Upminster

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Upminster
Upminster 021.jpg
Church of St Laurence
Greater London UK location map 2.svg
Red pog.svg
Upminster
Location within Greater London
Population25,361 (Cranham and Upminster wards 2011) [1]
OS grid reference TQ560865
  Charing Cross 16.5 mi (26.6 km)  WSW
London borough
Ceremonial county Greater London
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town UPMINSTER
Postcode district RM12-RM14
Dialling code 01708
Police Metropolitan
Fire London
Ambulance London
UK Parliament
London Assembly
List of places
UK
England
London
51°33′21″N0°15′04″E / 51.555743°N 0.251239°E / 51.555743; 0.251239 Coordinates: 51°33′21″N0°15′04″E / 51.555743°N 0.251239°E / 51.555743; 0.251239

Upminster is a suburban town in East London, England, within the London Borough of Havering. Located 16.5 miles (26.6 km) east-northeast of Charing Cross, it is one of the district centres identified for development in the London Plan.

Contents

Historically a rural village, Upminster grew from the ancient parish of St. Lawrence, in the union of Romford; part of the hundred of Chafford and the historic county of Essex. [2] The economic history of Upminster is characterised by a shift from farming to brick making to garden suburb. [3] It is currently mainly commercial shopping, small businesses and residential. [4]

It was first connected to central London by rail in 1885 and has a terminal station on the London Underground network. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century, Upminster significantly expanded and increased in population, becoming part of Hornchurch Urban District in 1934, and has formed part of Greater London since 1965.

History

Toponymy

Upminster (parish) population
18811,202
18911,409
19011,477
19112,468
19213,559
19315,732
1941war #
195113,038
# no census was held due to war
source: UK census [5]

The placename Upminster is first recorded in 1062 as Upmynstre and is recorded in the 1086 Domesday Book as Upmunstra. [6] It is formed from Old English upp and mynster, meaning 'the large church on high ground'. The high ground of St Laurence's parish church being in relation to the valley of the River Ingrebourne and the Upminster Bridge over the river shares the name. [6] An alternative explanation suggests the upp could refer to the geographical relationship to a church at Barking or Tilbury in Anglo-Saxon times. [7]

Economic development

There was a Roman farmstead in the Upminster area from the 1st century to the 3rd century, and agriculture was the predominant industry throughout the following centuries. [8]

The area was once wooded, but clearances in the 12th century gave more land over to arable farming; and by the 17th century there were a variety of crops and livestock. [8] There was a growth in market gardening in the 19th century. [8] There have been a number of windmills in Upminster and one of which, a smock mill built in 1803, remains. [9] Local industry included a tannery, gravel extraction and a brick works that was connected to the railway station by a tramway in 1895. [8]

The London, Tilbury and Southend Railway from Fenchurch Street was extended from Barking to Upminster in 1885. [10] The underground Whitechapel and Bow Railway opened in 1902 and allowed through services of the District Railway to operate to Upminster. The District converted to electric trains in 1905 and services were cut back to East Ham. Delayed by World War I, [10] electrified tracks were extended by the London, Midland and Scottish Railway to Upminster and through services resumed in 1932. [11] [12]

Local government

1931: Upminster (4) within Romford Rural District, adjoining Great Warley (3), Cranham (5) and Rainham (6) Romford rural 1931.PNG
1931: Upminster (4) within Romford Rural District, adjoining Great Warley (3), Cranham (5) and Rainham (6)

Upminster formed an ancient parish of 3,369 acres (1,363 ha) in the Chafford hundred of Essex. [8] The parish vestry had meetings in the church until 1798, when they moved to the Bell Inn. [13] The parish was divided into North and South wards by the Hornchurch to Cranham road. [13] In 1836 the vestry lost control of poor relief, with Upminster becoming part of the Romford Poor Law Union [13] and in 1875 the parish became part of Romford rural sanitary district. Following the Local Government Act 1894, the sanitary district became Romford Rural District and a parish council was formed of nine members, increasing to twelve by 1913 as the population had doubled. [13] The parish council acquired the Clock House building on St Mary's Lane for use as offices in 1924. [13] The parish formed part of the London Traffic Area from 1924 and the London Passenger Transport Area from 1933. [14] In 1934 the parish council was abolished and Upminster was combined with other parishes to form part of Hornchurch Urban District. In 1965 the urban district was abolished and its former area was combined with that of Municipal Borough of Romford; and since then has formed part of the London Borough of Havering in Greater London [15] as set out in the 1963 London Government Act [16]

Urban development

The parish had three early centres of activity; the village around the church and the settlements of Hacton and Corbets Tey. [8] The estates of Gaynes, New Place and Upminster Hall were purchased during the 17th century by merchants in the City of London. [8] This caused a significant number of buildings in the town to be constructed or improved. [8] Upkeep of the three bridges crossing the Ingrebourne were the responsibility of Upminster, as the adjacent Hornchurch parish was in the Havering liberty and was exempt from responsibility because of its charter. Although the opening of the station was key to the development of the suburb, land was not purchased for development until 10 acres (4.0 ha) were secured in 1901. [8]

Electricity was introduced in Upminster in 1926. [13] Gas main supply came from Romford in 1872 and from 1905 there was gas street lighting. [13] The area was served by good spring water, with mains supply provided by the South Essex Waterworks Company from 1836. Works on the sewerage system began in 1899 in Upminster village and Corbets Tey. In 1922 sewage works for Upminster and Cranham were opened in Great Warley. [13] Land for Upminster Park was purchased by the parish council in 1929.

Governance

Hornchurch and Upminster constituency in Greater London HornchurchUpminster2007Constituency.svg
Hornchurch and Upminster constituency in Greater London

The town forms part of the Hornchurch and Upminster UK Parliament constituency, and is covered by the Havering wards of Upminster and Cranham. The current MP is Julia Lopez. Each ward elects three councillors to Havering London Borough Council. All six councillors elected in 2010 for the two wards were the Upminster and Cranham Residents' Association candidates [17] [18] and the area is unusual in that the residents' association is strongly active. [19] From 1945 to 1974 Upminster formed part of the Hornchurch constituency and from 1974 to 2010 it formed part of the Upminster constituency. Upminster is within the Havering and Redbridge London Assembly constituency. [19]

Geography

Map of Upminster and environs Upminster osm.png
Map of Upminster and environs

Upminster rises to about 200 feet (61 m) above sea level to the north and is about 50 feet (15 m) above sea level to the south. [8] It rests on a layer of loam, above sand and gravel in the south and London Clay to the north. It is bounded in the west by the River Ingrebourne and there is a stream running east–west, just north of Corbets Tey that has been dammed to form a lake. [8] It has formed part of the continuously built-up area of London since the 1930s [20] and is contiguous with Cranham to the east and Hornchurch to the west. To the north and south there is open land that forms part of the Metropolitan Green Belt and there are open spaces formed by Upminster Golf Club and Upminster Hall Playing Field to the north, Upminster Park and Clock House Gardens to the south, and the Ingrebourne Valley linear park to the south west. The town is effectively divided into north and south parts by the railway line. The north is predominantly residential, with the southern part containing the main shopping area. Further south it becomes predominantly residential again. Upminster is a post town in the RM postcode area; it forms a long protrusion over the M25 motorway and additionally includes North Ockendon, also in Havering, and Bulphan in Thurrock. [21]

Demography

Upminster compared (2001 Census)
StatisticUpminster [22] Cranham [23] Havering [22] London [22] England [22]
Ethnic group
White12,35411,930213,4215,103,20344,679,361
Asian1331204,088866,6932,248,289
Black59643,139782,8491,132,508
Mixed87782,298226,111643,373
Chinese/Other411982770,928231,424
Population
Total12,67412,242224,2487,172,09149,138,831
Density(/hectare)5.6218.6719.9745.623.77
Households4,9465,11191,7223,015,99720,451,427

The Havering committee area for Upminster is defined as the wards of Upminster and Cranham. [24] Demographic data is produced by the Office for National Statistics for these wards. All of Upminster is contained within these wards, however they also cover the connected settlement of Cranham and the rural outlier of North Ockendon. In 2001 the population of Upminster ward was 12,674 [22] and Cranham ward was 12,242, [23] giving a total population of 25,098. 80.95% in Upminster and 81.73% in Cranham report their religion as Christian, compared to 76.13% for Havering, 58.23% in London and 71.74% in England. 10.08% in Upminster and 10.46% in Cranham report having no religion, compared to 13.18% in Havering, 15.76% in London and 14.59% in England. [22] [23] With a black and minority ethnic population of 3% in 2001, Cranham and Upminster wards have the lowest Simpson index for ethnic diversity in London. [25] The level of home ownership is atypically high compared to the rest of London and England, with over 90% of housing tenure under owner-occupation in both wards. [26] [27] The Upminster ward has one of the lowest levels of deprivation in London. [28]

The 2011 census showed that the population was 96% white (92% British, 2% Other, 2% Irish). Indian, Chinese and Black African were 1% each. 75% of the population is Christian, the highest in London. [29]

Economy

Upminster is identified in the London Plan as a local district centre with 37,000 square metres (400,000 sq ft) of commercial floorspace. [30] It is not considered a significant commercial office location. [30] Within Havering, it is identified as one of seven town centres in the borough, [31] with a retail area extending along Station Road, St Mary's Lane and Corbets Tey Road. [32] The unit sizes are mostly small with the largest outlets the Roomes Fashion and Home department store, the Roomes Furniture and Interiors furniture store, and the Aldi, M&S Simply Food and Waitrose supermarkets.

Transport

Upminster station southern entrance. There is another to the west. Upminster station side entrance.JPG
Upminster station southern entrance. There is another to the west.

The town is served by Upminster station on the London, Tilbury and Southend line and the London Underground, in London fare zone 6. [33] The western part of the town is also served by Upminster Bridge tube station. Upminster and Upminster Bridge are on the District line of the London Underground, with services to Richmond, Ealing Broadway and Wimbledon via central London. The station at Upminster is served by National Rail operator c2c who provide services to Fenchurch Street via West Ham; Shoeburyness via Basildon; and Southend via Chafford Hundred. [34] London Overground operate services to Romford via Emerson Park. [35] There are Transport for London bus services to Hornchurch, Romford, North Ockendon, Lakeside Shopping Centre and Cranham. [36] To the south of Upminster is Damyns Hall Aerodrome. The A127 road to the north is the main radial artery to central London, with the A124 road terminating in the town. The M25 motorway is located about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) to the east of the town centre.

Culture

Upminster Windmill is located in a small open space called Windmill Field. Upminster Windmill.jpg
Upminster Windmill is located in a small open space called Windmill Field.

Havering Council's urban strategy recognises that nearby Hornchurch is the main cultural hub of the borough with a large theatre and arts spaces, and Romford offers the largest regional concentration of entertainment facilities. [37] Within Upminster is New Windmill Hall, a flexible entertainment space, built in 1968, which holds up to 300 people. [38] Upminster forms part of the tourism strategy for the borough. [39] It is the location of Upminster Windmill, one of the few remaining mills in Greater London and is Grade II* listed. [40] There is also the Tithe Barn Museum, containing artifacts of domestic and agricultural use. In the west of Upminster is Hornchurch Stadium, which is the home ground of A.F.C. Hornchurch. Upminster is often associated with Ian Dury and his 1981 album Lord Upminster is named after the town. [41]

Speed of sound

The speed of sound was first accurately calculated by the Reverend William Derham, Rector of Upminster, thus improving on Sir Isaac Newton's estimates. Derham used a telescope from the tower of the church of St Laurence, Upminster to observe the flash of a distant shotgun being fired, and then measured the time until he heard the gunshot with a half-second pendulum. Measurements were made of gunshots from a number of local landmarks, including the Church of St Mary Magdalene, North Ockendon. The distance was known by triangulation, and thus the speed that the sound had travelled could be calculated. [42]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cranham</span> A residential area of East London, England

Cranham is a residential area of east London, and part of the London Borough of Havering. It is located 17.5 miles (28 km) east-northeast of Charing Cross and comprises an extensive built-up area to the north and a low density conservation area to the south surrounded by open land. It was historically a rural village in the county of Essex and formed an ancient parish. It is peripheral to London, forming the eastern edge of the urban sprawl. The economic history of Cranham is characterised by a shift from agriculture to housing development. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century, Cranham significantly increased in population, becoming part of Hornchurch Urban District in 1934 and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. The 2011 Census population of Cranham was included in Upminster.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Harold Wood</span> Suburban neighbourhood in Havering, east London

Harold Wood is a suburban neighbourhood of Romford in the London Borough of Havering. It is situated 16.5 miles (26.6 km) east-northeast of Charing Cross and near to the Greater London boundary with Essex.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hornchurch</span> Town in east London, England

Hornchurch is a suburban town in East London, England, and part of the London Borough of Havering. It is located 15.2 miles (24.5 km) east-northeast of Charing Cross. It comprises a number of shopping streets and a large residential area. It historically formed a large ancient parish in the county of Essex that became the manor and liberty of Havering. The economic history of Hornchurch is underpinned by a shift away from agriculture to other industries with the growing significance of nearby Romford as a market town and centre of administration. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century, Hornchurch significantly expanded and increased in population, becoming an urban district in 1926 and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. It is the location of Queen's Theatre, Havering Sixth Form College and Havering College of Further and Higher Education.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Romford</span> Town in London, England

Romford is a large town in East London and the administrative centre of the London Borough of Havering. It is located 14 miles (23 km) northeast of Charing Cross and is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Historically, Romford was a market town in the county of Essex, and it formed the administrative centre of the liberty of Havering before that liberty was dissolved in 1892. Good road links to London and the opening of the railway station in 1839 were key to the development of the town. The economic history of Romford is characterised by a shift from agriculture to light industry and then to retail and commerce.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">London Borough of Havering</span> London borough in United Kingdom

The London Borough of Havering in East London, England, forms part of Outer London. It has a population of 259,552 inhabitants; the principal town is Romford, while other communities are Hornchurch, Upminster, Collier Row and Rainham. The borough is mainly suburban, with large areas of protected open space. Romford is a major retail and night time entertainment centre, and to the south the borough extends into the London Riverside redevelopment area of the Thames Gateway. The name Havering is a reference to the Royal Liberty of Havering which occupied the area for several centuries. The local authority is Havering London Borough Council. It is the easternmost London borough.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Harold Hill</span> Human settlement in England

Harold Hill is a suburban area in the London Borough of Havering, East London. 16.6 miles (26.7 km) northeast of Charing Cross. It is a district centre in the London Plan. The name refers to King Harold II, who held the manor of Havering-atte-Bower, and who was killed at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. The suburb is peripheral to London, forming an eastern edge of the urban sprawl.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Upminster Bridge tube station</span> London Underground station

Upminster Bridge is a London Underground station in the Upminster Bridge neighbourhood of Upminster in the London Borough of Havering, east London. It is on the District line between Hornchurch to the west and Upminster to the east. It is 1.2 kilometres (0.75 mi) along the line from the eastern terminus at Upminster and 33 kilometres (21 mi) to Earl's Court in central London where the line divides into numerous branches. The station was opened on 17 December 1934 by the London, Midland and Scottish Railway on the local electrified tracks between Upminster and Barking that were constructed in 1932. The main station building, on Upminster Road, is of a distinctive polygonal design by William Henry Hamlyn. It has relatively low usage for a suburban station, with approximately 1.15 million passenger entries/exits in 2017.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">North Ockendon</span> Human settlement in England

North Ockendon is the easternmost and most outlying settlement of Greater London, England, and part of the London Borough of Havering. It is 18 miles (29 km) east-northeast of Central London and consists of a dispersed settlement within the Metropolitan Green Belt. It was historically an ancient parish in the county of Essex, which was abolished for civil purposes in 1936. North Ockendon is the only area in Greater London outside the M25 London Orbital Motorway. North Ockendon is north of South Ockendon, in Thurrock, Essex.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Upminster Bridge</span> Human settlement in England

Upminster Bridge is a crossing of the River Ingrebourne carrying the A124 road between the suburbs of Hornchurch and Upminster in northeast London, England. The bridge is known to have existed since at least 1375 and the current brick bridge was opened in 1892, replacing a series of wooden bridges. It gave its name to the nearby Upminster Bridge tube station, which opened in 1934, and has also been applied to the neighbourhood around the station in the London Borough of Havering.

Harold Park is a place in the London Borough of Havering.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Royal Liberty of Havering</span> Medieval jurisdiction in England

Havering, also known as Havering-atte-Bower, was a royal manor and ancient liberty whose area now forms part of, and gives its name to, the London Borough of Havering in Greater London. The manor was in the possession of the Crown from the 11th to the 19th centuries and was the location of Havering Palace from the 13th to the late 17th century. It occupied the same area as the ancient parish of Hornchurch which was divided into the three chapelries of Havering, Hornchurch and Romford.

The RM postcode area, also known as the Romford postcode area, is a group of twenty postcode districts in south-east England, within nine post towns. These cover parts of eastern Greater London and south-west Essex. Inward mail for the area is sorted, along with mail for the E and IG postcode areas, at the Romford Mail Centre.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Upminster (UK Parliament constituency)</span> Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, 1974–2010

Upminster was a constituency of the House of Commons in east London, which returned one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, elected by the first-past-the-post voting system. It was created for the 1974 general election, and abolished for the 2010 general election.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hornchurch Urban District</span>

Hornchurch was a local government district in southwest Essex from 1926 to 1965, formed as an urban district for the civil parish of Hornchurch. It was greatly expanded in 1934 with the addition of Cranham, Great Warley, Rainham, Upminster and Wennington; and in 1935 by gaining North Ockendon. Hornchurch Urban District Council was based at Langtons House in Hornchurch from 1929. The district formed a suburb of London and with a population peaking at 131,014 in 1961, it was one of the largest districts of its type in England. It now forms the greater part of the London Borough of Havering in Greater London.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Hornchurch</span> Human settlement in England

South Hornchurch is a locality to the south of Hornchurch in London Borough of Havering, east London. It is a suburban development situated 13.6 miles (21.8 km) east of Charing Cross. The area is a relatively recent addition, compared with the more mature suburbs in Havering. It was built on open farmland and the former site of RAF Hornchurch.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hornchurch and Upminster (UK Parliament constituency)</span> Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom

Hornchurch and Upminster is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2017 by Julia Lopez of the Conservative Party.

Romford Rural District was a local government district in southwest Essex, England from 1894 to 1934. It surrounded, but did not include, Romford which formed a separate urban district. During the life of the district the area changed in use from rural farm land to sprawling London suburb and in 1926 much of it was removed to form new urban districts.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rainham, London</span> Suburban town on the outskirts of east London, England

Rainham is a suburb of East London, England, in the London Borough of Havering. Historically an ancient parish in the county of Essex, Rainham is 13.6 miles (21.9 km) east of Charing Cross and is surrounded by a residential area, which has grown from the historic village, to the north and a commercial area, fronting the River Thames, to the south. As part of the suburban growth of London in the 20th century, Rainham significantly expanded and increased in population, becoming part of Hornchurch Urban District in 1934, and has formed part of Greater London since 1965. The economic history of Rainham is underpinned by a shift from agriculture to industry and manufacture and is now in a period of regeneration, coming within the London Riverside section of the Thames Gateway redevelopment area.

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