Upton Sinclair

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Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair LCCN2014686178 cropped2.tif
Born
Upton Beall Sinclair Jr.

(1878-09-20)September 20, 1878
DiedNovember 25, 1968(1968-11-25) (aged 90)
Alma mater City College of New York
OccupationNovelist, writer, journalist, political activist, politician
Notable work
The Jungle
Political party
Spouse(s)
  • Meta Fuller
    (m. 1900;div. 1911)
  • Mary Craig Kimbrough
    (m. 1913;died 1961)
  • Mary Elizabeth Willis
    (m. 1961;died 1967)
Signature
Upton Sinclair signature.svg

Upton Beall Sinclair Jr. (September 20, 1878 – November 25, 1968) was an American writer who wrote nearly 100 books and other works in several genres. Sinclair's work was well known and popular in the first half of the 20th century, and he won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1943.

Contents

In 1906, Sinclair acquired particular fame for his classic muck-raking novel The Jungle , which exposed labor and sanitary conditions in the U.S. meatpacking industry, causing a public uproar that contributed in part to the passage a few months later of the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act. [1] In 1919, he published The Brass Check , a muck-raking exposé of American journalism that publicized the issue of yellow journalism and the limitations of the "free press" in the United States. Four years after publication of The Brass Check, the first code of ethics for journalists was created. [2] Time magazine called him "a man with every gift except humor and silence". [3] He is also well remembered for the line: "It is difficult to get a man to understand something, when his salary depends upon his not understanding it." [4] He used this line in speeches and the book about his campaign for governor as a way to explain why the editors and publishers of the major newspapers in California would not treat seriously his proposals for old age pensions and other progressive reforms. [4]

Many of his novels can be read as historical works. Writing during the Progressive Era, Sinclair describes the world of industrialized America from both the working man's and the industrialist's points of view. Novels such as King Coal (1917), The Coal War (published posthumously), Oil! (1927), and The Flivver King (1937) describe the working conditions of the coal, oil, and auto industries at the time.

The Flivver King describes the rise of Henry Ford, his "wage reform" and his company's Sociological Department, to his decline into antisemitism as publisher of The Dearborn Independent . King Coal confronts John D. Rockefeller Jr., and his role in the 1913 Ludlow Massacre in the coal fields of Colorado.

Sinclair was an outspoken socialist and ran unsuccessfully for Congress as a nominee from the Socialist Party. He was also the Democratic Party candidate for Governor of California during the Great Depression, running under the banner of the End Poverty in California campaign, but was defeated in the 1934 elections.

Early life and education

Sinclair was born in Baltimore, Maryland, to Upton Beall Sinclair Sr. and Priscilla Harden Sinclair. His father was a liquor salesman whose alcoholism shadowed his son's childhood. Priscilla Harden Sinclair was a strict Episcopalian who disliked alcohol, tea, and coffee. Both of Upton Sinclair's parents were of English ancestry, and all of his ancestors emigrated to America from England during the late 1600s and early 1700s. [5] As a child, Sinclair slept either on sofas or cross-ways on his parents' bed. When his father was out for the night, he would sleep in the bed with his mother. [6] His mother's family was very affluent: her parents were very prosperous in Baltimore, and her sister married a millionaire. Sinclair had wealthy maternal grandparents with whom he often stayed. This gave him insight into how both the rich and the poor lived during the late 19th century. Living in two social settings affected him and greatly influenced his books. Upton Beall Sinclair, Sr., was from a highly respected family in the South, but the family was financially ruined by the Civil War, disruptions of the labor system during the Reconstruction era, and an extended agricultural depression.

As he was growing up, Upton's family moved frequently, as his father was not successful in his career. He developed a love for reading when he was five years old. He read every book his mother owned for a deeper understanding of the world. He did not start school until he was 10 years old. He was deficient in math and worked hard to catch up quickly because of his embarrassment. [6] In 1888, the Sinclair family moved to Queens, New York City, New York, where his father sold shoes. Upton entered the City College of New York five days before his 14th birthday, [7] on September 15, 1892. [6] He wrote jokes, dime novels, and magazine articles in boys' weekly and pulp magazines to pay for his tuition. [8] With that income, he was able to move his parents to an apartment when he was seventeen years old. [6]

He graduated high school in June 1897. He subsequently studied at Columbia University. [9] His major was law, but he was more interested in writing. He learned several languages, including Spanish, German, and French. He paid the one-time enrollment fee to be able to learn a variety of subjects. He would sign up for a class and then later drop it. [10] He again supported himself through college by writing boys' adventure stories and jokes. He also sold ideas to cartoonists. [6] Using stenographers, he wrote up to 8,000 words of pulp fiction per day. His only complaint about his educational experience was that it failed to educate him about socialism. [10] After leaving Columbia, he wrote four books in the next four years; they were commercially unsuccessful though critically well-received: King Midas (1901), Prince Hagen (1902), The Journal of Arthur Stirling (1903), and a Civil War novel, Manassas (1904).[ citation needed ]

Sinclair did not get along with his mother when he became older because of her strict rules and refusal to allow him independence. Sinclair later told his son, David, that around Sinclair's 16th year, he decided not to have anything to do with his mother, staying away from her for 35 years because an argument would start if they met. [11]

Upton became close with Reverend William Wilmerding Moir. Moir specialized in sexual abstinence and taught his beliefs to Sinclair. He was taught to "avoid the subject of sex." Sinclair was to report to Moir monthly regarding his abstinence. Despite their close relationship, Sinclair identified as agnostic. [6]

Career

Upton Sinclair early in his career Upton Sinclair 1.jpg
Upton Sinclair early in his career

Upton Sinclair considered himself a poet and dedicated his time to writing poetry. [6] In 1904, Sinclair spent seven weeks in disguise, working undercover in Chicago's meatpacking plants to research his novel, The Jungle (1906), a political exposé that addressed conditions in the plants, as well as the lives of poor immigrants. When it was published two years later, it became a bestseller. In the spring of 1905, Sinclair issued a call for the formation of a new organization, a group to be called the Intercollegiate Socialist Society. [12]

Upton Sinclair wearing a white suit and black armband, picketing the Rockefeller Building in New York City Upton sinclair white suit black armband picketing rockefeller bldg.jpg
Upton Sinclair wearing a white suit and black armband, picketing the Rockefeller Building in New York City

With the income from The Jungle, Sinclair founded the utopian—but non-Jewish white only—Helicon Home Colony in Englewood, New Jersey. [13] He ran as a Socialist candidate for Congress. [14] [15] The colony burned down under suspicious circumstances within a year. [16]

In 1913–1914, Sinclair made three trips to the coal fields of Colorado, which led him to write King Coal and caused him to begin work on the larger, more historical The Coal War. In 1914, Sinclair helped organize demonstrations in New York City against Rockefeller at the Standard Oil offices. The demonstrations touched off more actions by the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) and the Mother Earth group, a loose association of anarchists and IWW members, in Rockefeller's hometown of Tarrytown. [17]

The Sinclairs moved to California in the 1920s and lived there for nearly four decades. During his years with his second wife, Mary Craig, Sinclair wrote or produced several films. Recruited by Charlie Chaplin, Sinclair and Mary Craig produced Eisenstein's ¡Qué viva México! in 1930–32. [18]

Other interests

Aside from his political and social writings, Sinclair took an interest in occult phenomena and experimented with telepathy. His book Mental Radio (1930) included accounts of his wife Mary's telepathic experiences and ability. [19] [20] William McDougall read the book and wrote an introduction to it, which led him to establish the parapsychology department at Duke University. [21]

Political career

Sinclair broke with the Socialist Party in 1917 and supported the war effort. By the 1920s, however, he had returned to the party.

In the 1920s, the Sinclairs moved to Monrovia, California (near Los Angeles), where Sinclair founded the state's chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union. Wanting to pursue politics, he twice ran unsuccessfully for United States Congress on the Socialist Party ticket: in 1920 for the House of Representatives and in 1922 for the Senate. He was the party candidate for governor of California in 1926, winning nearly 46,000 votes, and in 1930, winning nearly 50,000 votes.

During this period, Sinclair was also active in radical politics in Los Angeles. For instance, in 1923, to support the challenged free speech rights of Industrial Workers of the World, Sinclair spoke at a rally during the San Pedro Maritime Strike, in a neighborhood now known as Liberty Hill. He began to read from the Bill of Rights and was promptly arrested, along with hundreds of others, by the LAPD. The arresting officer proclaimed: "We'll have none of that Constitution stuff". [22]

Upton Sinclair in 1934 Upton Beall Sinclair Jr.jpg
Upton Sinclair in 1934

In 1934, Sinclair ran in the California gubernatorial election as a Democrat. Sinclair's platform, known as the End Poverty in California movement (EPIC), galvanized the support of the Democratic Party, and Sinclair gained its nomination. [23] Gaining 879,000 votes made this his most successful run for office, but incumbent Governor Frank Merriam defeated him by a sizable margin, [24] gaining 1,138,000 votes. [25] [26] Hollywood studio bosses unanimously opposed Sinclair. They pressured their employees to assist and vote for Merriam's campaign, and made false propaganda films attacking Sinclair, giving him no opportunity to respond. [27]

Sinclair's plan to end poverty quickly became a controversial issue under the pressure of numerous migrants to California fleeing the Dust Bowl. Conservatives considered his proposal an attempted communist takeover of their state and quickly opposed him, using propaganda to portray Sinclair as a staunch communist. Sinclair had been a member of the Socialist Party from 1902 to 1934, when he became a Democrat, though always considering himself a Socialist in spirit. [28] The Socialist party in California and nationwide refused to allow its members to be active in any other party including the Democratic Party and expelled him, along with socialists who supported his California campaign. The expulsions destroyed the Socialist party in California. [29]

At the same time, American and Soviet communists disassociated themselves from him, considering him a capitalist. [30] In later writings, such as his antialcohol book The Cup of Fury, Sinclair scathingly censured communism. Science-fiction author Robert A. Heinlein was deeply involved in Sinclair's campaign, although he attempted to move away from the stance later in his life. [31] In the 21st century, Sinclair is considered an early American democratic socialist. [32] [33]

After his loss to Merriam, Sinclair abandoned EPIC and politics to return to writing. In 1935, he published I, Candidate for Governor: And How I Got Licked, in which he described the techniques employed by Merriam's supporters, including the then popular Aimee Semple McPherson, who vehemently opposed socialism and what she perceived as Sinclair's modernism. Sinclair's line from this book "It is difficult to get a man to understand something, when his salary depends upon his not understanding it" has become well known and was for example quoted by Al Gore in An Inconvenient Truth. [34]

Of his gubernatorial bid, Sinclair remarked in 1951:

The American People will take Socialism, but they won't take the label. I certainly proved it in the case of EPIC. Running on the Socialist ticket I got 60,000 votes, and running on the slogan to 'End Poverty in California' I got 879,000. I think we simply have to recognize the fact that our enemies have succeeded in spreading the Big Lie. There is no use attacking it by a front attack, it is much better to out-flank them. [35]

Personal life

Sinclair's grave in Rock Creek Cemetery, Washington, DC Upton Sinclair grave.jpg
Sinclair's grave in Rock Creek Cemetery, Washington, DC

In April 1900, Sinclair went to Lake Massawippi in Quebec to work on a novel. He had a small cabin rented for three months and then he moved to a farmhouse. [6] Here, he met his future first wife, Meta Fuller, a childhood friend whose family was one of the First Families of Virginia. She was three years younger than him and had aspirations of being more than a housewife. Sinclair gave her direction as to what to read and learn. [6] Each had warned the other about themselves and would later bring that up in arguments. They married on October 18, 1900. [6] They used abstinence as their main form of birth control, but Meta became pregnant shortly after they married; she unsuccessfully attempted to terminate the pregnancy via abortion multiple times. [6] The child, David, was born on December 1, 1901. [36] [ page needed ] [lower-alpha 1] Meta and her family tried to get Sinclair to give up writing and get "a job that would support his family." [6] Around 1911, Meta left Sinclair for the poet Harry Kemp, [38] later known as the "Dunes Poet" of Provincetown, Massachusetts.

In 1913, Sinclair married Mary Craig Kimbrough (1883–1961), a woman from an elite Greenwood, Mississippi, family. She had written articles and a book on Winnie Davis, the daughter of Confederate States of America President Jefferson Davis. He met her when she attended one of his lectures about The Jungle. [39] In the 1920s, the Sinclair couple moved to California. They were married until her death in 1961. Sinclair married again, to Mary Elizabeth Willis (1882–1967). [40]

Sinclair was opposed to sex outside of marriage and he viewed marital relations as necessary only for procreation. [41] He told his first wife Meta that only the birth of a child gave marriage "dignity and meaning". [42] Despite his beliefs, he had an adulterous affair with Anna Noyes during his marriage to Meta. He wrote a novel about the affair called Love's Progress, a sequel to Love's Pilgrimage. It was never published. [43] His wife next had an affair with John Armistead Collier, a theology student from Memphis; they had a son together named Ben. [44]

In his novel, Mammonart, he suggested that Christianity was a religion that favored the rich and promoted a drop of standards. He was against it. [45]

Late in life Sinclair, with his third wife Mary Willis, moved to Buckeye, Arizona. They returned east to Bound Brook, New Jersey. Sinclair died there in a nursing home on November 25, 1968, a year after his wife. [38] He is buried in Rock Creek Cemetery in Washington, D.C., next to Willis.

Writing

Sinclair devoted his writing career to documenting and criticizing the social and economic conditions of the early 20th century in both fiction and nonfiction. He exposed his view of the injustices of capitalism and the overwhelming effects of poverty among the working class. He also edited collections of fiction and nonfiction.

The Jungle

His novel based on the meatpacking industry in Chicago, The Jungle, was first published in serial form in the socialist newspaper Appeal to Reason, from February 25, 1905, to November 4, 1905. It was published as a book by Doubleday in 1906. [46]

Upton Sinclair selling the "Fig Leaf Edition" of his book Oil! (1927) in Boston. The book had drawn the ire of that town's infamous censors who objected to a brief sex scene that takes place in the novel. Upton Sinclair Oil.jpg
Upton Sinclair selling the "Fig Leaf Edition" of his book Oil! (1927) in Boston. The book had drawn the ire of that town's infamous censors who objected to a brief sex scene that takes place in the novel.

Sinclair had spent about six months investigating the Chicago meatpacking industry for Appeal to Reason, the work which inspired his novel. He intended to "set forth the breaking of human hearts by a system which exploits the labor of men and women for profit". [7] The novel featured Jurgis Rudkus, a Lithuanian immigrant who works in a meat factory in Chicago, his teenaged wife Ona Lukoszaite, and their extended family. Sinclair portrays their mistreatment by Rudkus' employers and the wealthier elements of society. His descriptions of the unsanitary and inhumane conditions that workers suffered served to shock and galvanize readers. Jack London called Sinclair's book "the Uncle Tom's Cabin of wage slavery". [47] Domestic and foreign purchases of American meat fell by half. [48]

Sinclair wrote in Cosmopolitan in October 1906 about The Jungle: "I aimed at the public's heart, and by accident I hit it in the stomach." [3] The novel brought public lobbying for Congressional legislation and government regulation of the industry, including passage of the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act. [49] At the time, President Theodore Roosevelt characterized Sinclair as a "crackpot", [50] writing to William Allen White, "I have an utter contempt for him. He is hysterical, unbalanced, and untruthful. Three-fourths of the things he said were absolute falsehoods. For some of the remainder there was only a basis of truth." [51] After reading The Jungle, Roosevelt agreed with some of Sinclair's conclusions, but was opposed to legislation that he considered "socialist." He said, "Radical action must be taken to do away with the efforts of arrogant and selfish greed on the part of the capitalist." [52]

The Brass Check

In The Brass Check (1919), Sinclair made a systematic and incriminating critique of the severe limitations of the "free press" in the United States. Among the topics covered is the use of yellow journalism techniques created by William Randolph Hearst. Sinclair called The Brass Check "the most important and most dangerous book I have ever written." [53]

According to the Brass Check, ¨American Journalism is a class institution, serving the rich and spurning the poor.” This bias, Sinclair felt, had profound implications for American democracy:

The social body to which we belong is at this moment passing through one of the greatest crises of its history . . . What if the nerves upon which we depend for knowledge of this social body should give us false reports of its condition?

Sylvia novels

I, Governor of California, and How I Ended Poverty

This was a novel he published in 1934 as a preface to running for office in the state of California. In the book he outlined his plans to run as a Democrat instead of a Socialist, and describes his climb to the Democratic nomination, and then subsequent victory by a margin of 100,000 votes. [59] [60]

Lanny Budd series

Between 1940 and 1953, Sinclair wrote a series of 11 novels featuring a central character named Lanny Budd. The son of an American arms manufacturer, Budd is portrayed as holding in the confidence of world leaders, and not simply witnessing events, but often propelling them. As a sophisticated socialite who mingles easily with people from all cultures and socioeconomic classes, Budd has been characterized as the antithesis of the stereotyped "Ugly American". [61]

Sinclair placed Budd within the important political events in the United States and Europe in the first half of the 20th century. An actual company named the Budd Company manufactured arms during World War II, founded by Edward G. Budd in 1912.

The novels were bestsellers upon publication and were published in translation, appearing in 21 countries. The third book in the series, Dragon's Teeth (1942), won the Pulitzer Prize for the Novel in 1943. [62] Out of print and nearly forgotten for years, ebook editions of the Lanny Budd series were published in 2016. [63]

The Lanny Budd series includes:

Other works

Sinclair was keenly interested in health and nutrition. He experimented with various diets, and with fasting. He wrote about this in his book, The Fasting Cure (1911), another bestseller. [64] He believed that periodic fasting was important for health, saying, "I had taken several fasts of ten or twelve days' duration, with the result of a complete making over of my health". [65]

Sinclair favored a raw food diet of predominantly vegetables and nuts. For long periods of time, he was a complete vegetarian, but he also experimented with eating meat. His attitude to these matters was fully explained in the chapter, "The Use of Meat", in the above-mentioned book. [66]

President Lyndon B. Johnson greets Sinclair President Lyndon B. Johnson greets Upton Sinclair.jpg
President Lyndon B. Johnson greets Sinclair

Films

Works

Fiction

Autobiographical

Non-fiction

Drama

As editor

See also

Notes

    1. David Sinclair (1901–1987) became a physicist. [37]

    Related Research Articles

    <i>The Jungle</i> Novel by Upton Sinclair

    The Jungle is a 1906 novel by the American journalist and novelist Upton Sinclair (1878–1968). Sinclair wrote the novel to portray the harsh conditions and exploited lives of immigrants in the United States in Chicago and similar industrialized cities. His primary purpose in describing the meat industry and its working conditions was to advance socialism in the United States. However, most readers were more concerned with several passages exposing health violations and unsanitary practices in the American meat packing industry during the early 20th century, which greatly contributed to a public outcry which led to reforms including the Meat Inspection Act. Sinclair famously said of the public reaction, "I aimed at the public's heart, and by accident I hit it in the stomach."

    The End Poverty in California movement (EPIC) was a political campaign started in 1934 by socialist writer Upton Sinclair. The movement formed the basis for Sinclair’s campaign for Governor of California in 1934. The plan called for a massive public works program, sweeping tax reform, and guaranteed pensions. It gained major popular support, with thousands joining End Poverty Leagues across the state. EPIC never came to fruition due to Sinclair’s defeat in the 1934 election, but is seen as an influence on New Deal programs enacted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

    Frank Merriam 28th Governor of California

    Frank Finley Merriam was an American politician who served as the 28th governor of California from June 2, 1934 until January 2, 1939. Assuming the governorship at the height of the Great Depression following the death of Governor James Rolph, Merriam famously defeated the 'muck-raking' author of The Jungle, former Socialist Party member, and Democratic candidate Upton Sinclair in the California gubernatorial election in 1934. Merriam also served as the State Auditor of Iowa from 1900 to 1903, and served in both the Iowa and California state legislatures.

    <i>Worlds End</i> (Sinclair novel) novel by Upton Sinclair

    World's End is the first novel of Upton Sinclair's Lanny Budd series. First published in 1940, after World War II had begun in Europe the previous year, the story covers the period from 1913 to 1919, before and after World War I.

    <i>Dragons Teeth</i> (novel) book by Upton Sinclair

    Dragon's Teeth is a 1942 novel by Upton Sinclair that won the Pulitzer Prize for the Novel in 1943. Out of print and nearly forgotten for years, ebook editions of the Lanny Budd series were published in 2016. Set in the period 1929 to 1934, it covers the Nazi takeover of Germany during the 1930s.

    The social novel, also known as the social problemnovel, is a "work of fiction in which a prevailing social problem, such as gender, race, or class prejudice, is dramatized through its effect on the characters of a novel". More specific examples of social problems that are addressed in such works include poverty, conditions in factories and mines, the plight of child labor, violence against women, rising criminality, and epidemics because of over-crowding, and poor sanitation in cities.

    <i>Between Two Worlds</i> (novel) novel by Upton Sinclair

    Between Two Worlds is the second novel in Upton Sinclair's Lanny Budd series. First published in 1941, the story covers the period from 1919 to 1929.

    <i>King Coal</i> novel by Upton Sinclair

    King Coal is a 1917 novel by Upton Sinclair that describes the poor working conditions in the coal mining industry in the western United States during the 1910s, from the perspective of a single protagonist, Hal Warner. As in his earlier work, The Jungle, Sinclair uses the novel to express his socialist viewpoint. The book is based on the 1913-1914 Colorado coal strikes and written just after the Ludlow massacre. The sequel to King Coal was posthumously published under the title, The Coal War.

    <i>Appeal to Reason</i> (newspaper) newspaper in Kansas City, Kansas

    The Appeal to Reason was a weekly left-wing political newspaper published in the American Midwest from 1895 until 1922. The paper was known for its politics, lending support over the years to the Farmers' Alliance and People's Party before becoming a mainstay of the Socialist Party of America, following that organization's establishment in 1901. Making use of a network of highly motivated volunteers known as the "Appeal Army" to spur subscription sales, paid circulation of the Appeal climbed to more than a quarter-million copies by 1906 and half a million by 1910, making it the largest-circulation socialist newspaper in American history.

    <i>Wide is the Gate</i> book by Upton Sinclair

    Wide is the Gate is the fourth novel in Upton Sinclair's Lanny Budd series. First published in 1943, the story covers the period from 1934 to 1937.

    <i>Presidential Agent</i> novel by Upton Sinclair

    Presidential Agent is the fifth novel in Upton Sinclair's Lanny Budd series. First published in 1944, the story covers the period from 1937 to 1938.

    Lanny is a masculine personal name attributed as a variation of Laurence or Roland and may refer to:

    1934 California gubernatorial election

    The 1934 California gubernatorial election was held on November 6, 1934. Held in the midst of the Great Depression, the 1934 election was amongst the most controversial in the state's political history, pitting conservative Republican Frank Merriam against former Socialist Party member turned Democrat Upton Sinclair, author of The Jungle. A strong third party challenge came from Progressive Raymond L. Haight, a Los Angeles lawyer campaigning for the political center. Much of the campaign's emphasis was directed at Sinclair's EPIC movement, proposing interventionist reforms to cure the state's ailing economy. Merriam, who had recently assumed the governorship following the death of James Rolph, characterized Sinclair's proposal as a step towards communism.

    Helicon Home Colony was an experimental community formed by author Upton Sinclair in Englewood, New Jersey, United States, with proceeds from his novel The Jungle. Established in October 1906, it burned down in March 1907 and was disbanded.

    Ben Hanford American socialist politician

    Benjamin "Ben" Hanford was an American socialist politician during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. A printer by trade, Hanford is best remembered for his 1904 and 1908 runs for Vice President of the United States on the ticket of the Socialist Party of America, running next to Presidential nominee Eugene V. Debs. Hanford was also the creator of the fictional character "Jimmie Higgins," a prototypical Socialist rank-and-filer whose silent work on the unglamorous tasks needed by any political organization made the group's achievements possible — a character later reprised in a novel by Upton Sinclair.

    <i>A World to Win</i> (Sinclair novel) novel by Upton Sinclair

    A World to Win is the seventh novel in Upton Sinclair's Lanny Budd series. First published in 1946, the story covers the period from 1940 to 1942.

    Socialist Party of California

    The Socialist Party of California (SPCA) is a socialist political party in the U.S. state of California. Founded in the early 1900s, it has been the state chapter of the Socialist Party USA since being re-chartered in 2011.

    Mary Craig Sinclair American parapsychologist

    Mary Craig Sinclair (1882–1961) was a writer and the wife of Upton Sinclair.

    <i>The Jungle</i> (1914 film) 1914 silent short film

    The Jungle (1914) is an American drama silent film made by the All-Star Feature Corporation starring George Nash. The film is an adaptation of the 1906 book of the same name by Upton Sinclair, the only one to date. Sinclair reportedly bought the negative of the film prior to 1916, hoping to market the film nationally after its initial release in 1914. Sinclair himself reportedly appears at the beginning and end of the movie, as a sort of endorsement of the film.

    Grigori Tokaty Russian rocket scientist

    Grigori Aleksandrovich Tokaev (Russian: Григорий Александрович Токаев; Ossetian: Гогки Ахмæты фырт Токаты, Gorki Axmætî fîrt Tokatî; also known as Grigory Tokaty; was a rocket scientist and long-standing critic of Stalin's USSR.

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    Further reading

    Electronic editions

    Party political offices
    Preceded by
    Milton M. Young
    Democratic nominee for
    Governor of California

    1934
    Succeeded by
    Culbert Olson
    Vacant
    Title last held by
    Noble A. Richardson, 1914
    Socialist nominee for
    Governor of California

    1926, 1930
    Party defunct