Universal Power Adapter for Mobile Devices

Last updated
Universal Power Adapter for Mobile Devices
Type Power Adapter
Designer IEEE UPAMD Working Group
Hot pluggable Yes
Daisy chain Yes
Signal charging power 10–240 W

The Universal Power Adapter for Mobile Devices (UPAMD), codename IEEE 1823-2015 (before approval P1823), is an IEEE standard for power supply design intended to cater to the power range of 10–130 W (optionally 240 W) for mobile devices like laptop computers. The power supply was required to have an output capacitive energy of less than 15.1 µJ and an inductive energy at disconnect of less than 5.3 µJ. [1]

Contents

The standard defines an AC adapter to power devices requiring from 10 W to 130 W(~20 V × 6.5 A) or (extended voltage option) up to 240 W(60 V × 4 A). [2] A new connector (that does not mate with any previously existing connector) is proposed for a lifetime of about ten years with multiple brands and models. [3] This minimum life of adapter was hoped to reduce electronic waste. [4] [5]

A common direct current power plug is intended to make life easier by eliminating the confusion regarding what voltage and current transformer one needs to buy and carry. [6] This can help mobile devices, laptops, many consumer electronic devices, office devices like Ethernet switches/hubs, and wireless routers to use the same power adapter around the world.

This specification defines a communication channel between device and adapter, to negotiate the requirements and supply.

Usage

There seem to be no known examples of commercial deployments of UPAMD in end-user devices. When asked about deployment in 2019, the chair for IEEE 1823 working group wrote the following:

Currently the IT market which 1823 standard was originally intended had been swayed by USB SIG to use type C connector as alternatives. However, EU standard body had made inquiry to see if 1823 should be considered as the preferred connector for the next generation of mobile devices. Also, there are new interests from some automotive industry players that are looking at distributing DC bus inside a car (obvious that 1823 with CAN Bus as control method is preferred than USB type C which was not designed for harsh environment).

As for commercial deployment, unfortunately I don’t have a definite answer for you. Several power supply vendor in Asia had made prototypes about 2 years ago but I did not get any further updates after that.

Leonard Tsai, "Status for Universal Power Adapter for Mobile Devices (2019)".

History

The Standards Association of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) approved the Universal Power Adapter for Mobile Devices working group on June 17, 2010. [7] The project was sponsored by the Microprocessor Standards Committee of the IEEE Computer Society.

On 15 May 2015 the standard was published as IEEE Std 1823-2015. [8]

See also

Related Research Articles

USB Industry standard peripheral connection

Universal Serial Bus (USB) is an industry standard that establishes specifications for cables and connectors and protocols for connection, communication and power supply (interfacing) between computers, peripherals and other computers. A broad variety of USB hardware exists, including eleven different connectors, of which USB-C is the most recent.

PC Card Interface and specification for memory cards and expansion peripherals

In computing, PC Card is a configuration for computer parallel communication peripheral interface, designed for laptop computers. Originally introduced as PCMCIA, the PC Card standard as well as its successors like CardBus were defined and developed by the Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA).

Serial ATA Computer bus interface for storage devices

Serial ATA is a computer bus interface that connects host bus adapters to mass storage devices such as hard disk drives, optical drives, and solid-state drives. Serial ATA succeeded the earlier Parallel ATA (PATA) standard to become the predominant interface for storage devices.

Power supply Electronic device that converts or regulates electric energy and supplies it to a load

A power supply is an electrical device that supplies electric power to an electrical load. The primary function of a power supply is to convert electric current from a source to the correct voltage, current, and frequency to power the load. As a result, power supplies are sometimes referred to as electric power converters. Some power supplies are separate standalone pieces of equipment, while others are built into the load appliances that they power. Examples of the latter include power supplies found in desktop computers and consumer electronics devices. Other functions that power supplies may perform include limiting the current drawn by the load to safe levels, shutting off the current in the event of an electrical fault, power conditioning to prevent electronic noise or voltage surges on the input from reaching the load, power-factor correction, and storing energy so it can continue to power the load in the event of a temporary interruption in the source power.

Power-line communication carries data on a conductor that is also used simultaneously for AC electric power transmission or electric power distribution to consumers.

Phone connector (audio) Family of connector typically used for analog signals

A phone connector, also known as phone jack, audio jack, headphone jack or jack plug, is a family of electrical connectors typically used for analog audio signals. The standard is that a plug will connect with a jack.

Electronic test equipment

Electronic test equipment is used to create signals and capture responses from electronic devices under test (DUTs). In this way, the proper operation of the DUT can be proven or faults in the device can be traced. Use of electronic test equipment is essential to any serious work on electronics systems.

A DC connector is an electrical connector for supplying direct current (DC) power.

IEC 60320 Set of standards for AC power connectors used on domestic appliances on the appliance side

IEC 60320 Appliance couplers for household and similar general purposes is a set of standards from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) specifying non-locking connectors for connecting power supply cords to electrical appliances of voltage not exceeding 250 V (a.c.) and rated current not exceeding 16 A. Different types of connector are specified for different combinations of current, temperature and earthing requirements. Unlike IEC 60309 connectors, they are not coded for voltage; users must ensure that the voltage rating of the equipment is compatible with the mains supply. The standard uses the term coupler to encompass connectors on power cords and power inlets and outlets built into appliances.

AC adapter type of external power supply

An AC adapter, AC/AC adapter, AC/DC adapter, or AC/DC converter is a type of external power supply, often enclosed in a case similar to an AC plug. Other common names include plug pack, plug-in adapter, adapter block, domestic mains adapter, line power adapter, wall wart, power brick, wall charger, and power adapter. Adapters for battery-powered equipment may be described as chargers or rechargers. AC adapters are used with electrical devices that require power but do not contain internal components to derive the required voltage and power from mains power. The internal circuitry of an external power supply is very similar to the design that would be used for a built-in or internal supply.

USB On-The-Go Specification for USB devices

USB On-The-Go is a specification first used in late 2001 that allows USB devices, such as tablets or smartphones, to act as a host, allowing other USB devices, such as USB flash drives, digital cameras, mouse or keyboards, to be attached to them. Use of USB OTG allows those devices to switch back and forth between the roles of host and device. A mobile phone may read from removable media as the host device, but present itself as a USB Mass Storage Device when connected to a host computer.

Battery charger Device used to provide electricity

A battery charger, or recharger, is a device that provides electricity to convert into stored chemical energy for storage in an electrochemical cell by running an electric current through it.

Power supply unit (computer) Internal computer component that provides power to other components

A power supply unit (PSU) converts mains AC to low-voltage regulated DC power for the internal components of a computer. Modern personal computers universally use switched-mode power supplies. Some power supplies have a manual switch for selecting input voltage, while others automatically adapt to the mains voltage.

Coaxial power connector

A coaxial power connector is an electrical power connector used for attaching extra-low voltage devices such as consumer electronics to external electricity. Also known as barrel connectors, concentric barrel connectors or tip connectors, these small cylindrical connectors come in an enormous variety of sizes.

PoweredUSB

PoweredUSB, also known as Retail USB, USB PlusPower, and USB +Power, is an addition to the Universal Serial Bus standard that allows for higher-power devices to obtain power through their USB host instead of requiring an independent power supply or external AC adapter. It is mostly used in point-of-sale equipment, such as receipt printers and barcode readers.

SAE J1772 Electric vehicle charging connector in North America

SAE J1772, also known as a J plug, is a North American standard for electrical connectors for electric vehicles maintained by the SAE International and has the formal title "SAE Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice J1772, SAE Electric Vehicle Conductive Charge Coupler". It covers the general physical, electrical, communication protocol, and performance requirements for the electric vehicle conductive charge system and coupler. The intent is to define a common electric vehicle conductive charging system architecture including operational requirements and the functional and dimensional requirements for the vehicle inlet and mating connector.

In 2009, a European Commission initiative resulted in the specification of a common external power supply for use with data-enabled mobile phones sold in the European Union. The external power supply is the AC electric power adapter that converts household AC electricity voltages to the much lower DC voltages needed to charge a mobile phone's internal battery. Although compliance is voluntary, a majority of the world's largest mobile phone manufacturers agreed to make their applicable mobile phones compatible with Europe's common external power supply specification.

IEC Technical Specification 62700: DC Power supply for notebook computer is an IEC specification of a common standard for external laptop computer AC adapters. Laptops and AC adapters following this standard will have interchangeable power supplies, which will enable easy reuse of used power supplies and make buying a new compatible power supply for a laptop simpler.

USB-C 24-pin USB connector system

USB-C is a 24-pin USB connector system with a rotationally symmetrical connector.

This article provides information about the physical aspects of Universal Serial Bus, USB: connectors, cabling, and power. The initial versions of the USB standard specified connectors that were easy to use and that would have acceptable life spans; revisions of the standard added smaller connectors useful for compact portable devices. Higher-speed development of the USB standard gave rise to another family of connectors to permit additional data paths. All versions of USB specify cable properties; version 3.X cables include additional data paths. The USB standard included power supply to peripheral devices; modern versions of the standard extend the power delivery limits for battery charging and devices requiring up to 100 watts. USB has been selected as the standard charging format for many mobile phones, reducing the proliferation of proprietary chargers.

References

  1. Bob Davis (March 17, 2011). "UPAMD Low Energy Connect and Disconnect" (PDF). IEEE. Retrieved August 31, 2013. The UPAMD power source, and cable, plus 2 connectors, must have a stored capacitive energy of less than 15.1uJ and a voltage of less than 17V. The stored inductive energy at the time of disconnect should be less than 5.3uJ.
  2. "UPAMD™ / P1823™, Universal Power Adapter for Mobile Devices". IEEE Standards Association. 2010-06-19. Retrieved 2013-03-17.
  3. "UPAMD/P1823 General Goals" (PDF). IEEE UPAMD/P1823 working group. April 26, 2011. Retrieved August 23, 2011.
  4. "Green Plug Lauds Industry Effort to Drive Standards For Smart Power Adapters". News release. Green Plug. October 12, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2011.
  5. Yen-Shyang Hwang, Taipei; Willie Teng (July 5, 2010). "Taiwan notebook companies support PSU standardization". Digi Times. Retrieved August 31, 2013.
  6. IEEE plans to end the power adapter plague
  7. "Project Authorization Request for a New IEEE Standard" (PDF). June 17, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2011.
  8. IEEE Standard for Universal Power Adapter for Mobile Devices. doi:10.1109/IEEESTD.2015.7106444. ISBN   978-0-7381-9608-4.