Upper Swan Bridge

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Upper Swan Bridge

Верхний Лебяжий мост
Verkhny Lebyazhy Bridge.jpg
Coordinates 59°56′52″N030°20′11″E / 59.94778°N 30.33639°E / 59.94778; 30.33639 Coordinates: 59°56′52″N030°20′11″E / 59.94778°N 30.33639°E / 59.94778; 30.33639
CarriesVehicles
Pedestrians
Crosses Swan Canal
Locale Saint Petersburg
Characteristics
Total length12.5 m (41 ft)
Width14.9 m (49 ft)
History
Opened1711-1715 (in wood)
1768 (in stone)

Upper Swan Bridge (Russian : Верхний Лебяжий мост) is a single-span stone bridge in Saint Petersburg. It is one of the oldest stone bridges in the city and carries Palace Embankment across the Swan Canal.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

Saint Petersburg Federal city in the Northwestern federal district, Russia

Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015). An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject.

Palace Embankment thoroughfare in Saint Petersburg, Russia

The Palace Embankment or Palace Quay is a street along the Neva River in Central Saint Petersburg which contains the complex of the Hermitage Museum buildings, the Hermitage Theatre, the Marble Palace, the Vladimir Palace, the New Michael Palace, the Saltykov Mansion and the Summer Garden.

Contents

The preceding bridge on the site was of wooden construction, built in the 1710s over the Lebedinka, a shallow watercourse flowing between the Moyka and Neva Rivers, at the point at which it entered the Neva. With the construction of the Swan Canal replacing the Lebedinka, the bridge continued to operate, until being replaced with a stone bridge in 1768. The bridge was alternately known as the Swan Bridge, the Stone Swan Bridge, and finally the Upper Swan Bridge, distinguishing it from the Lower Swan Bridge at the southern end of the canal at its juncture with the Moyka. Structural faults were identified as early as the mid-nineteenth century, but repairs were only carried out in the 1920s. These left the appearance of the bridge unaltered, and it still retains its original form. It has been designated an object of historical and cultural heritage of federal significance.

Moyka River river in Russia

The Moyka River is a small river in Russia that encircles the central portion of Saint Petersburg, effectively making it an island. The river, originally known as Mya, derives its name from the Ingrian word for "slush" or "mire". It is 5 kilometres (3 mi) long and 40 metres (130 ft) wide.

Neva River River in Russia

The Neva ) is a river in northwestern Russia flowing from Lake Ladoga through the western part of Leningrad Oblast to the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland. Despite its modest length of 74 kilometres (46 mi), it is the fourth largest river in Europe in terms of average discharge.

Lower Swan Bridge Bridge in Saint Petersburg

Lower Swan Bridge is a single-span stone bridge in Saint Petersburg crossing the Swan Canal at its junction with the Moyka River.

Location and design

The Upper Swan Bridge is in Dvortsovy Municipal Okrug, part of the Tsentralny District of the city. It crosses the Swan Canal, one of the city's oldest, [1] at the point at which the canal joins the Neva River, and carries Palace Embankment between the areas of the Field of Mars to the west, and the Summer Garden to the east. It comprises a single-span arched stone construction 12.5 m (41 ft) long and 14.9 m (49 ft) wide, and carries both foot and vehicle traffic. [2] [3] It is one of two bridges that currently span the Swan Canal, the other being the Lower Swan Bridge at the southern end of the canal at its juncture with the Moyka River. [1] Despite several restorations, its appearance has remained almost unchanged from its construction in stone in 1768 to the present day. [4] [5] It is one of the oldest stone bridges in the city. [1]

Dvortsovy Municipal Okrug human settlement in Russia

Dvortsovy Municipal Okrug is a municipal okrug of Tsentralny District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia. Population: 6,426 (2010 Census); 10,491 (2002 Census).

Tsentralny District, Saint Petersburg District in federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia

Tsentralny District is a district of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 214,625; down from 236,856 recorded in the 2002 Census.

Swan Canal Canal in Saint Petersburg

The Swan Canal is a waterway located in Saint Petersburg. Dating from the early years of the foundation of the city, it connects the Moyka and Neva Rivers.

History

The view north along the Swan Canal. The Upper Swan Bridge and the junction with the Neva are visible beyond a wooden bridge that has not survived to the present day. An 1839 work by Ivan Belonogov [ru
]. Lebiazh'ia kanavka Belonogov.jpg
The view north along the Swan Canal. The Upper Swan Bridge and the junction with the Neva are visible beyond a wooden bridge that has not survived to the present day. An 1839 work by Ivan Belonogov  [ ru ].

Over the course of the eighteenth century four different wooden bridges spanned the Swan Canal. The Upper Swan Bridge began as a wooden construction across the Lebedinka, a shallow watercourse, at the point it enters the Neva. [2] It was built between 1711 and 1715, and was named the Swan Bridge. [5] The wooden bridge was replaced in 1768 by a single-span stone bridge, with construction overseen by engineer T. I. Nasonov. [3] [4] [a] This was part of a larger scale overhaul of the embankments along the Neva, which saw them reinforced with granite. [4] As designed the supporting pillars and arch of the bridge were of rubble slab lined with granite, with the parapets of solid granite. [2] [3] The abutments were fitted with gas lanterns, but these were removed at some point, presumably by the late nineteenth century. [4] [5]

Abutment

In engineering, abutment refers to the substructure at the ends of a bridge span or dam whereon the structure's superstructure rests or contacts. Single-span bridges have abutments at each end which provide vertical and lateral support for the bridge, as well as acting as retaining walls to resist lateral movement of the earthen fill of the bridge approach. Multi-span bridges require piers to support ends of spans unsupported by abutments. Dam abutments are generally either side of a valley or gorge but may be artificial in order to support arch dams such as Kurobe Dam in Japan.

At some point between 1836 and 1846 the bridge was renamed the Stone Swan Bridge, with the terms Upper and Lower Swan Bridges being in use since at least 1849 to distinguish the bridges at the northern and southern end of the canal respectively. [4] Surveys of the Upper Swan Bridge between 1840 and 1845 revealed movement in the bridge supports and the deformation of its arched vault. Proposals were drawn up for a reconstruction of the bridge in 1847, which envisaged its replacement with a brick arch raised a metre above the river level. This proposal was never implemented, and a similar proposal by engineer K. V. Yefimev in 1908 ultimately came to nothing. [4]

The bridge finally underwent repairs between 1927 and 1928, with the fitting of monolithic reinforced concrete by engineer L. A. Krushelnitsky, and the restoration of its granite cladding in 1931. [2] [3] [5] These repairs were carried out with the object of retaining the bridge's design and architectural appearance. [4] [1] Further restoration was carried out in 2003 as part of a general series of works on the canal. [5] Cracks in its foundations were repaired. [2] The bridge has been described as uniting Palace Embankment and the fence of the Summer Garden into a single architectural ensemble, and has been designated an object of historical and cultural heritage of federal significance." [4]

Notes

a. ^ Different sources attribute the design to either Yury Felten or I. G. Rossi. [2] [4]

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Lebyazhya Kanavka (Swan Canal)". saint-petersburg.com. Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Верхний Лебяжий мост". citywalls.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Guzevich, D. Yu. "Лебяжьи мосты". encspb.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "Верхний Лебяжий мост". mostotrest-spb.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 "Верхне-Лебяжий мост". walkspb.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019.