Upper Tüchersfeld Castle

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Upper Tüchersfeld Castle
Pottenstein-Tüchersfeld
Burgstall Oberntuchersfeld01.jpg
Oberntüchersfeld Castle site - view of the castle rock from the SW
Germany adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Coordinates 49°47′09″N11°21′36″E / 49.785766°N 11.360090°E / 49.785766; 11.360090 Coordinates: 49°47′09″N11°21′36″E / 49.785766°N 11.360090°E / 49.785766; 11.360090
Type hill castle, spur castle
CodeDE-BY
Height455 m above  sea level (NN)
Site information
Condition burgstall (no above-ground ruins)
Site history
Builtc. 1240

The ruins of Upper Tüchersfeld Castle (German : Burgstall Oberntüchersfeld) are all that remains of a high medieval castle that once rose high above the valley of the Püttlach in the church village of Tüchersfeld in Germany's Franconian Switzerland. It was built on a spur of the Mittelberg and was one of two castles in the village, the other being the Lower Tüchersfeld Castle.

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, the German-speaking Community of Belgium and Liechtenstein. It is one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages that are most similar to the German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch, including Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

Tüchersfeld Village of Pottenstein in Bavaria, Germany

Tüchersfeld is a church village in the Püttlach valley in Franconian Switzerland and belongs to the town of Pottenstein.

Franconian Switzerland geographic region

Franconian Switzerland is an upland in Upper Franconia, Bavaria, Germany, and a popular tourist retreat. Located between the River Pegnitz in the east and the south, the River Regnitz in the west and the River Main in the north, its relief, which reaches 600 metres in height, forms the northern part of the Franconian Jura (Frankenjura). As several other mountainous landscapes in the German-speaking lands, e.g. Holstein Switzerland, Märkische Schweiz, or Pommersche Schweiz, Franconian Switzerland was given its name by Romantic artists and poets in the 19th century who compared the landscape to Switzerland. The Franconian Switzerland is famous for its high density of traditional breweries.

Contents

The site or burgstall of the hill castle lies at a height of 455 m above  sea level (NN) in the centre of the village of Tüchersfeld in the municipality of Pottenstein in the Upper Franconian county of Bayreuth in Bavaria.

<i>Burgstall</i> German castle site, ruin

A burgstall is a German term referring to a castle of which so little is left that its appearance cannot effectively be reconstructed. It has no direct equivalent in English, but may be loosely translated as "castle site". Variations in the literature include Burgstelle, Altburgstelle, die Burgställe (plural), Burgstähl (archaic) or abgegangene Burg. In German castle studies, a burgstall is a castle that has effectively been levelled, whereas a "ruin" (Ruine) still has recognisable remnants of the original castle above the level of the ground.

Hill castle castle built on a natural feature that stands above the surrounding terrain

A hill castle is a castle built on a natural feature that stands above the surrounding terrain. It is a term derived from the German Höhenburg used in categorising castle sites by their topographical location. Hill castles are thus distinguished from lowland castles (Niederungsburgen).

Normalnull

Normalnull or Normal-Null is an outdated official vertical datum used in Germany. Elevations using this reference system were to be marked "Meter über Normal-Null". Normalnull has been replaced by Normalhöhennull.

History

View of the two castle rocks in Tuchersfeld. Left: Upper Tuchersfeld, right: Lower Tuchersfeld Burgstall Oberntuchersfeld02.jpg
View of the two castle rocks in Tüchersfeld. Left: Upper Tüchersfeld, right: Lower Tüchersfeld
View of the southern part of the castle rock from the south east. Also visible is the access to the castle through a small cave Burgstall Oberntuchersfeld03.jpg
View of the southern part of the castle rock from the south east. Also visible is the access to the castle through a small cave

Through the village of Tüchersfeld once ran a medieval road (Altstrasse), which wound its way from Gräfenberg via Hiltpoltstein and Obertrubach to Gößweinstein. In Tüchersfeld it crossed the Püttlach valley and then continued via Oberailsfeld and Waischenfeld to Hollfeld. The castles were probably built to control the road and river crossing.

Gräfenberg, Bavaria Place in Bavaria, Germany

Gräfenberg is a Franconian town in the district of Forchheim, in Bavaria, Germany. It is situated 16km southeast of Forchheim and 25km northeast of Nuremberg.

Hiltpoltstein Place in Bavaria, Germany

Hiltpoltstein is a market village in the district of Forchheim in Bavaria in Germany. At its centre is Hiltpoltstein Castle.

Obertrubach Place in Bavaria, Germany

Obertrubach is a municipality in the district of Forchheim in Bavaria in Germany.

The first historical records of the castles date to the 13th century, when a Friderici quondam de Thvchervelt was mentioned on 26 November 1243, they were probably built just before this.

The Bishop of Bamberg, Berthold of Leiningen, acquired one of the castles on 27 May 1262; from whom he bought it, is not known. It is likely that this was the castle of Frederick of Tüchersfeld. Seven years later, the bishop acquired the second castle there from Duke Louis of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine, as a gift. However, the Duke must first have had to redeem the castle from Count Frederick Truhendingen, who at the time held it in fief. Prior to Truhendingen, Burkhard of Ahorn was the fief holder. The lords of the castle were the dukes of Bavarian dukes whose possessions in Tüchersfeld and Pottenstein came from the estate of Counts of Schweinfurt.

Bamberg Place in Bavaria, Germany

Bamberg is a town in Upper Franconia, Germany, on the river Regnitz close to its confluence with the river Main. A large part of the town has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1993.

Louis II, Duke of Bavaria Duke of Upper Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine

Ludwig I or Louis I of Upper Bavaria was Duke of Upper Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1253. He is known as Ludwig II or Louis II as Duke of Bavaria, and also as Louis the Strict. Born in Heidelberg, he was a son of duke Otto II and Agnes of the Palatinate. She was a daughter of the Welf Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine, her grandfathers were Henry XII the Lion and Conrad of Hohenstaufen.

Ownership of the second castle was disputed. Henry, Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine, laid claim to the fortress. In a treaty dated 26 February 1287, however, he renounced the castle in Tüchersfeld. From then on, both castles were in the hands of the Bishopric of Bamberg. In the episcopal Urbarium A of 1323/27 was added: "Tvchersuelt et Tvchersuelt ambo Castra sunt episcopi" (both castles in Tüchersfeld are the bishop's).

Urbarium register of fief ownership and includes the rights and benefits that the fief holder has over his serfs and peasants

An urbarium, is a register of fief ownership and includes the rights and benefits that the fief holder has over his serfs and peasants. It is an important economic and legal source of medieval and early modern feudalism.

In the episcopal Urbarium B of 1348 for the first time a distinction was made between Upper Tüchersfeld, which stood on a narrow rock pinnacle, and Lower Tüchersfeld.

Even before the entry in Urbarium of A 1323/27 Burgoberbach Tüchersfeld was already the seat of a minor Bamberg office or Amt . No later than 1386, a court chamber (Kastenamt) was established at the castle and a Walter Hauger of Rattelsdorf was recorded as the Steward (Kastner) of Tüchersfeld. This office had moved by 1399 to Waischenfeld.

At that time, the castle consisted of two parts, an episcopal administrative castle (Amtsburg) that from 1442 was always referred to as a schloss , and the "Upper House" (Oberhaus), which probably stood on the northern part of the rock reef. The Upper House was an episcopal fief and was owned by the family Groß of Trockau. Eberhard Groß was mentioned in 1422, he owned half the castle estate at the Upper House. In 1429 a half of the Upper House was owned by Jorg Groß.

From 1445, the Upper House was apparently destroyed; an enfeoffment deed to the brothers, Sittig and Hans Groß, in that year talks about the "Upper House of Tüchersfeld called the burgstall [= "castle site"]". The castle was apparently destroyed during the Hussite wars in 1430, and subsequently referred to in documents as a burgstall, the name for a castle that had been virtually levelled. In addition, in other enfeoffments to Sittig Groß from 1461, reference is made to a house that he is supposed to have built; whether this house stood on the castle site is not known. Sittig Groß had to sell the ruins of the Upper House in 1480 to his nephews, the brothers Andrew, Fritz and Jerome of Seckendorff-Rinhofen. "for reasons and the needs of his body to pay for its nourishment". A year later, the flattened castle was back in feudal possession of Albert, James, Eberhard and Michael Gross; and it was owned by the family until 1628. The part of the castle called the Upper House was apparently not rebuilt after its destruction by the Hussites, only the site continued to be enfeoffed by the bishop [1]

Today

The site of the old castle is covered in dense woodland in places; only the southern tip of the rock reef is free of large trees. This rock tower is now a viewing point and is accessible on a metal ladder. Very little of the original castle has survived. At the entrance to the southern tip of the reef, steps may be seen that have been hewn out of the rock in a small through cave. On the castle plateau a few foundation wall remains can be seen.

Conservation

Described by the Bavarian State Office for Monument Protection (BLfD) as a "medieval burgstall", the protected monument bear the identity D-4-6234-0037. [2]

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References

  1. Hellmut Kunstmann. Die Burgen der östlichen Fränkischen Schweiz, pp. 303 ff.
  2. "Burgstall Oberntüchersfeld on the website of the BLfD". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2011-04-30.

Literature