Uruguay River

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Uruguay River
Atardeceruruguayrio.JPG
Sunset in the Uruguay River, from Misiones, Argentina
Uruguay (fleuve).png
Map of the Uruguay River
Native nameRío Uruguay  (Spanish)
Rio Uruguai  (Portuguese)
Location
Countries
Physical characteristics
Source Pelotas River
  location Serra Geral, Brazil
  elevation1,800 m (5,900 ft)
2nd source Canoas River
  location Serra Geral, Brazil
Mouth Río de la Plata
  location
Argentina, Uruguay
  coordinates
34°12′S58°18′W / 34.200°S 58.300°W / -34.200; -58.300 Coordinates: 34°12′S58°18′W / 34.200°S 58.300°W / -34.200; -58.300 [1]
  elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Length1,838 km (1,142 mi) [2]
Basin size365,000 km2 (141,000 sq mi) [3]
Discharge 
  average5,500 m3/s (190,000 cu ft/s) [3]
The Mocona Falls (also known as the Yucuma Falls), where the river passes between Argentina and Brazil, are up to 3 km wide Mocona2.jpg
The Moconá Falls (also known as the Yucumã Falls), where the river passes between Argentina and Brazil, are up to 3 km wide
Map of the Rio de la Plata Basin, showing the Uruguay River joining the Parana near Buenos Aires Riodelaplatabasinmap.png
Map of the Rio de la Plata Basin, showing the Uruguay River joining the Paraná near Buenos Aires

The Uruguay River (Spanish : Río Uruguay, Spanish pronunciation:  ['rio uɾuˈɣwaj]; Portuguese : Rio Uruguai, Brazilian Portuguese:  [ʁiu uɾuˈɡwaj] ) is a major river in South America. It flows from north to south and forms parts of the boundaries of Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay, separating some of the Argentine provinces of La Mesopotamia from the other two countries. It passes between the states of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil; forms the eastern border of the provinces of Misiones, Corrientes, and Entre Ríos in Argentina; and makes up the western borders of the departments of Artigas, Salto, Paysandú, Río Negro, Soriano, and Colonia in Uruguay.

Contents

Course

The river measures about 1,838 kilometres (1,142 mi) in length and starts in the Serra do Mar in Brazil, [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] where the Canoas River and the Pelotas River are joined, at about 200 metres (660 ft) above mean sea level. In this stage the river goes through uneven, broken terrain, forming rapids and falls. Its course through Rio Grande do Sul is not navigable

An unusual feature of the Uruguay River is a submerged canyon. This canyon formed during the Ice Age, when the climate was drier and the river was narrower. Its depth is up to 100 metres (330 ft) below the bottom of the river channel and it is 1/8 to 1/3 as wide as the river. [7] [9] The canyon is only visible in two places, one of which is the Moconá Falls (also called the Yucumã Falls). However, the falls are not visible for 150 days per year and become more like rapids when they are not visible. Unlike most waterfalls, the Moconá Falls are parallel to the river, not perpendicular. The falls are 10 metres (33 ft) to 12 metres (39 ft) high and between 1,800 metres (5,900 ft) and 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) wide. They are 1,215 kilometres (755 mi) from the mouth of the river. [7] [9] The 17,491 hectares (43,220 acres) Turvo State Park, created in 1947, protects the Brazilian side of the falls. [10]

Together with the Paraná River, the Uruguay forms the Río de la Plata estuary. It is navigable from around Salto Chico. Its main tributary is the Río Negro, which is born in the south of Brazil and goes through Uruguay for 500 km until its confluence with the Uruguay River, which is located 100 km north of the Uruguay's confluence with the Río de la Plata, in Punta Gorda, Colonia Department, Uruguay.

The river is crossed by five international bridges called (from north to south): Integration Bridge and Paso de los Libres-Uruguaiana International Bridge, between Argentina and Brazil; and the Salto Grande Bridge, General Artigas Bridge and Libertador General San Martín Bridge between Argentina and Uruguay.

The drainage basin of the Uruguay River has an area of 365,000 square kilometres (141,000 sq mi). [3] Its main economic use is the generation of hydroelectricity and it is dammed in its lower portion by the Salto Grande Dam and by the Itá Dam upstream in Brazil.

Origin of the name

The name of the river tends to comes from the Spanish settlers' interpretation of the Guaraní language word the inhabitants of the region used to designate it. There are several interpretations, including "the river of the uru (an indigenous bird)", and "[river of] the uruguá" (an indigenous gastropod, Pomella Megastoma). [11]

Cellulose plant conflict

Argentina and Uruguay experienced a conflict over the construction of pulp mills on the Uruguay River. Two European companies, ENCE and Botnia, proposed building cellulose processing plants at Fray Bentos, Uruguay, opposite Gualeguaychú, Argentina. According to a 1975 treaty, Argentina and Uruguay were supposed to jointly agree on matters relating to the Uruguay River. [12] Argentina alleged that Uruguay broke the treaty. Additionally, Argentina believed the Finnish company Botnia was polluting the fish and the overall environment of the river while Uruguay believed that the plant was not depositing a large amount of toxins in the Uruguay River. [13]

Starting in April 2005, residents of Gualeguaychú, as well as many others, protested, claiming that the plants would pollute the river shared by the two countries. Early in 2006, the conflict escalated into a diplomatic crisis,[ citation needed ] compelling one of the companies move the project 250 kilometres (160 mi) south. Beginning in December 2005, the international bridges linking the Argentine province of Entre Ríos with Uruguay were intermittently blockaded by Argentine protesters, causing major disruptions in commercial traffic and tourism.

In 2006, Argentina brought the dispute before the International Court of Justice. The ICJ completed hearings between Argentina and Uruguay regarding the dispute on October 2, 2009. In 2010, the court ruled that although Uruguay failed to inform Argentina of the construction of the pulp mills, the mills did not pollute the river, so closing the remaining pulp mill would be unjustified. Later in 2010, Argentina and Uruguay created a joint commission to coordinate activities on the river.

The course of the Uruguay is crossed by the following bridges, beginning upstream:

CrossingLocationBuiltCarriesCoordinates
Brazil
Campos Novos-Barracão Bridge Campos Novos-Barracão BR-470 27°36′12.1″S51°28′10.6″W / 27.603361°S 51.469611°W / -27.603361; -51.469611
Machadinho Dam Piratuba-Maximiliano de Almeida 2002 27°31′31.8″S51°47′15.7″W / 27.525500°S 51.787694°W / -27.525500; -51.787694
Marcelino Ramos Railway Bridge Alto Bela Vista-Marcelino Ramos 27°27′54.8″S51°54′02.3″W / 27.465222°S 51.900639°W / -27.465222; -51.900639
Concórdia-Marcelino Ramos Bridge Concórdia-Marcelino Ramos BR-153 27°22′32.8″S51°59′11.2″W / 27.375778°S 51.986444°W / -27.375778; -51.986444
Itá Dam Itá-Aratiba SC-155/RS-420 27°15′51.9″S52°22′53.8″W / 27.264417°S 52.381611°W / -27.264417; -52.381611
Chapecó-Nonoai Bridge Chapecó-Nonoai SC-480 27°17′02.4″S52°41′32″W / 27.284000°S 52.69222°W / -27.284000; -52.69222
Foz de Chapecó Dam Águas de Chapecó-Alpestre 27°08′23.1″S53°02′37.2″W / 27.139750°S 53.043667°W / -27.139750; -53.043667
Palmitos-Iraí Bridge Palmitos-Iraí BR-158 27°10′21.7″S53°13′42.8″W / 27.172694°S 53.228556°W / -27.172694; -53.228556
Brazil-Argentina
Alba Posse-Porto Mauá Bridge Alba Posse-Porto Mauá Planned
San Javier-Porto Xavier Bridge San Javier-Porto Xavier Planned
Integration Bridge Santo Tomé-São Borja 1997 National Route 121/BR-285 28°36′40.5″S56°00′51.1″W / 28.611250°S 56.014194°W / -28.611250; -56.014194
Alvear-Itaqui Bridge Alvear-Itaqui Planned
Agustín P. Justo-Getúlio Vargas International Bridge Paso de los Libres-Uruguaiana 1945 National Route 117/BR-290 29°44′36.5″S57°05′34.1″W / 29.743472°S 57.092806°W / -29.743472; -57.092806
Argentina-Uruguay
Monte Caseros-Bella Unión Bridge Monte Caseros-Bella Unión Planned
Salto Grande Bridge Concordia-Salto 1982 National Route A015/Acceso Puente Internacional 31°16′30″S57°56′18.2″W / 31.27500°S 57.938389°W / -31.27500; -57.938389
General Artigas Bridge Colón-Paysandú 1975 National Route 135/Avenida de las Américas 32°15′52.7″S58°06′01.4″W / 32.264639°S 58.100389°W / -32.264639; -58.100389
Libertador General San Martín Bridge Gualeguaychú-Fray Bentos 1976 National Route 136/Acceso Puente Internacional 33°05′55.7″S58°14′55.5″W / 33.098806°S 58.248750°W / -33.098806; -58.248750
Zárate-Nueva Palmira Zárate-Nueva Palmira Planned

See also

Related Research Articles

Geography of Uruguay

Uruguay is a country in the southeastern region of South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean, between Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. It is located in the Southern Hemisphere on the Atlantic seaboard of South America between 53 and 58 west longitude and 30 and 35 south latitude. It is bordered to the west by Argentina, on the north and northeast by Brazil, and on the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, which makes up Uruguay's coast.

Río de la Plata River or estuary in South America

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Paraná River River in South America

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Fray Bentos Capital city in Río Negro Department, Uruguay

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Río Negro Department Department of Uruguay

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Gualeguaychú, Entre Ríos City in Entre Ríos, Argentina

Gualeguaychú is a city in the province of Entre Ríos, Argentina, on the left bank of the Gualeguaychú River. It is located on the south-east of the province, approximately 230 km north-west of Buenos Aires. It has a population of 109,266 according to the 2010 Census.

The pulp mill dispute was a dispute between Argentina and Uruguay concerning the construction of pulp mills on the Uruguay River. The presidents at the time were Néstor Kirchner (Argentina) and Tabaré Vázquez (Uruguay). As a diplomatic, economic, and public relations conflict between both parties, the dispute also affected tourism and transportation as well as the otherwise amicable relations between the two countries. The feud was unprecedented between the two countries, which have shared historical and cultural ties.

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Río de la Plata Basin Drainage basin in eastern South America

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Argentina–Uruguay relations Diplomatic relations between the Argentine Republic and the Eastern Republic of Uruguay

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Turvo State Park State park in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

The Turvo State Park is a state park in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It protects the last large area of well-preserved Upper Uruguay forest in the state, which is home to several rare or endangered species. The park is best known for the dramatic Yucumã Falls on the Uruguay River, the second-widest in the world by some measures. The falls may be threatened by flooding from the planned Garabí-Panambi Hydroelectric Complex if a 2015 court ruling is overturned.

Garabí-Panambi Hydroelectric Complex

The Garabí-Panambi Hydroelectric Complex is a planned pair of hydroelectric dams and generating stations on the Uruguay River between Argentina and Brazil. There is controversy over the environmental impact on the fast-flowing river. The prime contractors are trying to avoid public image problems and delays such as those with other recent dams.

Panambí Dam

The Panambí Dam, or Roncador Dam, is a planned hydroelectric dam and generating station on the Uruguay River between Argentina and Brazil, part of the Garabí-Panambi Hydroelectric Complex. There is controversy over the environmental impact on the fast-flowing river.

Garabí Dam

The Garabí Dam is a planned dam and generating station on the Uruguay River between Argentina and Brazil, part of the Garabí-Panambi Hydroelectric Complex. There is some controversy over the environmental impact on the fast-flowing river.

References

  1. Uruguay River at GEOnet Names Server
  2. "Río de la Plata". Encyclopædia Britannica . Retrieved 14 August 2010.
  3. 1 2 3 Varis, Olli; Tortajada, Cecilia; Biswas, Asit K. (2008). Management of Transboundary Rivers and Lakes. Springer. p. 272. ISBN   978-3-540-74926-4.
  4. Rio Uruguay
  5. "CONICET | Buscador de Institutos y Recursos Humanos". www.conicet.gov.ar. Retrieved 2019-10-06.
  6. FACULDADE DE BIOCIÊNCIAS PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM BIOCIÊNCIAS – ZOOLOGIA
  7. 1 2 3 "A particular canyon excavated in the large Uruguay River channel (South America)".
  8. The fish fauna of two tributaries of the passo fundo river, uruguay river basin, rio grande do sul, brazil
  9. 1 2 "Moconá Falls (Yucumã Falls)". Wondermondo. 2012-02-15.
  10. PES do Turvo (in Portuguese), ISA: Instituto Socioambiental, retrieved 2016-11-11
  11. El País newspaper: Presentan tesis del nombre Uruguay Archived 2012-03-14 at the Wayback Machine , (in Spanish) Retrieved 21 November 2014.
  12. Helsingin Sanomat. "Pulp mill dispute between Argentina and Uruguay intensifies" . Retrieved May 26, 2014.
  13. "Argentina y Uruguay ya esperan fallo de la CIJ en diferendo sobre pastera". AFP, Por Anna Pelegrí. Retrieved 10 February 2009.

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