United States Military Government of the Ryukyu Islands
|Common languages|| Japanese |
|Franklin D. Roosevelt (first)|
|Harry S. Truman (last)|
|LTG Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr. (first)|
|MG Robert S. Beightler (last)|
|Historical era||Cold War|
|April 1 1945|
• Founding of USCAR
|December 15 1950|
|Currency|| A Yen (to July 1948)|
B yen (July 1948–Sep 1958)
The United States Military Government of the Ryukyu Islands(琉球列島米国軍政府Ryūkyū-rettō Beikoku Gunseifu) was the government in Okinawa, Japan from 1945 to 1950, whereupon it was replaced by the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands.
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south.
The United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands, or "USCAR", was the government in Okinawa, Japan, after World War II from 1950 until 1972.
The government was headed by the military governor(軍政長官Gunsei Chōkan) and his second-in-command, the Chief Military Government Officer(軍政府長官Gunsei-fu Chōkan). They were assisted by the Deputy Commander of the Military Government(軍政府副長官Gunsei-fu Fuku-chōkan).
|1 April 1945 to 18 June 1945||LTG Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr.||Killed in the Battle of Okinawa|
|18 June 1945 to 23 June 1945||GEN Roy Geiger||Acting Governor|
|23 June 1945 to 16 October 1945||GEN Joseph Stilwell||Acting Governor to 31 July 1945|
|June 1945 to 23 April 1945||MG Fred Clute Wallace||Commanding General, Island Command Okinawa|
|17 October 1945 to 29 December 1945||BG Lawrence A. Lawson|
|30 December 1945 to 26 February 1946||BG Fremont Byron Hodson Sr.|
|27 February 1946 to 21 May 1946||MG Leo Donovan|
|24 May 1946 to 11 May 1948||BG Frederic Lord Hayden|
|12 May 1948 to 30 September 1949||MG William W. Eagles|
|1 October 1949 to 21 July 1950||MG Josef R. Sheetz|
|28 July 1950 to 6 December 1950||MG Robert B. McClure|
|6 December 1950 to 9 December 1950||BG Harry B. Sherman||Acting Governor|
|9 December 1950 to 15 December 1950||MG Robert S. Beightler|
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The Government of the Ryukyu Islands was the self-government of native Okinawans during the American occupation of Okinawa. It was created by proclamation of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands (USCAR) on April 1, 1952 and was abolished on May 14, 1972 when Okinawa was returned to Japan. The government consisted of an executive branch, a legislative branch, and a judicial branch. Members of legislature were elected. The legislature made its own laws, and often had conflicts with USCAR, who could overrule their decisions.
The Sakishima Islands are an archipelago located at the southernmost end of the Japanese Archipelago. They are part of the Ryukyu Islands and include the Miyako Islands and the Yaeyama Islands. The islands are administered as part of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.
The Japonic or Japanese–Ryukyuan language family includes the Japanese language, spoken in the main islands of Japan, and the Ryukyuan languages, spoken in the Ryukyu Islands. The term Japonic was coined by Leon Serafim, and the family is universally accepted by linguists. The common ancestral language is known as Proto-Japonic or Proto-Japanese–Ryukyuan. The essential feature of this classification is that the first split in the family resulted in the separation of all dialects of Japanese from all varieties of Ryukyuan. According to Shirō Hattori, this separation occurred during the Yamato period (250–710).
The Yonaguni language is a Southern Ryukyuan language spoken by around 400 people on the island of Yonaguni, in the Ryukyu Islands, the westernmost of the chain lying just east of Taiwan. It is most closely related to Yaeyama. Due to the Japanese policy on languages, the language is not recognized by the government, which instead calls it the Yonaguni dialect. As classified by UNESCO, the Yonaguni language is the most endangered language in all of Japan.
The University of the Ryukyus, abbreviated to Ryūdai (琉大), is a national university of Japan in Okinawa Prefecture. It is located in the Senbaru neighborhood of the town of Nishihara, with its campus bordering both the village of Nakagusuku and the city of Ginowan. It is the westernmost national university of Japan and the largest public university in Okinawa Prefecture.
Kariyushi Club, formerly called Ryūkyū Independent Party, is the local party in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, seeking an independent Ryukyu, the Republic of Ryukyu. The current party leader is Chōsuke Yara. Kariyushi is Okinawan for "happy" or "harmony with nature".
The Ryukyu Islands, also known as the Nansei Islands or the Ryukyu Arc, are a chain of Japanese islands that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Tokara, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands, with Yonaguni the westernmost. The larger are mostly high islands and the smaller mostly coral. The largest is Okinawa Island.
The Tokara Islands is an archipelago in the Nansei Islands, and are part of the Satsunan Islands, which is in turn part of the Ryukyu Archipelago. The 150 kilometres (81 nmi) chain consists of twelve small islands located between Yakushima and Amami-Oshima. The islands have a total area of 101.35 square kilometres (39.13 sq mi). Administratively, the whole group belongs to Toshima Village, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Only seven of the islands are permanently inhabited. The islands, especially Takarajima, are home to the Tokara Pony.
The invasion of Ryukyu by forces of the Japanese feudal domain of Satsuma took place from March to May 1609, and marked the beginning of the Ryukyu Kingdom's status as a vassal state under Satsuma. The invasion force was met with stiff resistance from the Ryukyuan military on all but one island during the campaign. Ryukyu would remain a vassal state under Satsuma, alongside its already long-established tributary relationship with China, until it was formally annexed by Japan in 1879 as Okinawa Prefecture.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Kagoshima is a suffragan Latin diocese in the Ecclesiastical province of the Metropolitan Archbishop of Nagasaki 長崎, in southern Japan.
The Okinawa Trough is a seabed feature of the East China Sea. It is an active, initial back-arc rifting basin which has formed behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system in the West Pacific. It developed where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting under the Eurasia Plate.
The Koza riot was a violent and spontaneous protest against the US military presence in Okinawa, which occurred on the night of December 20, 1970, into the morning of the following day. Roughly 5,000 Okinawans clashed with roughly 700 American MPs in an event which has been regarded as symbolic of Okinawan anger against 25 years of US military occupation. In the riot, approximately 60 Americans were injured, 80 cars were burned, and several buildings on Kadena Air Base were destroyed or heavily damaged.
The Senkaku Islands dispute, or Diaoyu Islands dispute, concerns a territorial dispute over a group of uninhabited islands known as the Senkaku Islands in Japan, the Diaoyu Islands in the People's Republic of China (PRC), and Tiaoyutai Islands in the Republic of China. Aside from a 1945 to 1972 period of administration by the United States as part of the Ryukyu Islands, the archipelago has been controlled by Japan since 1895. According to Lee Seokwoo, the People's Republic of China (PRC) started taking up the question of sovereignty over the islands in the latter half of 1970 when evidence relating to the existence of oil reserves surfaced. Taiwan also claims the islands. The territory is close to key shipping lanes and rich fishing grounds, and there may be oil reserves in the area.
The Okinawa Meteorological Observatory is a JMA weather stations located in Naha, Okinawa. It is responsible for weather services in Okinawa region and operates three Local Meteorological Observatories as well as an Aviation Weather Station.
Kiyuna Tsugumasa was a politician of Ryukyuan descent who was active in Taiwan and Okinawa. He spent all his life seeking an independent Ryukyu; if could not reach that goal, he preferred to return to the Republic of China rather than Japan. He was also known by his Chinese style name, Tsai Chang.
Furusutobaru Castle is a Ryukyuan gusuku in Ishigaki, Okinawa. It is located on Ishigaki Island next to Miyara Bay. It was listed as one of the Historic Sites of Japan in 1978.
Aranpō, also known by Yalanpao, was a politician and diplomat of Chūzan Kingdom.
The Flag of Ryukyu is a number of flags that represent the Ryukyu Kingdom, the Ryukyu Islands, and the Ryukyuan people.