|Succeeded by||Communist Party of Iran|
Union of Communist Militants (Persian : اتحاد مبارزان کمونیست, abbreviated EMKامک) was an Iranian communist group. It was led by Mansoor Hekmat. Hekmat founded the group in December 1978. The organization took part in the Iranian Revolution of 1979 — marked by the creation of workers' councils (shoras).
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.
Iran, also called Persia and officially known as the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center.
In political and social sciences, communism is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.
Because of mounting repression in Iran, the organisation sought refuge in Kurdistan in 1981. In Kurdistan, the organization merged with a Kurdish group of Maoist roots, Komalah. Together, they formed the Communist Party of Iran (CPI) in September 1983.
Iranian Kurdistan, or Eastern Kurdistan, is an unofficial name for the parts of northwestern Iran inhabited by Kurds which borders Iraq and Turkey. It includes the West Azerbaijan Province, Kurdistan Province, Kermanshah Province, Ilam Province and Hamadan Province. There is also a significant Kurdish population in the North Khorasan Province.
Maoism, known in China as Mao Zedong Thought, is a communist political theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong, whose followers are known as Maoists. Developed from the 1950s until the Deng Xiaoping reforms in the 1970s, it was widely applied as the guiding political and military ideology of the Communist Party of China and as theory guiding revolutionary movements around the world. A key difference between Maoism and other forms of Marxism–Leninism is that peasants should be the bulwark of the revolutionary energy, led by the working class in China.
The Komala Kurdistan's Organization of the Communist Party of Iran is an Iranian Kurdish communist party active throughout the borders between Iran-Iraq. The party is led by Ibrahim Alizade. Komala suffered a split in 2000 by Abdullah Mohtadi after ideological disagreements between him and the party's current leader Ibrahim Alizade. Abdullah Mohtadi went over to Kurdish nationalism while Ibrahim Alizade stayed on far-left communism. The party works as the Kurdish branch of CPI
The Worker-communist Party of Iran is a political party founded in 1991 that seeks the overthrow of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the establishment of a Socialist Republic in its place. The party's primary slogans are "Liberty, Equality, Workers' Rule", "Down with the Islamic Republic", "For a Socialist Republic" and "The Basis of Socialism is the Human Being".
The Worker-Communist Party of Iraq is a Marxist political party in Iraq and amongst Iraqi exiles. samir adil is the current leader of this party. It was Established in July 1993 through a merger of communist groups.
Mansoor Hekmat was an Iranian Marxist theorist, revolutionary and leader of the worker-communist movement. He opposed the Shah and, after the Islamic Revolution of 1979, led the Worker-Communist Party of Iran (WPI), which is opposed to the Islamic Republic of Iran. He was the husband of fellow politician Azar Majedi.
The Worker-communist Party of Iran – Hekmatist is an opposition Iranian political party in exile. Its current leader is Rahman Hosseinzadeh and its current Chair of the Politbureau is Fateh Sheikh.
The Left Worker-communist Party of Iraq is a small political party in Iraq, formed in 2004.
The Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas, also known as Dehghani faction after its leader Ashraf Dehghani, is an Iranian communist organization that split from the Organization of Iranian People's Fedai Guerrillas (OIFPG) in 1979, dropping the word 'organization' from its name.
The Komala Party of Iranian Kurdistan, commonly shortened to Komalah, is an armed communist ethnic party of Kurds in Iran. the group is currently exiled in northern Iraq. Komalah has been engaged in guerrilla warfare against the Iranian government, notably during the 1979 Kurdish rebellion and the Iran–Iraq War. It was also involved in armed activity against the Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan (KDPI) from 1984 to 1991.
Ali Javadi is an Iranian political Communist activist living in exile.
Union of Iranian Communists was an Iran Maoist organization. UIC (S) was formed in 1976 after the alliance of a number of Maoist groups carrying out military actions within Iran. The group prepared an insurrection starting in 1981, but it was dismantled by 1982.
Azar Majedi is an Iranian communist activist, writer, chairperson of the Organization for Women's Liberation and one of the leaders of the Worker-Communist Party of Iran. She has been an opponent of the current regime ruling Iran since returning from her education abroad to oppose the regime in 1978, a movement she has described as just.
Manijeh Hekmat is an Iranian film director. Born in 1962 in Farmahin, Iran, she has worked since 1980 as an assistant director and production designer in over 25 films. She directed her first feature film Women's Prison in 2002. This film has been shown at over 80 international film festivals and has received seven prizes. Three Women is Hekmat’s second feature film made in 2007. Hekmat has produced five noted films which include the award-winning feature films The Girl in the Sneakers and A Bunch of Grass, the latter a German-produced film made in the Iranian Kurdistan. In her 2018 movie, The Old Road, Hekmat addressed the social problem of violence against women.
Several leftist guerrilla groups attempting to overthrown the pro-Western regime of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi were notable and active in Iran from 1971 to 1979. The groups shared a commitment to armed struggle, but differed in ideology. Most were Marxist in orientation, but the largest group — People's Mujahedin of Iran — was founded as an Islamic socialist organization. The leftist movement is meant to overthrow conservative or capitalist systems and replace them with Marxist–Leninist, socialist, or anarchist societies.
The Worker-communism Unity Party (WUP) is an Iranian political party in exile.
The Worker-communist Party of Kurdistan is a Marxist political party in Iraqi Kurdistan. The party was established in March 2008 when the Kurdistan branch of the Worker-communist Party of Iraq was formed into a separate party. It is currently led by Osman Hajy Marouf.
The International Conference of Marxist–Leninist Parties and Organizations (ICMLPO) is a grouping of parties and organizations adhering to Mao Zedong Thought. It is organized by a Joint Coordination Group and meets every two or three years.
Shamsi Hekmat or Šamsi Morādpur Hekmat was an Iranian woman who pioneered reforms in women's status in Iran. She founded the first Iranian Jewish women's organization in 1947. She migrated to the United States and established the Iranian Jewish Women's Organization of Southern California to help poor families and students.
Socialism in Iran or Iranian socialism is a political ideology that traces its beginnings to the 20th century and encompasses various political parties in the country. Iran experienced a short Third World Socialism period at the zenith of the Tudeh Party after the abdication of Reza Shah and his replacement by his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. After failing to reach power, this form of third world socialism was replaced by Mosaddegh's populist, non-aligned Iranian nationalism of the National Front party as the main anti-monarchy force in Iran, reaching power (1949–1953), and it remained with that strength even in opposition until the rise of Islamism and the Iranian Revolution. The Tudehs have moved towards basic socialist communism since then.
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