Sunset in the Uruguay River, from Misiones, Argentina
Map of the Uruguay River
|Native name||Río Uruguay (Spanish)|
Rio Uruguai (Portuguese)
|• location||Serra Geral, Brazil|
|• elevation||1,800 m (5,900 ft)|
|2nd source||Canoas River|
|• location||Serra Geral, Brazil|
|Mouth||Río de la Plata|
|0 m (0 ft)|
|Length||1,838 km (1,142 mi)|
|Basin size||365,000 km2 (141,000 sq mi)|
|• average||5,500 m3/s (190,000 cu ft/s)|
The Uruguay River (Spanish : Río Uruguay, Spanish pronunciation: ['rio uɾuˈɣwaj]; Portuguese : Rio Uruguai, Brazilian Portuguese: [ʁiu uɾuˈɡwaj] ) is a major river in South America. It flows from north to south and forms parts of the boundaries of Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay, separating some of the Argentine provinces of La Mesopotamia from the other two countries. It passes between the states of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil; forms the eastern border of the provinces of Misiones, Corrientes, and Entre Ríos in Argentina; and makes up the western borders of the departments of Artigas, Salto, Paysandú, Río Negro, Soriano, and Colonia in Uruguay.
The river measures about 1,838 kilometres (1,142 mi) in length and starts in the Serra do Mar in Brazil, where the Canoas River and the Pelotas River are joined, at about 200 metres (660 ft) above mean sea level. In this stage the river goes through uneven, broken terrain, forming rapids and falls. Its course through Rio Grande do Sul is not navigable
An unusual feature of the Uruguay River is a submerged canyon. This canyon formed during the Ice Age, when the climate was drier and the river was narrower. Its depth is up to 100 metres (330 ft) below the bottom of the river channel and it is 1/8 to 1/3 as wide as the river. The canyon is only visible in two places, one of which is the Moconá Falls (also called the Yucumã Falls). However, the falls are not visible for 150 days per year and become more like rapids when they are not visible. Unlike most waterfalls, the Moconá Falls are parallel to the river, not perpendicular. The falls are 10 metres (33 ft) to 12 metres (39 ft) high and between 1,800 metres (5,900 ft) and 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) wide. They are 1,215 kilometres (755 mi) from the mouth of the river. The 17,491 hectares (43,220 acres) Turvo State Park, created in 1947, protects the Brazilian side of the falls.
Together with the Paraná River, the Uruguay forms the Río de la Plata estuary. It is navigable from around Salto Chico. Its main tributary is the Río Negro, which is born in the south of Brazil and goes through Uruguay for 500 km until its confluence with the Uruguay River, which is located 100 km north of the Uruguay's confluence with the Río de la Plata, in Punta Gorda, Colonia Department, Uruguay.
The river is crossed by five international bridges called (from north to south): Integration Bridge and Paso de los Libres-Uruguaiana International Bridge, between Argentina and Brazil; and the Salto Grande Bridge, General Artigas Bridge and Libertador General San Martín Bridge between Argentina and Uruguay.
The drainage basin of the Uruguay River has an area of 365,000 square kilometres (141,000 sq mi). Its main economic use is the generation of hydroelectricity and it is dammed in its lower portion by the Salto Grande Dam and by the Itá Dam upstream in Brazil.
The name of the river tends to comes from the Spanish settlers' interpretation of the Guaraní language word the inhabitants of the region used to designate it. There are several interpretations, including "the river of the uru (an indigenous bird)", and "[river of] the uruguá" (an indigenous gastropod, Pomella Megastoma).
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Argentina and Uruguay experienced a conflict over the construction of pulp mills on the Uruguay River. Two European companies, ENCE and Botnia, proposed building cellulose processing plants at Fray Bentos, Uruguay, opposite Gualeguaychú, Argentina. According to a 1975 treaty, Argentina and Uruguay were supposed to jointly agree on matters relating to the Uruguay River.Argentina alleged that Uruguay broke the treaty. Additionally, Argentina believed the Finnish company Botnia was polluting the fish and the overall environment of the river while Uruguay believed that the plant was not depositing a large amount of toxins in the Uruguay River.
Starting in April 2005, residents of Gualeguaychú, as well as many others, protested, claiming that the plants would pollute the river shared by the two countries. Early in 2006, the conflict escalated into a diplomatic crisis,[ citation needed ] compelling one of the companies move the project 250 kilometres (160 mi) south. Beginning in December 2005, the international bridges linking the Argentine province of Entre Ríos with Uruguay were intermittently blockaded by Argentine protesters, causing major disruptions in commercial traffic and tourism.
In 2006, Argentina brought the dispute before the International Court of Justice. The ICJ completed hearings between Argentina and Uruguay regarding the dispute on October 2, 2009. In 2010, the court ruled that although Uruguay failed to inform Argentina of the construction of the pulp mills, the mills did not pollute the river, so closing the remaining pulp mill would be unjustified. Later in 2010, Argentina and Uruguay created a joint commission to coordinate activities on the river.
The course of the Uruguay is crossed by the following bridges, beginning upstream:
|Campos Novos-Barracão Bridge||Campos Novos-Barracão||BR-470|
|Machadinho Dam||Piratuba-Maximiliano de Almeida||2002|
|Marcelino Ramos Railway Bridge||Alto Bela Vista-Marcelino Ramos|
|Concórdia-Marcelino Ramos Bridge||Concórdia-Marcelino Ramos||BR-153|
|Foz de Chapecó Dam||Águas de Chapecó-Alpestre|
|Alba Posse-Porto Mauá Bridge||Alba Posse-Porto Mauá||Planned|
|San Javier-Porto Xavier Bridge||San Javier-Porto Xavier||Planned|
|Integration Bridge||Santo Tomé-São Borja||1997||National Route 121/BR-285|
|Agustín P. Justo-Getúlio Vargas International Bridge||Paso de los Libres-Uruguaiana||1945||National Route 117/BR-290|
|Monte Caseros-Bella Unión Bridge||Monte Caseros-Bella Unión||Planned|
|Salto Grande Bridge||Concordia-Salto||1982||National Route A015/Acceso Puente Internacional|
|General Artigas Bridge||Colón-Paysandú||1975||National Route 135/Avenida de las Américas|
|Libertador General San Martín Bridge||Gualeguaychú-Fray Bentos||1976||National Route 136/Acceso Puente Internacional|
|Zárate-Nueva Palmira||Zárate-Nueva Palmira||Planned|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Uruguay River .|
Uruguay is a country in the southeastern region of South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean, between Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. It is located in the Southern Hemisphere on the Atlantic seaboard of South America between 53 and 58 west longitude and 30 and 35 south latitude. It is bordered to the west by Argentina, on the north and northeast by Brazil, and on the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, which makes up Uruguay's coast.
The Río de la Plata, called River Plate in British English and the Commonwealth and La Plata River in other English-speaking countries, is the estuary formed by the confluence of the Uruguay River and the Paraná River at Punta Gorda. It empties into the Atlantic Ocean and forms a funnel-shaped indentation on the southeastern coastline of South America. Depending on the geographer, the Río de la Plata may be considered a river, an estuary, a gulf, or a marginal sea. It is the widest river in the world, with a maximum width of 220 kilometres (140 mi).
The Paraná River is a river in south Central South America, running through Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina for some 4,880 kilometres (3,030 mi). It is second in length only to the Amazon River among South American rivers. The name Paraná is an abbreviation of the phrase "para rehe onáva", which comes from the Tupi language and means "like the sea". It merges first with the Paraguay River and then farther downstream with the Uruguay River to form the Río de la Plata and empties into the Atlantic Ocean.
Fray Bentos is the capital city of the Río Negro Department, in south-western Uruguay. Its port on the Uruguay River is one of the nation's most important harbours. The city hosts the first campus of the Technological University, beside the historically relevant industrial complex Anglo, a World Heritage site. One of the biggest pulp mills in the world is situated close to Fray Bentos and the Libertador General San Martín Bridge; it was the center of the largest political dispute between Uruguay and Argentina during the 21st century.
Río Negro Department is a department of the northwestern region of Uruguay. It has an area of 9,282 km2 (3,584 sq mi) and a population of 54,765. Its capital is Fray Bentos. It borders Paysandú Department to the north, Tacuarembó Department to the east, Durazno Department to the southeast, Soriano Department to the south and has the Río Uruguay flowing at its west, separating it from Argentina.
The Paranapanema River is one of the most important rivers of the interior of the Brazilian state of São Paulo. The river forms most of the boundary between the states of São Paulo and Paraná.
Salto is the capital city of the Salto Department in northwestern Uruguay. As of the 2011 census it had a population of 104,028 and is the second most populated city in Uruguay.
Gualeguaychú is a city in the province of Entre Ríos, Argentina, on the left bank of the Gualeguaychú River. It is located on the south-east of the province, approximately 230 km north-west of Buenos Aires. It has a population of 109,266 according to the 2010 Census.
The pulp mill dispute was a dispute between Argentina and Uruguay concerning the construction of pulp mills on the Uruguay River. The presidents at the time were Néstor Kirchner (Argentina) and Tabaré Vázquez (Uruguay). As a diplomatic, economic, and public relations conflict between both parties, the dispute also affected tourism and transportation as well as the otherwise amicable relations between the two countries. The feud was unprecedented between the two countries, which have shared historical and cultural ties.
Derrubadas is a municipality of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul.
The Libertador General San Martín Bridge is a cantilever road bridge that crosses the Uruguay River and joins Argentina and Uruguay. It runs between Puerto Unzué, near Gualeguaychú, Entre Ríos Province, Argentina, and Fray Bentos, Río Negro Department, Uruguay, with a total length of 5,366 meters (3.7 mi).
The Río de la Plata basin, more often called the River Plate basin in scholarly writings, sometimes called the Platine basin or Platine region, is the 3,170,000-square-kilometre (1,220,000 sq mi) hydrographical area in South America that drains to the Río de la Plata. It includes areas of southeastern Bolivia, southern and central Brazil, the entire country of Paraguay, most of Uruguay, and northern Argentina. Making up about one fourth of the continent's surface, it is the second largest drainage basin in South America and one of the largest in the world.
Argentina–Uruguay relations are foreign relations between the Argentine Republic and the Oriental Republic of Uruguay. Both countries were part of the Spanish Empire until the early 19th century.
The Turvo State Park is a state park in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It protects the last large area of well-preserved Upper Uruguay forest in the state, which is home to several rare or endangered species. The park is best known for the dramatic Yucumã Falls on the Uruguay River, the second-widest in the world by some measures. The falls may be threatened by flooding from the planned Garabí-Panambi Hydroelectric Complex if a 2015 court ruling is overturned.
The Garabí-Panambi Hydroelectric Complex is a planned pair of hydroelectric dams and generating stations on the Uruguay River between Argentina and Brazil. There is controversy over the environmental impact on the fast-flowing river. The prime contractors are trying to avoid public image problems and delays such as those with other recent dams.
The Panambí Dam, or Roncador Dam, is a planned hydroelectric dam and generating station on the Uruguay River between Argentina and Brazil, part of the Garabí-Panambi Hydroelectric Complex. There is controversy over the environmental impact on the fast-flowing river.
The Garabí Dam is a planned dam and generating station on the Uruguay River between Argentina and Brazil, part of the Garabí-Panambi Hydroelectric Complex. There is some controversy over the environmental impact on the fast-flowing river.
Media related to Uruguay River at Wikimedia Commons