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The Unitarian League (Spanish : Liga Unitaria) also referred to as the League of the Interior (Spanish : Liga del Interior) was a league of provinces of Argentina led by José María Paz, established in 1830, aiming to unite the country under unitarian principles. It comprised the provinces of San Luis, La Rioja, Catamarca, Mendoza, San Juan, Tucumán, Córdoba, Salta and Santiago del Estero. It was opposed and ultimately defeated by the provinces of the Federal Pact.
Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.
Brigadier General José María Paz y Haedo was an Argentine military figure, notable in the Argentine War of Independence and the Argentine Civil War.
Unitarianists or Unitarians were the proponents of the concept of a unitary state in Buenos Aires during the civil wars which shortly followed the Declaration of Independence of Argentina in 1816. They were opposed to the Argentine Federalists, who wanted a federation of independent provinces.
After the Argentine-Brazilian war, which brought the independence of the Banda Oriental del Uruguay, the political situation in the provinces was greatly effected by the disappearance of Rivadavia's Unitarian national government. Due to this the provinces proclaimed their autonomy and gave the governor of Buenos Aires, Manuel Dorrego, the responsibility to manage Argentina's foreign relations. Many attempts were made to reorganize the national government under the ideals of the Federalist Party, but they all failed, as a result, the Unitarian party attempted to retake control.
The Cisplatine War, also known as the Argentine-Brazilian War, was an armed conflict over an area known as Banda Oriental or the "Eastern Bank" in the 1820s between the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata and the Empire of Brazil in the aftermath of the United Provinces' independence from Spain.
Banda Oriental, or more fully Banda Oriental del Uruguay, was the name of the South American territories east of the Uruguay River and north of Río de la Plata that comprise the modern nation of Uruguay; the modern state of Brazil Rio Grande do Sul; and some of Santa Catarina, Brazil. It was the easternmost territory of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata.
Bernardino de la Trinidad González Rivadavia y Rivadavia was the first President of Argentina, then called the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, from February 8, 1826 to June 27, 1827.
They took advantage of the dissatisfaction that the generals of the National Army expressed with the peace treaty signed by Dorrego, to promote a political-military uprising. In December 1828 General Juan Lavalle executed Dorrego, taking over the government of Buenos Aires; shortly after the Cordovan general José María Paz marched with another division of the national troops and seized Córdoba after defeating the governor Juan Bautista Bustos in the Battle of San Roque.
Juan Galo Lavalle was an Argentine military and political figure.
Córdoba is a sprawling city in the geographic center of Argentina, in the foothills of the Sierras Chicas on the Suquía River, about 700 km (435 mi) northwest of the Buenos Aires. It is the capital of Córdoba Province and the second most populous city in Argentina after Buenos Aires, with about 1,330,023 inhabitants according to the 2010 census. It was founded on 6 July 1573 by Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera, who named it after Córdoba, Spain. It was one of the first Spanish colonial capitals of the region that is now Argentina. The National University of Córdoba is the oldest university of the country and the seventh to be inaugurated in Spanish America. It was founded in 1613 by the Jesuit Order. Because of this, Córdoba earned the nickname La Docta.
The Battle of San Roque was part of the Argentine Civil War. It was fought on the Primero River, near the city of Córdoba, Argentina, on 22 April 1829. The Federalist forces of Córdoba Province governor Juan Bautista Bustos were defeated by the Unitarian forces of General José María Paz. As a result of his victory, Paz assumed the office of provincial Governor.
The Argentine civil war began in 1829, while the Federalist Caudillos of the coastal provinces were able to defeat Juan Lavalle, Paz consolidated his dominance of Cordoba while detouring two invasions from Juan Facundo Quiroga, the Caudillo of La Rioja.
The Federalist Party was the nineteenth century Argentine political party that supported federalism. It opposed the Unitarian Party that claimed a centralised government of Buenos Aires Province, with no participation of the other provinces of the custom taxes benefits of the Buenos Aires port. The federales supported the autonomy of the provincial governments and the distribution of external commerce taxes among the provinces.
A caudillo is a type of personalist leader wielding military and political power. There is no precise definition of caudillo, which is often used interchangeably with "dictator" and "strongman". The term is historically associated with Spain, and with Spanish America after virtually all of that region won independence in the early nineteenth century.
Juan Facundo Quiroga was an Argentine caudillo who supported federalism at the time when the country was still in formation.
General Paz, knowing that the revolution had failed in Buenos Aires and the coastal provinces, he then proclaimed that his intention was to remain in his native province without attacking the other provinces, but then considered the need to occupy his neighboring provinces to ensure his control of Cordoba. The governors of Salta and Tucumán were the first to join the unitary league and then collaborated in the occupation of the provinces governed or influenced by federalist caudillos. Numerous military units occupied the provinces of San Juan, La Rioja, Mendoza and Santiago del Estero with little or no resistance, while in the provinces of Catamarca and San Luis also assumed governments that were sympathetic to Paz's cause. This created a clear political divide within the country between the Unitarian inland provinces and the Federalist coastal provinces.
The governments of the provinces that sympathized with Paz, or that were militarily controlled by their troops, sent representatives to Córdoba, which signed on July 5, 1830 a treaty of peace and friendship, and a defensive and offensive alliance. The signatories were Juan Antonio Saráchaga of Cordoba, Enrique Araujo of Catamarca, José María Bedoya of San Luis, Francisco Delgado of Mendoza and Andrés Ocampo of La Rioja.
Later it was joined by the provinces of Salta, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán y San Juan.
One of the main objectives of the Unitarian League was to promote the organization of a national government.
The War of Argentine Independence had strongly upset the region for several reasons: trade with Upper Peru had been cut off, the workforce was drafted into the military, and the market of the coastal provinces had been lost due to the competition from the English. Economically, artisan production was maintained and its profits were used to purchase large pieces of land to be used for Plantations.
In the shadows, the caudillos and governors of the Interior wanted to organize a national organization to manage provincial economic relations while respecting the provincial autonomies. It is because of these proceedings these that the governor of Córdoba, Juan Bautista Bustos, had promoted for years the organization of a Congress that would definitively organize the provinces in a Federal Republic; but their initiatives abandoned due to the successive authorities from Buenos Aires. After the arrival of Paz, the creation of a new center of power in the city of Córdoba was seen by the elites of the Interior as a possible step to achieve a certain national organization.
The political situation experienced by the interior provinces was uncertain as the leadership of the league did not consider the views of the majority of the population. The federalist caudillos maintained their influence and frequently revolted using montoneras, especially in rural areas. They even revolted in the city of Cordoba.
The Montoneras originally were known as the armed civilian, paramilitary groups who organized in the 19th century during the wars of independence from Spain in Latin America. They played an important role in the Argentine Civil War, as well as in other Latin American countries during the 19th century, generally operating in rural areas.
The political turmoil resulting from their struggles put these provinces to a state of permanent chaos that diminished economic progress, which was even very limited before the war. This influenced the formation of a multi-provincial army, in addition to maintaining social discontent, fueled by the caudillos. In reality, each member province of the League did continue to operate autonomously, as the political situation of the region prevented any form of complete unity.
The need to face a possible threat on the part of the coastal provinces meant that on August 31, 1830 the governments of the League of the Interior agreed to grant General Paz the Dictator-like powers by signing a Pact of Union and Alliance. This meant that each province provided their own troops to be lead under the unified commander, as well as their weaponry and other equipment. To maintain this army (which came to be a joint army in charge of the defense of all the territories), the signatory governments provided Paz with 1/4 of each of their governmental incomes. This treaty was signed by representatives of the nine provinces of the League and was in effect for eight months. It stipulated that in that time national political unity would be established, in which case the treaty would be rendered ineffective. However if after eight months there still had not been any national government to which the League could join, the signatory provinces would regain control of their troops, except in case of war.
The purpose of this Supreme Military Power was to unify the resources of the provinces, but a raid by the montoneras kept the troops occupied, of which were scattered throughout the provinces.
The coastal provinces created a similar union that provided for a mutual defense of their region. The governments of Santa Fe, Buenos Aires and Corrientes united as a result of revolutionary movements in Entre Ríos, which they were able to put down.
This article is about voting, elections, and election results in Argentina. For details of Argentine government institutions and political parties, see Politics of Argentina.
Departments form the second level of administrative division, and are subdivided in municipalities. They are extended in all of Argentina except for the Province of Buenos Aires and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, the national capital, each of which has different administrative arrangements.
What today is commonly referred as the Independence of Argentina was declared on July 9, 1816 by the Congress of Tucumán. In reality, the congressmen who were assembled in Tucumán declared the independence of the United Provinces of South America, which is still today one of the legal names of the Argentine Republic. The Federal League Provinces, at war with the United Provinces, were not allowed into the Congress. At the same time, several provinces from the Upper Peru that would later become part of present-day Bolivia, were represented at the Congress.
The Congress of Tucumán was the representative assembly, initially meeting in San Miguel de Tucumán, that declared the independence of the United Provinces of South America on July 9, 1816, from the Spanish Empire.
The Argentine Civil Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Argentina from 1814 to 1880. These conflicts were separate from the Argentine War of Independence (1810–1820), though they first arose during this period.
The Battle of Márquez Bridge, fought on 26 April 1829, during the civil war between Unitarians and Federalists, resulting in a victory for the Federal Party forces of Juan Manuel de Rosas and the governor of Santa Fe Province, Estanislao López, over general Juan Lavalle, who had usurped the office of Governor of Buenos Aires Province.
Ángel Vicente "Chacho" Peñaloza was a military officer and provincial leader prominent in both the history of La Rioja Province and the Argentine Civil Wars that preceded national unity.
The Argentine Civil Wars were a series of internecine wars that took place in Argentina from 1814 to 1876. These conflicts were separate from the Argentine War of Independence, though they first arose during this period.
The Republic of Tucumán was a short-lived state centered on the town of San Miguel de Tucumán in today's Argentina that was formed after the collapse of central authority in 1820, and that broke up the next year. The "Republic" remained a political unit within the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata.
Francisco Javier López was an Argentine soldier, a leader in the Unitarian Party and several times Governor of Tucumán Province.
Juan Felipe Ibarra was an Argentine soldier and politician. He was one of the caudillos who dominated the Argentine interior during the formation of the national state, and ruled the province of his birth for decades.
The Battle of La Ciudadela was a fight during the Argentine Civil Wars between Federalist troops commanded by Facundo Quiroga and Unitarian troops of Gregorio Aráoz de Lamadrid on the outskirts of San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina, on 4 November 1831. It resulted in a decisive victory by the Federalists.
Alejandro Heredia was an Argentine soldier and politician. He fought in the war of independence, and in the subsequent civil war. He was governor and caudillo of Tucumán Province.
The Battle of Rodeo del Chacón, fought in Potrero de Chacón, Argentina on 28 March 1831, was a battle during the civil war between Unitarian and Federalist forces. It ended with the victory of General Facundo Quiroga, one of the most capable and well known of the Federalist caudillos.
The Battle of Rincón de Valladares was a battle during the Argentine Civil Wars. It was fought between Federalist forces led by Facundo Quiroga and Unitarian forces under Governor Gregorio Aráoz de Lamadrid, near the city of San Miguel de Tucumán. Quiroga was the victor, forcing Lamadrid to resign and go into exile in Bolivia, leaving the government of Tucumán Province in the hands of the Federalists.
The Decembrist revolution was a military coup in the Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Juan Lavalle, returning with the troops that fought in the Argentine-Brazilian War, made a coup on December 1, 1828, deposed the governor Manuel Dorrego and closed the legislature. Dorrego was captured and executed a short time afterwards. The rancher Juan Manuel de Rosas organized militias that fought against Lavalle and removed him from power, restoring the legislature. However, as the coup had reignited the Argentine Civil Wars, Rosas was appointed governor of the Buenos Aires province to wage the war against the Unitarian League. José María Paz made from Córdoba a league of provinces, and so did Rosas. The conflict ended a short time after the unexpected capture of Paz, who mistook enemy troops for his own.