket was cutting into their profits, more markets opened in the city.

Today, the Union Square Greenmarket the best-known of the markets is held Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays, and Saturdays between 8 AM and 6 PM year round. The market is served by a number of regional farmers, as the average distance between farmers and the market is 90 miles (140 km). During peak seasons, the Greenmarket serves more than 250,000 customers per week, [40] who purchase more than one thousand varieties of fruits and vegetables can be found at the Greenmarket; [41] and the variety of produce available is much broader than what is found in a conventional supermarket. [42]

Union Square is also known for the Union Square Holiday Market, which is held November 23 through December 24. Temporary booths are filled with over 100 craftsmen, who sell items ranging from candles and perfume to knitted scarves and high-end jewelry.

Union Square is a popular meeting place, given its central location in Manhattan and its many nearby subway routes. There are many bars and restaurants on the periphery of the square, and the surrounding streets have some of the city's most renowned (and expensive) restaurants. S. Klein's department store promoted itself in the mid-20th century as an "On the Square" alternative to higher prices uptown, and late in the century several big-box chain stores established a presence, including Barnes & Noble, Babies "R" Us and Staples.

The W Union Square Hotel is located at the park's northeast corner, in the landmark building that formerly housed The Guardian Life Insurance Company of America. Additionally, the Hyatt Union Square New York hotel is located at the park's southeast corner, in a former post office.

Union Square Partnership

The Union Square Partnership (USP), a business improvement district (BID) and a local development corporation (LDC), was formed in 1984 and became a model for other BIDs in New York City. As of 2006 it had a US$1.4 million budget. Jennifer E. Falk became its executive director in January 2007. [43]

The Union Square Partnership provides a free public Wi-Fi network in Union Square. [44]


The Washington Irving High School building at 40 Irving Place between East 16th and 17th Streets, just a block off of Union Square, was formerly the location of a comprehensive high school, but now houses Gramercy Arts High School, the High School for Language and Diplomacy, the International High School at Union Square, the Union Square Academy for Health Sciences and the Academy for Software Engineering. In 2012, Success Academy Charter Schools announced its plan to open an elementary school, Success Academy Union Square, in the building in 2013. [45] As of mid-2015, this has not occurred.

Also in the Union Square neighborhood is the original building of Stuyvesant High School at 345 East 15th Street, now known as the "Old Stuyvesant Campus", and housing the Institute for Collaborative Education, the High School for Health Professions and Human Services, and P.S. 226.

See also

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  1. "Parks for the New Metropolis (1811–1870)". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation . Retrieved March 27, 2008.
  2. 1 2 National Park Service (January 23, 2007). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places . National Park Service.
  3. 1 2 "Union Square". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. September 20, 2007. Archived from the original on October 29, 2007.
  4. Four Shortened – Manhattan's Shortest Numbered Avenue, Forgotten NY. Accessed January 16, 2018. "Among New York City's numbered avenues, 1st through 12th, 4th Avenue has always been the odd duck-- you can tell just by looking at a map. While most avenues are extraordinarily lengthy, spanning much of the island from north to south, 4th runs just six short blocks between Cooper and Union Squares; and while all of NYC's numbered avenues run parallel to the island's northward tilt (though not true north) 4th runs northwest athwart the other avenues, forming a 'V' at the Bowery at Cooper Square."
  5. 1 2 Jenkins, Stephen (1911). The Greatest Street in the World: The Story of Broadway, Old and New, from Bowling Green to Albany. New York: Knickerbocker Press. OCLC   794027661.
  6. "New School: Map". The New School.
  7. "NYU: Map". New York University.
  8. One Union Square South was voted "New York's Ugliest Building" by a panel of architects assembled by the New York Post ; results were published in the paper on January 9, 2000.
  9. "Union Square Park, George Washington". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation.
  10. "Flyer for Gandhi Memorial Statue in New York City, dedicated on October 2, 1986" in the South Asian American Digital Archive (SAADA)
  11. Randel, John.City of New York, North of Canal Street, in 1808 to 1821. p. 7. (via the Library of Congress). Retrieved September 5, 2011.
  12. Burrows & Wallace, pp. 577 et passim.
  13. Trager, James. Park Avenue: Street of Dreams, p. 18. Accessed August 31, 2018. Atheneum Books, 1990. ISBN   9780689120244. "Ruggles was also helping to develop a collection of vacant lots from 14th Street to 17th between Broadway and Fourth Avenue into Union Square, a 3.48-acre field indicated in the commissioners' plan as Union Place and renamed Union Square in 1832."
  14. Union Square Timeline, Columbia University. Accessed January 16, 2018. "In 1832, Samuel Buckley Ruggles obtained a fifty-year lease on the Union Place area."
  15. Staff (December 25, 1906). "Creditors Take Charge of the Everett House – Bankruptcy Petition Is Filed Against Famous Hostelry – Mortgage Also Foreclosed – A Woman Says She Lost All in Loan to President Seibert of the Hotel Company" (PDF). The New York Times . p. 4. Retrieved September 5, 2011.
  16. Olmsted and Vaux were carrying out their plan for Central Park; their plan, and the original plan, are represented in bronze plaques with very low relief, set into the sidewalks near the southwest and southeast corners.
  17. In the way that Piazza del Popolo functioned for Rome and Hyde Park Corner for London.
  18. 1 2 Wollmann, Elizabeth L. (November 29, 2012). Hard Times: The Adult Musical in 1970s New York City . Retrieved March 10, 2013.
  19. Bianco, Anthony. Ghosts of 42nd Street . Retrieved March 10, 2013.
  20. Allen, Irving L. City In Slang: New York Life and Popular Speech . Retrieved March 10, 2013.
  21. Chesluk, Benjamin (2008). Money Jungle: Imagining the New Times Square. Rutgers Press. p. 19.
  22. 1 2 Burrows & Wallace, pp. 946–948.
  23. Burrows & Wallace, p. 1,005.
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  26. Union Square bombing.
  27. "Monkey Business in Union Square: A Cultural Analysis of the Klein's-Ohrbach's Strikes of 1934-5". Journal of Social History. 36 (1).
  28. Merwood-Salisbury, Joanna (2009). "Patriotism and Protest: Union Square as Public Space, 1832–1932". Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. 68: 555–556.
  29. Bond, John W. (March 6, 1996). ""Union Square", March 6, 1996, National Historic Landmark Nomination". National Park Service.
  30. "Union Square – Accompanying photos from 1995–1997 and illustration from 1882. National Historic Landmark Nomination". National Park Service. March 6, 1996.
  31. Siegel, Jefferson (December 13, 2006). "Opponents Pile on Union Sq. Pavillion Plan at Rally". The Villager . Retrieved May 27, 2008.
  32. "Groups Protest Planned Restaurant in Union Square Park". NY1 . October 17, 2005. Retrieved May 27, 2008.
  33. "Judge Extends Injunction Against Union Square Restaurant". NY1 . April 28, 2008. Retrieved May 27, 2008.
  34. Amateau, Albert (May 14, 2008). "Union Sq. Work Restart O.K.'d, But Pavilion Is on Back Burner". The Villager . Retrieved May 27, 2008.
  35. Gregorian, Dareh (March 31, 2009). "Judge Throws Out Suit Against Union Square Renovation and Seasonal Restaurant". New York Post . Retrieved May 30, 2010.
  36. Hines, Lael (August 8, 2008). "Chess moves: Most players are now at Union Square". The Villager. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
  37. Roma, Giancarlo. "A Black and White Game: The Chess Players of Union Square". Vice . Retrieved October 15, 2015.
  38. Snetiker, Lauren (September 3, 2015). "Checkmate!: Street Chess in the Village". Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation . Retrieved October 15, 2015.
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  43. Engquist, Erik (January 17, 2007). "BID Executive Makes Plans for Progress". Crain's New York Business . Retrieved May 30, 2010.
  44. Union Square Partnership (July 3, 2014). "Union Square Partnership Expands Free Wi-Fi Hot Zone (press release)" . Retrieved March 10, 2013.
  45. [https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702303933704577529002194406824 Fleisher, Lisa, New Charters Proposed for Manhattan, The Wall Street Journal (July 15, 2012) Accessed: July 25, 2012