United Jewish Socialist Workers Party
פֿאַראײניקטע ייִדישע סאָציאַליסטישע אַרבעטער־פּאַרטיי
|Leader||Moishe Zilberfarb (Ukraine)|
|Founded||1917-1920 (Ukraine) |
|Ideology|| Socialism |
National personal autonomism
|Political position||Left wing|
United Jewish Socialist Workers Party (Yiddish : פֿאַראײניקטע ייִדישע סאָציאַליסטישע אַרבעטער־פּאַרטיי, fareynikte yidishe sotsialistishe arbeter-partey) was a political party in Poland and Ukraine. Members of the party along with the Poalei Zion participated in the government of Ukraine and condemned the October Revolution in Petrograd proposing a peaceful resolution of political changes in Russia.
Its followers were generally known simply for the first portion of the name Fareynikte (פֿאַראײניקטע) - 'United'. Politically the party favored national personal autonomy for the Jewish community.The party upheld the ideas of building a secular Jewish community.
Fareynikte was founded in June1917 through the merger of two groups, the Zionist Socialist Workers Party (SSRP) (Socialist-Territorialists) and the Jewish Socialist Workers Party (SERP). SERP's ideology was based particularly upon "autonomism". Note that some of the leaders from those two parties did not join Fareynikte, but rather became "Folkists" (Folkspartei). Both SSRP and SERP had emerged from the Vozrozhdenie group. As of early 1918, Fareynikte was the largest Jewish autonomist political party in the independent Ukraine.
The Faraynikte's program claimed "unity of the Jewish worker's class as an integral part of the 'extraterritorial' Jewish nation and international proletariat". The previous arguments in regard to the way of implementing the territorialists program have been declared as less important. The focal point of the party program a "national-individual autonomy". For a brief period the party acquired a major influence, particularly in Ukraine where it played an important role in an attempt to organize the Jewish national autonomy. In September 1917 Fareynikte petitioned to the Provisional Government to declare the equality of language.
In the 1917 elections in Russia, the party obtained around 8% of the Jewish votes.
Fareynikt Moishe Zilberfarb was Deputy-Secretary of Jewish Affairs in the General Secretariat of Ukraine, the main executive institution of the Ukrainian People's Republic from June 28, 1917 to January 22, 1918.
Fareynikte ran some Yiddish newspapers in Ukraine. It published the Naye tsayt (New Time) in Kiev September 1917-May 1919.Prior to the publishing of Naye tsayt, the party published Der yidisher proletarier from Kiev.
In Poland, dissidents from the Fareynikte party joined the Communist Party of Poland.
The interwar Communist Party of Poland was a communist party active in Poland during the Second Polish Republic. It resulted from a December 1918 merger of the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania (SDKPiL) and the Polish Socialist Party – Left into the Communist Workers' Party of Poland. The communists were a small force in Polish politics.
The Folkspartei was founded after the 1905 pogroms in the Russian Empire by Simon Dubnow and Israel Efrojkin. The party took part in several elections in Poland and Lithuania in the 1920s and 1930s and did not survive the Holocaust.
Żydokomuna is an antisemitic canard or a pejorative stereotype suggesting that most Jews collaborated with the Soviet Union in importing communism into Poland, or that there was an exclusively Jewish conspiracy to do so. A Polish language term for "Jewish Bolshevism" or more literally, "Jewish communism", Żydokomuna is related to the "Jewish world conspiracy" myth.
Jewish Bolshevism, also Judeo–Bolshevism, is an anti-communist and antisemitic canard, which alleges that the Jews were the originators of the Russian Revolution in 1917, and that they held primary power among the Bolsheviks who led the revolution. Similarly, the conspiracy theory of Jewish Communism alleges that Jews have dominated the Communist movements in the world, and is related to The Zionist Occupation Government conspiracy theory (ZOG), which alleges that Jews control world politics.
Naye Prese was a Yiddish-language communist daily newspaper published in Paris, France. The first issue was published on January 1, 1934. The initiative to start publishing Naye Prese was taken by a sector of Jewish members of the French Communist Party. Prior to the founding of Naye Prese there had been other Yiddish-language communist periodicals which had been banned by the French state authorities.
The Central Jewish Bureau was a Jewish autonomous section inside the Communist Party of Poland. The CBŻ was founded shortly after the Kombund had merged into the Communist Party in 1923. The role of the CBŻ was to mobilize support for the Communist Party amongst the Jewish community. However, not all Jewish party members were part of the CBŻ; assimilated Jewish communists were active in the main Polish party organization.
Komunistishe fon, also known as Komfon, was a Soviet Yiddish newspaper published in Kiev 1919–1924. The newspaper was the result of the merger of two previously non-communist newspapers, Naye tsayt of the Fareynikte party and the Folkstsaytung of the Bund party. Kommunistishe fon was the organ of the Komfarband, and later became the organ of the Main Bureau of the Jewish sections of the Communist Party (bolshevik) of Ukraine.
Zionist-Socialist Workers Party, often referred to simply as Zionist-Socialists or S.S. by their Russian initials, was a Jewish socialist territorialist political party in the Russian Empire and Poland, that emerged from the Vozrozhdenie (Renaissance) group in 1904. The party held its founding conference in Odessa in 1905.
The Jewish Socialist Federation (JSF) was a secular Jewish Yiddish-oriented organization founded in 1912 which acted as a language federation in the Socialist Party of America (SPA). Many of the founding members of the JSF had previously been members of the Bund in Eastern Europe and sought to bring Bundist politics to the socialist movement in the USA.
The General Jewish Labour Bund in Poland was a Jewish socialist party in Poland which promoted the political, cultural and social autonomy of Jewish workers, sought to combat antisemitism and was generally opposed to Zionism.
Ya'akov Ze'ev Latsky ("Bertoldi") (1881–1940) was a Jewish Ukrainian political and Yiddishist activist and briefly a Minister in the Ukrainian People's Republic in 1918.
Joseph Kruk was an Israeli journalist and a politician in pre-war Poland.
Naye tsayt was a Yiddish-language newspaper published from Kiev between September 1917 and May 1919. Naye tsayt was an organ of the United Jewish Socialist Workers Party (fareynikte). Prior to the launching of Naye tsayt, the party published Der yidisher proletarier from Kiev.
Bundism was a secular Jewish socialist movement, whose organizational manifestation was the General Jewish Labour Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia, founded in the Russian Empire in 1897.
Moishe Zylberfarb was a Ukrainian politician, diplomat, and public activist of Jewish descent. He was one of the authors of the Law of Ukraine about national-individual autonomy (1918) which later was canceled by the Communist regime.
The Jewish Socialist Workers Party, often nicknamed Seymists, was a Jewish socialist political party in the Russian Empire. The party was founded in April 1906, emerging out of the Vozrozhdenie (Renaissance) circles. The Vozrozhdenie was a non-Marxist tendency which was led by the nonmarxist thinker and politician Chaim Zhitlowsky. Zhitlowsky became the theoretician of the new party that advocated with the same emphasis Jewish self-reliance and socialism. Leaders of the party included Avrom Rozin (Ben-Adir), N. Shits, Dr. M. Zilberfarb and Mark Ratner. The party was close to the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (PSR).
The Young Communist League of Poland, in February 1930 renamed as the Communist League of Youth in Poland Polish: Komunistyczny Związek Młodzieży Polski, abbreviated KZMP), was the youth wing of the interbellum Communist Party of Poland between 1922 and 1938. ZMKwP/KZMP was a section of the Young Communist International.
Dov Ber Borochov was a Marxist Zionist and one of the founders of the Labor Zionist movement. He was also a pioneer in the study of the Yiddish language.
The General Jewish Labour Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia, generally called The Bund or the Jewish Labour Bund, was a secular Jewish socialist party initially formed in the Russian Empire and active between 1897 and 1920. In 1917 the Polish part of the Bund, which dated to the times when Poland was a Russian territory, seceded from the Russian Bund and created a new Polish General Jewish Labour Bund which continued to operate in Poland in the years between the two world wars. The majority faction of the Russian Bund was dissolved in 1921 and incorporated into the Communist Party. Other remnants of the Bund endured in various countries. A member of the Bund was called a Bundist.
The Generation: The Rise and Fall of the Jewish Communists of Poland is a 1991 book about the intersection of communism in Poland and Polish Jewry. Its primary focus is the generation of Polish Jews born in the early 1900s, a small number of whom embraced the communist ideology.