Upper Chehalis language

Last updated
Upper Chehalis
Q̉ʷay̓áyiłq̉
Native to United States
Regionsouth of Olympic Peninsula, Washington
Ethnicity Chehalis people
Extinct 2001 [1]
Salishan
  • Coast
    • Tsamosan
      • Inland
        • Upper Chehalis
Language codes
ISO 639-3 cjh
Glottolog uppe1439 [2]

Upper Chehalis (Q̉ʷay̓áyiłq̉) is a member of the Tsamosan (Olympic) branch of the Coast Salish family of Salishan languages. Thompson's 1979 classification lists Upper Chehalis as more closely related to the Cowlitz language than it is to Lower Chehalis. [3] :693

Contents

Phonology

Consonants
Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Lateral Velar Uvular Glottal
plain lab. plainlab.
Plosive plain ptkqʔ
ejective kʼʷqʼʷ
Affricate plain ts
ejective tsʼtʃʼtɬʼ
Fricative sʃɬχχʷh
Sonorant mnjlw

Vowels are represented as /e ə o a/. [4]

Related Research Articles

Salishan oral narratives consist of the body of traditional narratives of the speakers of the Salishan languages, who inhabit British Columbia, Canada and in Washington, Idaho and Montana in the United States. Each of the many peoples in these groups have their own stories and each storyteller may interpret them in their own ways, but many of the stories of the Salish peoples are similar and share themes and characters, and share their historical origins in the proto-Salishan culture long ago. The earliest descriptions of the oral traditions of Salishan peoples were the collections of Nuxalk mythology by anthropologist Franz Boas collected in the water

Salishan languages Group of languages spoken in the United States and Canada

The Salishan languages are a group of languages of the Pacific Northwest in North America. They are characterised by agglutinativity and syllabic consonants. For instance the Nuxalk word clhp’xwlhtlhplhhskwts’, meaning "he had had [in his possession] a bunchberry plant", has thirteen obstruent consonants in a row with no phonetic or phonemic vowels. The Salishan languages are a geographically continuous block, with the exception of the Nuxalk, in the Central Coast of British Columbia, and the extinct Tillamook language, to the south on the central coast of Oregon.

Chehalis people

The Chehalis people or Tsihalis are a native people of western Washington state in the United States. They should not be confused with the similarly named Chehalis First Nation of the Sts'Ailes people along the Harrison River in the Fraser Valley area of British Columbia.

Cowlitz people

The term Cowlitz people covers two culturally and linguistically distinct indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest; the Lower Cowlitz or Cowlitz proper, a southwestern Coast Salish people, which today are enrolled in the federally recognized tribes: Cowlitz Indian Tribe, Quinault Indian Nation, and Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation; and the Upper Cowlitz / Cowlitz Klickitat or Taitnapam, a Northwest Sahaptin speaking people, part of the Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation.

Chinookan languages

The Chinookan languages were a small family of languages spoken in Oregon and Washington along the Columbia River by Chinook peoples. Although the last known native speaker of any Chinookan language died in 2012, the 2009-2013 American Community Survey found 270 self-identified speakers of Upper Chinook.

The Thompson language, properly known as Nlaka'pamuctsin, also known as the Nlaka'pamux ('Nthlakampx') language, is an Interior Salishan language spoken in the Fraser Canyon, Thompson Canyon, Nicola Country of the Canadian province of British Columbia, and also (historically) in the North Cascades region of Whatcom and Chelan counties of the state of Washington in the United States. A dialect distinctive to the Nicola Valley is called Scw'exmx, which is the name of the subgroup of the Nlaka'pamux who live there.

Lillooet, known in the language itself as St̓át̓imcets / Sƛ’aƛ’imxǝc, is the language of the St’át’imc, a Salishan language of the Interior branch spoken in southern British Columbia, Canada, around the middle Fraser and Lillooet Rivers. The language of the Lower Lillooet people uses the name Ucwalmícwts, because St̓át̓imcets means "the language of the people of Sat̓", i.e. the Upper Lillooet of the Fraser River.

Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation

The Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation is a federally recognized tribe of Upper and Lower Chehalis, Klallam, Muckleshoot, Nisqually, and Quinault peoples. They are one of the Northern Straits branch Central Coast Salish peoples of indigenous peoples of the Northwest Coast. Their tribe is located in southwest Washington.

Tillamook is an extinct Salishan language, formerly spoken by the Tillamook people in northwestern Oregon, United States. The last fluent speaker was Minnie Scovell who died in 1972. In an effort to prevent the language from being lost, a group of researchers from the University of Hawaii interviewed the few remaining Tillamook-speakers and created a 120-page dictionary.

Saanich is the language of the First Nations Saanich people. Saanich is a member of a dialect continuum called Northern Straits which is a Coast Salishan language. North Straits varieties are closely related to the Klallam language.

M. Dale Kinkade (1933–2004) was a linguist known especially for his work on Salishan languages.

Nicola is an extinct Athabascan language formerly spoken in the Similkameen and Nicola Countries of British Columbia by the group known to linguists and ethnographers as the Nicola people, although that name in modern usage refers to an alliance of Interior Salishan bands living in the same area. Almost nothing is known of the language. The available material published by Franz Boas required only three pages. What the Nicola called themselves and their language is unknown. The Salishan-speaking Thompson language Indians who absorbed them refer to them as the "the strangers".

North Straits Salish is a Salish language which includes the dialects of

The Interior Salish languages are one of the two main branches of the Salishan language family, the other being Coast Salish. It can be further divided into Northern and Southern subbranches. The first Salishan people encountered by American explorers were the Flathead people, among the most easterly of the group.

Squamish is a Coast Salish language spoken by the Squamish people of the Pacific Northwest. It is spoken in the area that is now called southwestern British Columbia, Canada, centred on their reserve communities in Squamish, North Vancouver, and West Vancouver. An archaic historical rendering of the native Sḵwx̱wú7mesh is Sko-ko-mish but this should not be confused with the name of the Skokomish people of Washington state. Squamish is most closely related to the Sechelt, Halkomelem, and Nooksack languages.

The Cowlitz language is a member of the Tsamosan branch of the Coast Salish family of Salishan languages.

The Willapa or Willoopah, also known as Kwalhioqua, were a Northern Athapaskan-speaking people in southwestern Washington, United States. Their territory was the valley of the Willapa River and the prairie between the headwaters of the Chehalis and Cowlitz Rivers.

Salish peoples

The Salish peoples are an ethno-linguistic group of the Pacific Northwest of the US and SW Canada, identified by their use of the Salish languages which diversified out of Proto-Salish between 3,000 and 6,000 years ago.

Lower Chehalis (Łəw̓ál̕məš) is a member of the Tsamosan branch of the Coast Salish family of Salishan languages. In some classifications, Lower Chehalis is placed closer to Quinault than it is to Upper Chehalis.

The Chehalis language is a collective expression regarding two languages, Upper Chehalis language and Lower Chehalis language. Both are members of the Tsamosan (Olympic) branch within the Coast Salish subfamily of the Salishan language family.

References

  1. Upper Chehalis at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Upper Chehalis". Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. Thompson, Lawrence (1979). "Salishan and the Northwest". In Campbell, Lyle; Mithun, Marianne (eds.). The Languages of Native America: Historical and comparative assessment.
  4. Kinkade, M. Dale (1963). Phonology and Morphology of Upper Chehalis: I. International Journal of American Linguistics.