Upper Carniolan dialect

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The Upper Carniolan dialect (gorenjsko narečje, [1] gorenjščina [2] ) is a major Slovene dialect in the Upper Carniolan dialect group. It is spoken in most (but not all) of Upper Carniola. It is one of the two central Slovene dialects and was also used as a written language from the 17th century onwards, and especially in the second half of the 18th century. [3]

Slovene dialects

Slovene dialects are the regional spoken varieties of Slovene, a South Slavic language. Spoken Slovene is often considered to have at least 48 dialects (narečja) and subdialects (govori). The exact number of dialects is open to debate, ranging from as many as 50 to merely 7. The various dialects are so different from each other that a speaker of one dialect may have a very difficult time understanding a speaker of another, particularly if they belong to different regional groups. Speakers of dialects that strongly differ accommodate each other by gravitating toward standard Slovene. Slovene dialects are part of the South Slavic dialect continuum, transitioning into Croatian Kajkavian and Chakavian to the south and bordering Friulian and Italian to the west, German to the north, and Hungarian to the east.

Upper Carniolan dialect group

The Upper Carniolan dialect group is a group of closely related dialects of Slovene. The Upper Carniolan dialects are spoken in most of Upper Carniola and in Ljubljana.

Phonological and morphological characteristics

The Upper Carniolan dialect has a pitch accent, the usual circumflex advancement, and two accentual retractions with some exceptions. It has eight monophthongal accented vowels, as in standard Slovene. In preaccentual position there is narrowing of o and e, and akanye in postaccentual position. There is extensive syncope, partial development of g to [γ], general preservation of bilabial w, and general hardening of soft l and n. There is extensive morphophonemic alternation (l > w and k g h > č j/ž š), spirantization and devoicing of stops in word-final position (e.g., d > s), and simplification of šč to š. Neuter nouns become masculine, the ending -om becomes -am, the u-stem conjugation is robust, and there is a long infinitive (ending in ). [3]

Akanye or akanje, literally "a-ing", is a phonological phenomenon in Slavic languages in which the phonemes or are realized as more or less close to. It is a case of vowel reduction. The most familiar example is probably Russian akanye. Akanye also occurs in standard Belarusian as well as in northern (Polissian) Ukrainian dialects, Slovene dialects, some subgroups of the Kajkavian dialect of Serbo-Croatian and Bulgarian dialects.

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Lower Carniolan dialect group

The Lower Carniolan dialect group is a group of closely related dialects of Slovene. The Lower Carniolan dialects are spoken in most of Lower Carniola and in the eastern half of Inner Carniola.

The Kostel dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Lower Carniolan dialect group. It is spoken in western White Carniola, bordering the former Kočevje linguistic island to the east and the Kolpa River to the south. It also encompasses Babno Polje, Banja Loka, Osilnica, Trava, and Draga, and its features also extend into the Croatian region of Gorski Kotar.

The South White Carniolan dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Lower Carniolan dialect group. It is spoken in southern White Carniola south of the line from Podzemelj to Črnomelj to Kanižarica. It includes the settlements of Dragatuš, Vinica, Bojanci, and Adlešiči.

The North White Carniolan dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Lower Carniolan dialect group. It is spoken in northern White Carniola north of the line from Kanižarica to Črnomelj. It includes the settlements of Semič and Metlika.

The Eastern Lower Carniolan subdialect is a Slovene subdialect in the Lower Carniolan dialect group. It is spoken south of the Lower Sava Valley dialect in the watersheds of the Mirna and Temenica rivers, east of a line running from west of Trebnje and west of Novo Mesto to the lower Krka Valley. The dialect includes the settlements of Kostanjevica na Krki, Krmelj, Mirna, Mokronog, Novo Mesto, Raka, Šentjernej, Šentrupert, Škocjan and Trebnje.

The Lower Carniolan dialect is a major Slovene dialect in the Lower Carniolan dialect group. It is one of the two central Slovene dialects and was the original foundation for standard Slovene along with the Ljubljana urban dialect. It is spoken in most of Lower Carniola as far west as Cerknica and including the settlements of Grosuplje and Ribnica, and encompassing the area of the Eastern Lower Carniolan subdialect.

The Selca dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Upper Carniolan dialect group. It is spoken in the Selca Sora Valley, north of a line from Porezen to Mount Lubnik, and south of a line running west of Zgornje Bitnje to north of Dražgoše to west of Zgornja Sorica.

The Eastern Upper Carniolan subdialect is a Slovene subdialect in the Upper Carniolan dialect group. It is spoken in the eastern part of Upper Carniola, east of a line running west of Špitalič, Trojane, and Kisovec, then east of Vače and Zgornji Hotič, and then south along the Sava to east of Dol pri Ljubljani.

The Central Savinja dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Styrian dialect group. It is spoken in the central Savinja Valley in the basins of the Bolska, Paka, and Hudinja rivers east of the Upper Savinja dialect and west of the Central Styrian dialect, south of the Mežica and South Pohorje dialects, and north of the Eastern Upper Carniolan, Zagorje-Trbovlje, and Laško subdialects. It includes the settlements of Trojane, Špitalič, Vransko, Topolšica, Šoštanj, Velenje, Frankolovo, Vojnik, and Celje.

The Solčava subdialect is a Slovene subdialect in the Styrian dialect group. It is a subdialect of the Upper Savinja dialect spoken around Solčava and the Logar Valley. It is the westernmost of the (sub)dialects in the Styrian dialect group.

The Kozje-Bizeljsko dialect, also known as the Brežice-Kozje dialect or the Bizeljsko-Sotla dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Styrian dialect group. It extends north of the Sava River at Brežice, ranging from Jurklošter to Podčetrtek in the north, encompassing the settlements of Kozje and Bizeljsko, and to the Sotla River in the east. It is the southernmost dialect in the Styrian dialect group.

The Mežica dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Carinthian dialect group. It is spoken in the triangle bounded by Črna na Koroškem, Dravograd, and Mislinja. Major settlements in the dialect area are Slovenj Gradec, Ravne na Koroškem, Prevalje, and Mežica.

The Gail Valley dialect is the westernmost Slovene dialect in the Carinthian dialect group, spoken in parts of southern Carinthia in Austria, in the northeasternmost part of the Province of Udine in Italy, and in northeastern Upper Carniola in Slovenia.

The Soča dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Littoral dialect group. It includes the subdialects of Borjana, Kobarid, and Bovec in the Upper Soča Valley.

The Karst dialect, sometimes Gorizia–Karst dialect, is a Slovene dialect in the Littoral dialect group, spoken in western Slovenia and in parts of the Italian provinces of Trieste and Gorizia. It takes its name from the Karst Plateau.

The Inner Carniolan dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Littoral dialect group. It is spoken in a relatively large area, extending from western Inner Carniola up to Trieste in Italy, also covering the upper Vipava Valley and the southern part of the Karst Plateau.

The Škofja Loka dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Rovte dialect group. It encompasses the local dialects of Škofja Loka and the nearby settlements of Bitnje and Reteče. The Škofja Loka Passion Play, the oldest Slovene drama play, was written in the first half of the 18th century in the old Škofja Loka dialect.

The Horjul dialect is a Slovene dialect in the Rovte dialect group. It is spoken southwest of Ljubljana in the settlements of Horjul, Polhov Gradec, Log pri Brezovici, Vrhnika, Verd, Logatec, and Kalce.

References

  1. Smole, Vera. 1998. "Slovenska narečja." Enciklopedija Slovenije vol. 12, pp. 1–5. Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga, p. 2.
  2. Logar, Tine. 1996. Dialektološke in jezikovnozgodovinske razprave. Ljubljana: SAZU, p. 12.
  3. 1 2 Toporišič, Jože. 1992. Enciklopedija slovenskega jezika. Ljubljana: Cankarjeva založba, pp. 52–53.