University of Padua

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University of Padua
Università degli Studi di Padova
University of Padua seal.svg
Latin: Universitas Studii Paduani
MottoUniversa Universis Patavina Libertas (Latin)
Motto in English
Liberty of Padua, universally and for all
Type Public research university
EstablishedSeptember 1222;801 years ago (1222-09)
Accreditation MIUR
Budget€831 million (2023)
Rector Daniela Mapelli
Academic staff
4,580 (2021)[ needs update ]
Administrative staff
2,432 (2021)[ needs update ]
Students72,280 (2021)[ needs update ]
Undergraduates 38,969 (2021)[ needs update ]
Postgraduates 31,827 (2021)[ needs update ]
1,484 (2021)[ needs update ]
Location,
CampusUrban (University town)
Sports teamsCUS Padova [1]
Colors Padua Red  
Affiliations Coimbra Group, TIME network
Website www.unipd.it/en

The University of Padua (Italian : Università degli Studi di Padova, UNIPD) is an Italian public research university in Padua, Italy. It was founded in 1222 by a group of students and teachers from the University of Bologna, [2] who previously settled in Vicenza, thus, it is the second-oldest university in Italy, as well as the world's fifth-oldest surviving university. [3]

Contents

The University of Padua was one of the most prominent universities in early modern Europe, known particularly for the rigor of its Aristotelean logic and science. [4] Together with the University of Bologna, Padua had a central role in the italian renaissance, housing and educating a number of italian renaissance mathemathicians, amongst them Nicolaus Copernicus.

Today, it is made up of 32 departments and eight schools. [5] Padua is part a network of historical research universities known as the Coimbra Group. [6] In 2021, the university had approximately 72,000 students including undergraduates, postgraduates, and doctoral students. [7]

History

The university is conventionally said to have been founded in 1222 when a large group of students and professors left the University of Bologna in search of more academic freedom ('Libertas scholastica'). Although it is certain that schools of law and medicine with students from various nations existed near Padua for a few years before 1222, more precisely in Vicenza. In reality, the first place where this group of students and professors from Bologna settled was at the University of Vicenza, where they were welcomed. Due to various vicissitudes the headquarters was permanently moved to Padua for various reasons. The first subjects to be taught were law and theology. The curriculum expanded rapidly, and by 1399 the institution had divided in two: a Universitas Iuristarum for civil law and Canon law, and a Universitas Artistarum which taught astronomy, dialectic, philosophy, grammar, medicine, and rhetoric. There was also a Universitas Theologorum, established in 1373 by Urban V.

The student body was divided into groups known as "nations" which reflected their places of origin. The nations themselves fell into two groups:

  1. the cismontanes for the Italian students
  2. the ultramontanes for those who came from beyond the Alps

From the fifteenth to the eighteenth century, the university was renowned for its research, particularly in the areas of medicine, astronomy, philosophy and law. At the time it was the most renowned school of medicine internationally. [8] During this time, the university adopted the Latin motto: Universa universis patavina libertas (Paduan Freedom is Universal for Everyone). Nevertheless, the university had a turbulent history, and there was no teaching in 1237–1261, 1509–1517, 1848–1850.

The Botanical Garden of Padova, established by the university in 1545, is one of the oldest gardens of its kind in the world. Its alleged title of oldest academic garden is in controversy because the Medici created one in Pisa in 1544. In addition to the garden, best visited in the spring and summer, the university also manages nine museums, including a History of physics museum.

The university houses the oldest surviving permanent anatomical theatre in Europe, dating from 1595 Theatre-anatomique-Padoue.JPG
The university houses the oldest surviving permanent anatomical theatre in Europe, dating from 1595

The university began teaching medicine around 1250. It played a leading role in the identification and treatment of diseases and ailments, specializing in autopsies and the inner workings of the body. [9]

Since 1595, Padua's famous anatomical theatre drew artists and scientists studying the human body during public dissections. It is the oldest surviving permanent anatomical theatre in Europe. Anatomist Andreas Vesalius held the chair of Surgery and Anatomy (explicator chirurgiae) and in 1543 published his anatomical discoveries in De Humani Corporis Fabrica. The book triggered great public interest in dissections and caused many other European cities to establish anatomical theatres.

On 25 June 1678, Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia, a Venetian noblewoman and mathematician, became the first woman to be awarded a Doctor of Philosophy degree.

The university became one of the universities of the Kingdom of Italy in 1873, and ever since has been one of the most prestigious in the country for its contributions to scientific and scholarly research: in the field of mathematics alone, its professors have included such figures as Gregorio Ricci Curbastro, Giuseppe Veronese, Francesco Severi and Tullio Levi Civita.

Palazzo Bo is the historical seat of University of Padua since 1493 Palazzo Bo (Padua).jpg
Palazzo Bo is the historical seat of University of Padua since 1493
Diploma of Girolamo Martinengo, 1582 Houghton MS Typ 480 - Universita di Padova diploma, Girolamo Martinengo, 1582.jpg
Diploma of Girolamo Martinengo, 1582

The last years of the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century saw a reversal of the centralisation process that had taken place in the sixteenth: scientific institutes were set up in what became veritable campuses; a new building to house the Arts and Philosophy faculty was built in another part of the city centre (Palazzo del Liviano, designed by Giò Ponti); the Astro-Physics Observatory was built on the Asiago uplands; and the old Palazzo del Bo was fully restored (1938–1945). The vicissitudes of the Fascist period—political interference, the Race Laws, etc.—had a detrimental effect upon the development of the university, as did the devastation caused by the Second World War and—just a few decades later—the effect of the student protests of 1968–1969 (which the university was left to face without adequate help and support from central government). However, the Gymnasium Omnium Disciplinarum continued its work uninterrupted, and overall the second half of the twentieth century saw a sharp upturn in development—primarily due an interchange of ideas with international institutions of the highest standing (particularly in the fields of science and technology).

In recent years, the university has been able to meet the problems posed by overcrowded facilities by re-deploying over the Veneto as a whole. In 1990, the Institute of Management Engineering was set up in Vicenza, after which the summer courses at Brixen (Bressanone) began once more, and in 1995 the Agripolis centre at Legnaro (for Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine) opened. Other sites of re-deployment are at Rovigo, Treviso, Feltre, Castelfranco Veneto, Conegliano, Chioggia and Asiago.

Recent changes in state legislation have also opened the way to greater autonomy for Italian universities, and in 1995 Padua adopted a new Statute that gave it greater independence.

As the publications of innumerable conferences and congresses show, the modern-day University of Padua plays an important role in scholarly and scientific research at both a European and world level. True to its origins, this is the direction in which the university intends to move in the future, establishing closer links of cooperation and exchange with all the world's major research universities.

Since 2022, the University of Padua has been experiencing difficulties with the payments of scholarships for the "right to study". Thus, leaving 1955 students (207 of that international students) without any kind of accommodation and receiving stipends.

Organization and administration

Finances

The university foresaw a budget of €831 million for the 2023 fiscal year. Of this, €545 million were contributions paid by the Ministry of Education, University and Research of Italy, the European Union, local administrations like regions and provinces, and other entities. The remaining €232 million were classified as own revenues, of which €106 million came from tuition fees and €125 million from research-related income. [10]

The amount of tuition students pay depends on their major, the financial situation of their household and if they take more time to graduate compared to the established length of their program. Tuition is also significantly lowered for non-EU citizens of certain developing countries. There are also scholarships and fee-waivers based on merit on other factors. Generally, most students who are graduating in time and are not from low income households will pay around €2,700/year for the 2023/24 academic year. [11]

Rankings

The university is constantly ranked among the best Italian universities.

For 2023, in U.S. News & World Report 's World Best Global Universities Rankings, the University of Padua is ranked as the 1st place institution in Italy, taking 43rd place in Europe and the world's 115th. [12] ARWU ranks the university in the Italian top 4, tied for 2nd place with the University of Milan and the University of Pisa under the Sapienza University of Rome. ARWU ranks the university in the 151st-200th range globally for 2023. [13]

The 2024 Times Higher Education World University Rankings lists the university at 4th place in Italy and in the 201st-250th range worldwide. QS World University Rankings ranks the university 4th in Italy in 2024 and the best in Italy to study geology and geophysics, earth and sea sciences, biological sciences, psychology, anatomy and physiology. It also places the University of Padua at 219th in the world for 2024. [14] Also, according to QS World University Rankings, the University of Padua is ranked 125th in the field of Medicine. [15]

The NTU ranking, which focuses on productivity and quality of scientific production, places the University of Padua as 82nd worldwide for 2022. [16]

The CWTS Leiden Ranking, based exclusively on bibliometric indicators, places the University of Padua as 2nd place in Italy and 104th worldwide. [17]

Notable people

Coats of arms of professors and students in the Aula Magna, Palazzo Bo. Photo by Paolo Monti, 1966 Paolo Monti - Servizio fotografico (Padova, 1966) - BEIC 6346855.jpg
Coats of arms of professors and students in the Aula Magna, Palazzo Bo. Photo by Paolo Monti, 1966
Certificate of medicine of the University of Padua, awarded in 1642 to the Flemish Jan Damman. Certificate of medicine University of Padua 1642 Jan Damman.jpg
Certificate of medicine of the University of Padua, awarded in 1642 to the Flemish Jan Damman.

Alumni

Notable people who have attended the University of Padua include: [19]

In natural sciences
In politics and government


In arts, theology and literature

Notable faculty

Departments

The University of Padua offers a wide range of degrees, organized by Departments:

Schools

Departments have been united in a limited number of Schools:

See also

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References

  1. CUS Padova
  2. "History". Università di Padova. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  3. "Università di Padova". Top Universities. Retrieved 2023-10-28.
  4. "The University of Padua". www.princeton.edu. Retrieved 2023-10-28.
  5. "University of Padua". Times Higher Education (THE). 2021-11-13. Retrieved 2023-10-28.
  6. "List of Members | Coimbra". www.coimbra-group.eu. Retrieved 2023-10-28.
  7. USTAT. "Esplora i dati". USTAT. Retrieved 2023-08-10.
  8. Calic, Marie-Janine (2019). The Great Cauldron: A History of Southeastern Europe. Harvard University Press. p. 134. ISBN   9780674983922.
  9. Jerome J. Bylebyl, "The School of Padua: humanistic medicine in the 16th century," in Charles Webster, ed., Health, Medicine and Mortality in the Sixteenth Century (1979) ch10
  10. Padova, Università di (2013-06-19). "Bilanci". Università degli studi di Padova (in Italian). Retrieved 2023-08-09.
  11. "Tuition fees 2023/24 | Università di Padova". www.unipd.it. Retrieved 2023-08-13.
  12. "Best Global Universities Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. U.S. News & World Report L.P. 2023. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  13. "ShanghaiRanking's Academic Ranking of World Universities". www.shanghairanking.com. Retrieved 2023-08-09.
  14. "QS World University Rankings 2024". Top Universities. Retrieved 2023-10-28.
  15. "QS World University Rankings for Medicine 2023". Top Universities. Retrieved 2023-10-29.
  16. "University of Padua". nturanking.csti.tw. Retrieved 2022-09-18.
  17. Studies (CWTS), Centre for Science and Technology. "CWTS Leiden Ranking". CWTS Leiden Ranking. Retrieved 2023-10-29.
  18. "Een diploma geneeskunde van de Universiteit van Padua, uitgereikt in 1642 aan de Gentenaar Jan Damman (of Daman)". lib.ugent.be. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  19. For a summary description of all of the set of scholars and literati who intervened in teaching at the University of Padua since its inception to the eve of the Industrial Revolution (1800), see David de la Croix and Mara Vitale,(2021). Scholars and Literati at the University of Padua (1222–1800).Repertorium Eruditorum Totius Europae/RETE. 3:33–42.
  20. Treptow, Kurt W.; Popa, Marcel (1996). Historical Dictionary of Romania. Scarecrow Press, Inc. ISBN   0-8108-3179-1.
  21. "The Galileo Project – Chronology – Galileo Timeline" . Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  22. "Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia". Agnesscott.edu. Retrieved 2013-09-05.

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