Unteroffizier

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Unteroffizier
HD H 21 Unteroffizier PzGren.svg LD B 21 Unteroffizier.svg
Heer and Luftwaffe shoulder insignia
CountryFlag of Germany.svg  Germany
Service branchColour of Germany.svg  German Army
Flag of Germany (state).svg  German Air Force
AbbreviationUffz (U)
Rank Unteroffiziere ohne Portepee grade
NATO rank code OR-5b
Non-NATO rankE-5
Formation1957
Next higher rank Stabsunteroffizier
Next lower rank Oberstabsgefreiter
Equivalent ranks Maat

Unteroffizier is a military rank of the Bundeswehr and of former German-speaking armed forces (Heer and Luftwaffe), OR-5b on the NATO scale of ranks. There is no equivalent in the British Army, Royal Marines and various Commonwealth armies (it is senior to an OR-4 Corporal and junior to an OR-6 Sergeant), although the Canadian Army equivalent is OR-5 Master Corporal. The equivalent in the United States Army and United States Marine Corps is OR-5 sergeant. However, Unteroffizier is also the collective name for all non-commissioned officers.

Contents

Germany

rank insignia field- and battle dress
HA OS5 21 Unteroffizier FA Pz.svg
Heer
LA OS5 21 Unteroffizier FA.svg
Luftwaffe
MA OG5 21 Maat.svg
Marine

In German military, Unteroffizier ("subordinate officer") is both a specific military rank as well as a generic term for any non-commissioned officer (NCO) in the army and air force, while in the navy the term Deckoffizier is used. It has existed since the 17th century. [1]

Unteroffizier means a specific junior NCO rank of both the Heer and Luftwaffe. It is placed between Gefreiter and Feldwebel, roughly equivalent to a Corporal in the English-speaking world.

Until the end of German Reich, the equivalent of Unteroffizier rank in Jäger units was Oberjäger.

The term Unteroffizier continues to be used by the German Bundeswehr .

There are two classes of non-commissioned officers

Informally, the non-commissioned officers "mit Portepee" are often called "Feldwebel ranks", which creates confusion as the collective term Unteroffizier already exists.[ clarification needed ] The word Unteroffizier, in turn, is getting a third meaning, namely: non-commissioned officer ohne Portepee, as opposed to "Feldwebel ranks".

Unteroffizier translates as "subordinate-officer" and, when meaning the specific rank, is in modern-day usage considered the equivalent to sergeant under the NATO rank scale. Historically the Unteroffizier rank was considered a corporal [2] and thus similar in duties to a British Army corporal. In peacetime an Unteroffizier was a career soldier who trained conscripts or led squads and platoons. He could rise through the ranks to become an Unteroffizier mit Portepee, i.e. a Feldwebel, which was the highest rank a career soldier could reach. Since the German officer corps was immensely class conscious a rise through the ranks from a NCO to become an officer was hardly possible except in times of war.

The Unteroffizierskorps was made up of professional soldiers which formed the backbone of German armies. This tradition has not been changed by the Bundeswehr where all ranks of Unteroffizier and up consist only of professional soldiers who sign up for a period extending conscription.

Unteroffizier is one of the few German military ranks whose insignia has remained unchanged over the past one hundred years. The shoulder boards of a modern Unteroffizier are relatively similar to the World War I and World War II designs.

A modern-day German Bundeswehr Unteroffizier typically commands squad sized formations or acts as an assistant platoon NCO. The rank is also used in the modern-day German Air Force. In the Bundeswehr the grade of Stabsunteroffizier (a junior NCO) ranks between Unteroffizier and Feldwebel.

Preceded by
Junior rank
Oberstabsgefreiter (OR4a)
Bundeswehr Logo Heer with lettering.svg Bundeswehr Logo Luftwaffe with lettering.svg

(German NCO rank)
Unteroffizier'

Succeeded by
Senior rank
Stabsunteroffizier (OR5a)

Nazi Germany

There sequence of grades in Heer, Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine was as follows
Rank insignia Unteroffizier Wehrmacht and equivalent grades Waffen-SS
Branch Heer - decal for helmet 1942.svg
German Army
COA Luftwaffe eagle gold (looking left).svg
Luftwaffe
Kriegsmarine insignia casco.svg
Kriegsmarine
Flag of the Schutzstaffel.svg
Waffen-SS
Collar Collar tabs of Panzergrenadier.svg Luftwaffe collar tabs Unteroffizier 3D.svg Kriegsmarine OR5b-MT col02 1945.svg SS-Unterscharfuhrer.svg
Shoulder WMacht H OR5b Uffz Inf h.svg WMacht Lw OR5b Uffz h 1945.svg Kriegsmarine-Unteroffizier-Shore h.svg SS-Unterscharfuhrer h.svg
Sleeve Uffz Uscha OR5b cam slv 1945.svg Luftwaffe flightsuit Unteroffizier.svg Kriegsmarine sleeve Steuermannmaat.svg Uffz Uscha OR5b cam slv 1945.svg
NameUnteroffizier Maat e.g.
Steuermannmaat
SS-Unterscharführer
junior rank
Stabsgefreiter
Balkenkreuz.svg
(Wehrmacht ranks)
Unteroffizier
senior rank
Unterfeldwebel

East Germany

By the East German National People's Army (NP's A) and the Border troops the grade was introduced in 1956, comparable to NATO OR-6b. The rank insignia remained almost identically to these Wehrmacht and Reichswehr. There designation of the two classes of non-commissioned officers, i.e. "Unteroffiziere ohne Portepee" and "Unteroffiziere mit Portepee", was generally disapproved by the East German communist military leadership, and consequently uncustomary.

There sequence of grades was as follows:

Rank insignia
Branch Emblem of the Ground Forces of NVA (East Germany).svg Landstreitkräfte Bestenabzeichen DDR Grenztruppen.png Grenztruppen Insignia of the Volksmarine.svg Volksmarine
Shoulder OR5 Unteroffizier Pz.png GDR Border Troops OR4 Unteroffizier.gif OR5 Maat See.png
Sleeve OR5 Maat Armel Kuste.png
NameUnteroffizier Maat
Junior rank
Stabsgefreiter
Flag of NVA (East Germany).svg
(NPA ranks)
Unterfeldwebel
(Maat)
Senior rank
Unterfeldwebel

Austria

Unteroffizier(e), also Unteroffizier corps (en: Non-commissioned officer(s)), is the collective name to all junior NCO-ranks in the modern day's Austrian Bundesheer. It comprises the ranks of the assignment group M BUO 2 (professional NCO 2; de: Berufsunteroffizier 2) with the rank Oberwachtmeister (OR6), and M ZUO 2 (time serving NCO 2; de: Zeitunteroffizier 2) with the rank Wachtmeister (OR5).

Training and education of the Unteroffizier corps was reformed in 1995 and until 2000 finally introduced to the armed forces. First effected were professional NCOs of the assignment group M BUO 1 (Stabsunteroffiziere, staff NCO's), followed by the assignment group M BUO 2 (Unteroffiziere, NCO's).

In the result of a positive entrance examination aspirants attended the NCO trainings course (new) on the Heeresunteroffiziersakademie (HUAk) in Enns. After positive HUAk-graduation regular assignments to a Unteroffizier might be squad leader (de: Gruppenkommandant), or service in a military staff or headquarters.

Rank groupNCOs (de: Unteroffiziere)
Field uniform Owm Anzug 75 03 AT.jpg Wm Anzug 75 03 AT.jpg
Jacket gorget Owm Rockkragen AT.jpg Wm Rockkragen AT.jpg
Corps colourMedical serviceAviator
Flat cap OWm OR6-Tellerkappe AT.jpg Wm OR5- Tellerkappe AT.jpg
Rank Oberwachtmeister (OWm) Wachtmeister (Wm)
NATO equivalentStaff sergeantSergeant
Flag of NATO.svg rankOR-6OR-5

Notes

    Related Research Articles

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    Feldwebel , literally "field usher", is a non-commissioned officer (NCO) rank in several countries. The rank originated in Germany, and is also used in Switzerland, Finland, Sweden, and Estonia. The rank has also been used in Russia, Austria-Hungary, and Bulgaria.

    Unterfeldwebel was a rank of the Wehrmacht, from 1935 until 1945. It was also used in the East German National People's Army from 1956 to 1990. The equivalent to Unterfeldwebel in the Bundeswehr of West Germany and later the Federal Republic of Germany is the rank Stabsunteroffizier (OR-5).

    <i>Unteroffiziere ohne Portepee</i>

    Unteroffizier(e) ohne Portepee, is the designation for German junior non-commissioned officers (NCOs) in the German Armed Forces. The category was a division of the NCO class, separating junior NCOs from Unteroffiziere mit Portepee, or senior NCOs. The name is derived from earlier traditions in which German senior NCOs (Feldwebel) would carry the officer's sidearms with the officer's swordknot.

    <i>Unteroffiziere mit Portepee</i>

    Unteroffizier(e) mit Portepee, also Portepeeunteroffizier(e), is the designation for German senior NCO in the armed forces of Germany. The name derives from earlier traditions in which senior enlisted men would carry a sword into battle. The word portepee derives from French port(e)-épée.

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    Fähnrich zur See designates in the German Navy of the Bundeswehr a military person or member of the armed forces with the second highest Officer Aspirant rank. According to the salary class it is equivalent to the Portepeeunteroffizier ranks Bootsmann (Marine) and Feldwebel of Heer or Luftwaffe.

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    Uniforms and insignia of the Kriegsmarine

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    Obermaat is a military rank of the Bundeswehr and earlier other German-speaking armed forces.

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    Stabsunteroffizier is a military rank of the German Bundeswehr. It was preceded by the rank Unterfeldwebel that was used between 1935 and 1945 in the armed forces of Nazi Germany, the Wehrmacht. The East German National People's Army used the rank Unterfeldwebel from 1956 to 1990. In the Austrian Armed Forces Stabsunteroffizier is the collective name to all higher Non-commissioned officers.

    References

    1. Brockhaus, encyclopedia in 24 volumes (1796–2001), Volume 22: 3-7653-3676-9, page 634
    2. Duden, Origin and meaning of "Korporal" (in German)

    Sources