|UN Security Council |
|Date||30 March 2011|
|Subject||The situation in Côte d'Ivoire|
|Security Council composition|
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1975, adopted unanimously on March 30, 2011, after recalling previous resolutions on the situation in Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), including resolutions 1572 (2004), 1893 (2009), 1911 (2010), 1924 (2010), 1933 (2010), 1942 (2010), 1946 (2010), 1951 (2010), 1962 (2010), 1967 (2011) and 1968 (2011), the Council demanded that Laurent Gbagbo step down as President (allowing internationally recognised President Alassane Ouattara to take power) and imposed sanctions on him and his close associates.
The resolution was sponsored by France and Nigeria.
In the preamble of the resolution, the Council wished for a peaceful, durable and democratic resolution to the crisis in Côte d'Ivoire. It commended the efforts of the African Union and Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) to resolve the crisis, and reaffirmed the international recognition given to Alassane Ouattara as President of Côte d'Ivoire.
There was concern at the rapidly deteriorating situation in the country and its possible relapse into a civil war. The Council condemned all provocative actions and violations of human rights and international humanitarian law by any party and called for restraint and the peaceful resolution of their differences. All such violations had to be investigated and those responsible be brought to justice, with the Council considering that attacks on civilians could constitute a crime against humanity.
Acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Council urged all Ivorian parties to respect the will of the people and the election of Alassane Ouattara as President of Côte d'Ivoire, as recognised by ECOWAS, the African Union and the rest of the international community. It also demanded an immediate end to violence against civilians. Furthermore, the Ivorian parties were urged to pursue the political solution offered by the African Union, and Laurent Gbagbo was criticised for not accepting the solution and urged to step down.
The resolution condemned attacks by defence forces, militias and mercenaries against United Nations peacekeepers, and urged Laurent Gbagbo's forces and supporters to fully co-operate with the United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI). Furthermore, attacks against civilians were strongly condemned and the Council reiterated that UNOCI could use "all necessary measures" in its mandate to protect civilians under imminent threat of attack.
All Ivorian parties were urged to co-operate with UNOCI and supporting French forces as part of Operation Unicorn, by guaranteeing their safety and freedom of movement of Côte d'Ivoire, as well as co-operating with an independent inquiry put in place by the United Nations Human Rights Council. Ivorian state media, including Radiodiffusion Television Ivoirienne, was condemned for inciting violence and restrictions on freedom of expression were urged to be lifted.
There was concern at the increase in the number of refugees and internally displaced persons, particularly in Liberia, and demands that Laurent Gbagbo lift the siege against the hotel where Alassane Ouattara was blockaded and protected by UNOCI troops.
Finally, the Council placed financial and travel sanctions on the following individuals for obstructing the peace process:
Koudou Laurent Gbagbo is an Ivorian politician who was the President of Côte d'Ivoire from 2000 until his arrest in April 2011. A historian, Gbagbo was imprisoned in the early 1970s and again in the early 1990s, and he lived in exile in France during much of the 1980s as a result of his union activism. Gbagbo founded the Ivorian Popular Front (FPI) in 1982 and ran unsuccessfully for president against Félix Houphouët-Boigny at the start of multi-party politics in 1990. He won a seat in the National Assembly of Côte d'Ivoire in 1990.
The First Ivorian Civil War was a conflict in the Ivory Coast that began in 2002. Although most of the fighting ended by late 2004, the country remained split in two, with a rebel-held north and a government-held south. Hostility increased and raids on foreign troops and civilians rose. As of 2006, the region was tense, and many said the UN and the French military failed to calm the civil war.
Alassane Dramane Ouattara is an Ivorian politician born in haute volta who has been President of Ivory Coast since 2010. An economist by profession, Ouattara worked for the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Central Bank of West African States, and he was the Prime Minister of Côte d'Ivoire from November 1990 to December 1993, appointed to that post by President Félix Houphouët-Boigny. Ouattara became the President of the Rally of the Republicans (RDR), an Ivorian political party, in 1999.
The United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI) was a UN-NATO peacekeeping mission in Ivory Coast whose objective was "to facilitate the implementation by the Ivorian parties of the peace agreement signed by them in January 2003". The two main Ivorian parties here are the Ivorian Government forces who control the south of the country, and the New Forces, who control the north. The UNOCI mission aims to control a "zone of confidence" across the centre of the country separating the two parties. The Head of Mission and Special Representative of the Secretary-General is Aïchatou Mindaoudou Souleymane from Niger. She has succeeded Bert Koenders from the Netherlands in 2013 who himself succeeded Choi Young-jin from South Korea in 2011. The mission officially ended on 30 June 2017.
Opération Licorne was a French Armed Forces peacekeeping operation in support of the United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire. The French forces had been stationed in the country since shortly after the outbreak of the Ivorian Civil War. The troops' main mission was to support the United Nations peacekeeping mission and to ensure the security of French and foreign nationals.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1933, adopted unanimously on June 30, 2010, after reaffirming resolutions 1893 (2009), 1911 (2010) and 1924 (2010) on the situation in Côte d'Ivoire and Resolution 1885 (2009) on the situation in Liberia, the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI) and supporting French forces until December 31, 2010 and expanded UNOCI's mandate with provisions to strengthen its capacity to consolidate stability in the country.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1528, adopted unanimously on 27 February 2004, after recalling resolutions 1464 (2003), 1479 (2003), 1498 (2003), 1514 (2003) and 1527 (2004) on the situation in Côte d'Ivoire, the Council established the United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI) for an initial period of twelve months.
The 2010–11 Ivorian crisis was a political crisis in Ivory Coast which began after Laurent Gbagbo, the President of Ivory Coast since 2000, was proclaimed the winner of the Ivorian election of 2010, the first election in the country in 10 years. The opposition candidate, Alassane Ouattara, and a number of countries, organisations and leaders worldwide claimed Ouattara had won the election. After months of attempted negotiation and sporadic violence, the crisis entered a decisive stage as Ouattara's forces began a military offensive in which they quickly gained control of most of the country and besieged key targets in Abidjan, the country's largest city. At the time, international organizations reported numerous human rights violations, and the UN undertook its own military action with the stated objective to protect itself and civilians.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1962, adopted unanimously on December 20, 2010, after recalling previous resolutions on the situation in Côte d'Ivoire, including resolutions 1893 (2009), 1911 (2010), 1924 (2010), 1933 (2010), 1942 (2010), 1946 (2010) and 1951 (2010), the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI) until June 30, 2011 and urged all Ivorian parties to respect the outcome of the presidential election and the recognition of Alassane Ouattara as President.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1968, adopted unanimously on February 16, 2011, after recalling previous resolutions on the situation in Côte d'Ivoire, including resolutions 1933 (2010), 1942 (2010), 1946 (2010), 1951 (2010), 1962 (2010) and 1967 (2011), the Council extended the deployment of troops from the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) to the United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI) for an additional three months.
The Second Ivorian Civil War broke out in March 2011 when the crisis in Ivory Coast escalated into full-scale military conflict between forces loyal to Laurent Gbagbo, the President of Ivory Coast since 2000, and supporters of the internationally recognised president-elect Alassane Ouattara. After months of unsuccessful negotiations and sporadic violence between supporters of the two sides, the crisis entered a critical stage as Ouattara's forces seized control of most of the country with the help of the UN, with Gbagbo entrenched in Abidjan, the country's largest city. International organizations have reported numerous instances of human rights violations by both sides, in particular in the city of Duékoué where Ouattara's forces killed hundreds of people. Overall casualties of the war are estimated around 3000. The UN and French forces took military action, with the stated objective to protect their forces and civilians. France's forces arrested Gbagbo at his residence on 11 April 2011.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1633, adopted unanimously on 21 October 2005, after recalling previous resolutions on the situation in Côte d'Ivoire, the Council demanded the implementation of the Linas-Marcoussis, Accra III and Pretoria peace agreements by the signatories to those accords, as well as all relevant Ivorian parties concerned.
Aya Virginie Touré, born Aya Virginie Kouamé, is a peace activist and politician in Côte d'Ivoire. She became known for organizing women in nonviolent resistance against President Laurent Gbagbo who refused to step down since he lost the presidential election to Alassane Ouattara. Touré worked to mobilize women as the Deputy Director for Ouattara's 2010 Ivorian presidential election. In 2016, she was elected as a deputy in the 72nd circonscription which includes the cities of Guépahouo and Oumé. Since at least 2014, she has been the Executive Director of the Petroci Foundation, the caritative organization of the Ivorian oil and gas company.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1980, adopted unanimously on April 28, 2011, after recalling previous resolutions on the situation in Côte d'Ivoire, including resolutions 1880 (2009), 1893 (2009), 1911 (2010), 1933 (2010), 1946 (2010), 1962 (2010) and 1975 (2011), the Council extended an arms embargo, ban on the trade of diamonds and targeted financial and travel sanctions on Ivorian officials until April 30, 2012.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1721, adopted unanimously on November 1, 2006, after recalling previous resolutions on the situation in Côte d'Ivoire, the Council extended the transitional mandates of President Laurent Gbagbo and Prime Minister Charles Konan Banny for no more than a year.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 2000, adopted unanimously on July 27, 2011, after recalling previous resolutions on the situation in Côte d'Ivoire, including resolutions 1933 (2010), 1942 (2010), 1951 (2010), 1962 (2010), 1967 (2011), 1968 (2011), 1975 (2011), 1980 (2011), 1981 (2011) and 1992 (2011), and Resolution 1938 (2010) on the situation in Liberia, the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI) until July 31, 2012.
The following lists events that happened during 2010 in Ivory Coast.
The following lists events that happened during 2011 in Ivory Coast.
Canada–Ivory Coast relations refers to the diplomatic relations between Canada and Ivory Coast. Both nations are members of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie.
This period in the history of Ivory Coast was affected by the end of the 33-year reign of Félix Houphouët-Boigny in 1993, as well as demographic change which had seen the Muslim population rise from 6% in 1922 to 38.6% in 1998, including a majority in the north of the country.