|Air Force Office of Special Investigations|
|Abbreviation||AFOSI or OSI|
|Formed||August 1, 1948|
|Federal agency||United States|
|Operations jurisdiction||United States|
|Headquarters||Russell-Knox Building, Marine Corps Base Quantico, VA |
|Parent agency||Department of the Air Force|
The U.S. Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI or OSI) is a U.S. federal law enforcement agency that reports directly to the Secretary of the Air Force. AFOSI is also a U.S. Air Force field operating agency under the administrative guidance and oversight of the Inspector General of the Air Force. By federal statute,AFOSI provides independent criminal investigative, counterintelligence and protective service operations worldwide and outside of the traditional military chain of command. Proactively, AFOSI identifies, investigates, and neutralizes serious criminal, terrorist, and espionage threats to personnel and resources of the Air Force and the U.S. Department of Defense, thereby protecting the national security of the United States.
AFOSI was founded on August 1, 1948, at the suggestion of Congress to consolidate investigative activities in the Air Force. Secretary of the Air Force W. Stuart Symington created AFOSI as a Field Operating Agency and patterned it after the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). He appointed Special Agent Joseph F. Carroll, a senior FBI official and assistant to FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, as the first Commander of AFOSI and charged him with providing independent, unbiased and centrally directed investigations of criminal activity in the Air Force. Carroll later became the first Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency. As of 2007, AFOSI has 2,900 employees. After pilot training, AFOSI remains the second-most requested career choice in the Air Force for officers.
AFOSI's Cornerstone is to vigorously solve crime, protect secrets, warn of threats, exploit intelligence opportunities, and operate in cyber.[ clarification needed ] AFOSI investigates a wide variety of serious offenses - espionage, terrorism, crimes against property, violence against people, larceny, computer hacking, acquisition fraud, drug use and distribution, financial misdeeds, military desertion, corruption of the contracting process, and any other illegal activity that undermines the mission of the Air Force or the DoD.
The AFOSI was the only military investigative service not to be designated a law enforcement agency when it was created in 1948. It was not until 1976 when an AFOSI reservist noted the discrepancy and called it to the attention of command, and AFOSI quickly sought and received official recognition and designation as an official law enforcement agency.
In addition to the AFOSI headquarters at Quantico, VA, AFOSI has seven field investigations regions aligned with Air Force major commands and the Unified combatant commands
In addition, AFOSI has several specialized investigative, training, or supporting units:
AFOSI is the designated executive agency for the Department of Defense Cyber Crime Center.
While the regions serve the investigative needs of those aligned major commands, all AFOSI units and personnel remain independent of those commands. In the AFOSI chains of command each region is directly under the AFOSI headquarters. Such organizational independence is intended to ensure unbiased investigations.
At the regional level are subordinate units called field investigations squadrons, detachments, and operating locations. There are more than 255 AFOSI units worldwide including, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Iraq, Afghanistan and other Middle East locations.
AFOSI manages offensive and defensive activities to detect, counter and destroy the effectiveness of hostile intelligence services and terrorist groups that target the Air Force. These efforts include investigating the crimes of espionage, terrorism, technology transfer and computer infiltration. This mission aspect also includes providing personal protection to senior Air Force leaders and other officials, as well as supervising an extensive antiterrorism program in geographic areas of heightened terrorist activity.
The vast majority of AFOSI's investigative activities pertain to felony crimes including murder, robbery, rape, assault, major burglaries, drug use and trafficking, sex offenses, arson, black market activities, and other serious criminal activities. In January 2014, while investigating synthetic drugs abuse, AFOSI uncovered the facts of cheating on monthly proficiency exams at the 341st Missile Wing at Malmstrom Air Force Base in Montana involving 79 officers.
Economic crime investigations
A significant amount of AFOSI investigative resources are assigned to fraud (or economic crime) investigations. These include violations of the public trust involving Air Force contracting matters, appropriated and nonappropriated funds activities, computer systems, pay and allowance matters, environmental matters, acquiring and disposing of Air Force property, and major administrative irregularities. AFOSI uses fraud surveys to determine the existence, location and extent of fraud in Air Force operations or programs. It also provides briefings to base and command-level resource managers to help identify and prevent fraud involving Air Force or Department of Defense (DoD) resources.
The Air Force is now countering a global security threat to information systems. AFOSI's role in support of Information Operations recognizes future threats to the Air Force, and its response to these threats will occur in cyberspace. AFOSI's support to information operations comes in many forms. AFOSI's computer crime investigators provide rapid worldwide response to intrusions into Air Force systems.
The desires of potential adversaries to acquire or mimic the technological advances of the Air Force have heightened the need to protect critical Air Force technologies and collateral data. The AFOSI Research and Technology Protection Program provides focused, comprehensive counterintelligence and core mission investigative services to safeguard Air Force technologies, programs, critical program information, personnel and facilities.
AFOSI has numerous specialists who are invaluable in the successful resolution of investigations. They include technical specialists, polygraphers, behavioral scientists, computer experts and forensic advisers.
Defense Cyber Crime Center
The Department of Defense Cyber Crime Center (DC3) was established as an organic entity within AFOSI in 1998. The formation of the DC3 expanded the operational scope of the AFOSI Computer Forensic Lab, established in 1995 as the first of its kind within the DoD. DC3 provides digital and multimedia forensics, cyber investigative training, research, development, test and evaluation, and cyber analytics for the following DoD mission areas: information assurance and critical infrastructure protection, law enforcement and counterintelligence, document and media exploitation, and counterterrorism. DC3 is a national cyber center and serves as the operational focal point for the Defense Industrial Base Cybersecurity and Information Assurance Program (DIB CS/IA Program).
All new AFOSI special agent recruits—whether officer, enlisted, or civilian—receive their entry-level training at the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) in Glynco, Georgia. The training requires that each recruit meet various physical requirements. The candidates attend the 12-week Criminal Investigator Training Program with other federal law enforcement trainees. That course is followed by eight weeks of AFOSI agency-specific coursework, at the U.S. Air Force Special Investigations Academy (USAFSIA), co-located at FLETC. Both courses offer new agents training in firearms and other weapons, defensive tactics, forensics, surveillance and surveillance detection, antiterrorism techniques, crime scene processing, interrogations and interviews, court testimony, and military and federal law. Upon graduation, new AFOSI special agents spend a one-year probationary period in the field. Upon successful completion, some agents receive specialized training in economic crime, antiterrorism service, counterintelligence, computer crimes and other sophisticated criminal investigative capabilities. Others attend 12 weeks of technical training to acquire electronic, photographic and other skills required to perform technical surveillance countermeasures. Experienced agents selected for polygraph duties attend a 14-week Department of Defense course.
Each recruit is expected to participate in each of the following exercises: flexibility, bench press, 1.5-mile (2.4 km) run/walk and agility run. All students are tested to determine their fitness level, and each test is age and gender normed. AFOSI special agents are expected to remain physically fit throughout their employment and must maintain Air Force physical fitness standards as defined by Air Force Instruction (AFI) 36-2905.
AFOSI agents' primary firearm is the 9×19mm SIG Sauer P228, though other weapons are available for use depending on the needs of the mission, including the M4 and MP5. Agents may also qualify with a weapon from an approved list of manufacturers in 9mm.
In December 2013, The Colorado Springs Gazettereported that AFOSI was operating a Confidential Informant Program at the U.S. Air Force Academy (USAFA), Colorado Springs, CO, which recruited cadets to gather information about other rule breakers and criminals. The program left the recruits to take responsibility for both the initial incident that got them into trouble and any subsequent rule-breaking behavior resulting from the directions of AFOSI agents. One of the cadets who participated said, "...it was effective. We got 15 convictions of drugs, two convictions of sexual assault. We were making a difference. It was motivating, especially with the sexual assaults. You could see the victims have a sense of peace."
In response, the USAFA Superintendent will now have oversight of the program at the Academy. Though the Superintendent will be aware of the operations, AFOSI will still have command and control of the program.
In 2017, former Airman Devin Kelley shot and killed 26 people and wounded 22 others at the First Baptist Church of Sutherland Springs, TX. According to media and a Department of Defense Inspector General report, Kelly was convicted of assault and discharged from the Air Force. This information was supposed to be reported by AFOSI to the FBI's Criminal Justice Information Services Division. Had this occurred, Kelley would have been unable to purchase a firearm legally through a Federal Firearms License (FFL). AFOSI failed to send the data four times. According to the SECAF, "the failure in reporting Kelley's criminal history was not an isolated event unique to this case or to Holloman AFB, NM, where the investigation unfolded."
Military Criminal Investigative Organizations
A special agent is an investigator or detective for a governmental or independent agency, who primarily serves in criminal investigatory positions. Additionally, many federal and state "special agents" operate in "criminal intelligence" based roles as well. Within the U.S. federal law enforcement system, dozens of federal agencies employ federal law enforcement officers, each with different criteria pertaining to the use of the titles Special Agent and Agent.
The United States Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS) is the primary law enforcement agency of the U.S. Department of the Navy. Its primary function is to investigate criminal activities involving the U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps, though its broad mandate includes national security, counterintelligence, counter-terrorism, cyber warfare, and the protection of U.S. naval assets worldwide. NCIS is the successor organization to the former Naval Investigative Service (NIS), which was established by the Office of Naval Intelligence after the Second World War.
The Defense Criminal Investigative Service is the criminal investigative arm of the Office of Inspector General, U.S. Department of Defense. DCIS protects military personnel by investigating cases of fraud, bribery, and corruption; preventing the illegal transfer of sensitive defense technologies to proscribed nations and criminal elements; investigating companies that use defective, substandard, or counterfeit parts in weapons systems and equipment utilized by the military; and stopping cyber crimes and computer intrusions.
The Defense Counterintelligence and Security Agency (DCSA) is a federal security agency of the United States Department of Defense (DoD). Within areas of DoD responsibility, DCSA is tasked with conducting personnel security investigations, supervising industrial security, and performing security education and awareness training. DCSA Industrial Security Representatives, Background Investigators and Information System Security Professionals are credentialed Special Agents. The Director of DCSA reports to the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence. DCSA provides the uniformed US military services, Department of Defense Agencies, 33 other federal agencies, and approximately 13,500 cleared contractor facilities with security support services.
The United States Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC) investigates felony crimes and serious violations of military law & the United States Code within the US Army. The command is a separate military investigative force with investigative autonomy; CID special agents report through the CID chain of command to the USACIDC Commanding General, who reports directly to the Chief of Staff of the Army and the Secretary of the Army. By position, the USACIDC commanding general is also the Army's Provost Marshal General.
The Department of Defense Cyber Crime Center (DC3) is designated as a Federal Cyber Center by National Security Presidential Directive 54/Homeland Security Presidential Directive 23, as a Department of Defense (DoD) center of excellence for Digital and Multimedia (D/MM) forensics by DoD Directive 5505.13E, and serves as the operational focal point for the Defense Industrial Base (DIB) Cybersecurity and Information Assurance (CS/IA) Program. DC3 operates under the Air Force Office of Special Investigations.
Dana A. Simmons is a retired United States Air Force Brigadier General who served as the 15th Commander of the United States Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI), which is the investigative agency of the United States Air Force. He took command of AFOSI in June 2005. Prior to that, he was the Vice Commander of AFOSI from March 2004 to June 2005. In March 2010, he ceded command to BG Kevin J. Jacobsen.
Francis Xavier Taylor was the Under Secretary of Homeland Security for Intelligence and Analysis at the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), nominated by President Obama in 2014. In that role, he provided the Secretary, DHS senior leadership, the DHS components, and state, local, tribal and private sector partners with homeland security intelligence and information they need to keep the country safe, secure and resilient. DHS Office of Intelligence and Analysis is a member of, and the Department’s liaison to, the U.S. Intelligence Community.
Kevin J. Jacobsen is a retired United States Air Force Brigadier General who served as the 16th Commander of the Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI), Quantico, VA. This field operating agency is responsible for providing commanders of U.S. Air Force activities independent, professional investigative services regarding fraud, counterintelligence, and major criminal matters. The investigations are conducted by a worldwide network of military and civilian special agents stationed at major U.S. Air Force installations and a variety of special operating locations.
United States Army Counterintelligence (ACI) is the component of United States Army Military Intelligence which conducts counterintelligence activities to detect, identify, assess, counter, exploit and/or neutralize adversarial, foreign intelligence services, international terrorist organizations, and insider threats to the United States Army and U.S. Department of Defense (DoD).
Kirk B. Stabler is a retired United States Air Force Colonel who served as the 18th Commander of the U.S. Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI), Quantico, Virginia. As the AFOSI Commander, Stabler oversaw AFOSI's worldwide network of over 2,000 military and civilian special agents and over 500 unsworn members stationed at major Air Force installations and a variety of worldwide special operating locations.
Keith M. Givens is a retired United States Air Force Brigadier General who served as the 17th Commander of the Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI), Quantico, Virginia. As the AFOSI Commander, Givens oversaw AFOSI's worldwide network of over 2,000 military and civilian special agents and over 500 unsworn members stationed at major Air Force installations and a variety of worldwide special operating locations.
Leonard Eric Patterson is currently serving as the Director of the Federal Protective Service. Patterson is also a retired United States Air Force Brigadier General and was the 14th Commander of the Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI), Andrews AFB, MD. As the AFOSI Commander, Patterson oversaw AFOSI's worldwide network of military and civilian special agents stationed at major Air Force installations and a variety of special operating locations.
The Commander of the Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI/CC) heads the United States Air Force Office of Special Investigations and derives its independent criminal investigative authority directly from the Secretary of the Air Force. AFOSI is also a field operating agency under the administrative guidance and oversight of the Inspector General of the Air Force.
Robert A. Hoffmann is a retired United States Air Force Brigadier General and was the 12th Commander of the Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI), Bolling AFB, Washington D.C. As the AFOSI Commander, Hoffman was responsible for providing commanders of all Air Force activities, independent professional investigative services regarding fraud, counterintelligence and major criminal matters by using a worldwide network of special agents stationed at all major Air Force installations and a variety of special operating locations.
Francis R. Dillon is a retired United States Air Force Brigadier General who served as the 11th Commander of the Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI), Bolling AFB, Washington D.C. As the AFOSI Commander, Dillon was responsible for providing commanders of all Air Force activities independent professional investigative services regarding fraud, counterintelligence and major criminal matters by using a worldwide network of agents stationed at all major Air Force installations and a variety of special operating locations.
Richard S. Beyea Jr. is a retired United States Air Force Brigadier General who served as the 10th Commander of the Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI), Bolling AFB, Washington D.C. As the AFOSI Commander, Beyea was responsible for providing independent professional investigative services to commanders of all Air Force activities about fraud, counterintelligence and major criminal matters by using a worldwide network of agents stationed at all major Air Force installations and at a variety of special operating locations. He also served as the air staff assistant inspector general for special investigations.
Joseph J. Cappucci was a U.S. Air Force Brigadier General who served as the first director of the Defense Investigative Service and the 6th Commander of the Air Force Office of Special Investigations. As the Defense Investigative Service director, he oversaw its tasks of facilitating personnel security investigations, supervising industrial security, and performing security education and awareness training. As the AFOSI commander, he was responsible for providing independent professional investigative services to commanders of all U.S. Air Force activities about fraud, counterintelligence and major criminal matters by using a worldwide network of agents stationed at all major Air Force installations and at a variety of special operating locations. He also served as the director of special investigations within the Office of the Inspector General of the U.S. Air Force while commanding AFOSI.
Terry L. Bullard is a United States Air Force Brigadier General and currently the 19th Commander of the U.S. Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI), Quantico, Virginia. As the AFOSI Commander, Bullard derives his independent criminal and counterintelligence investigative and operational authorities directly from the Secretary of the Air Force and executes the Field Operating Agency's mission through a network of over 3,000 Total Force Airmen assigned to major Air Force installations and a variety of operating locations worldwide.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Air Force Office of Special Investigations .|