Ushpia

Last updated
Ushpia
Monarch of Aššūrāyu
Reign fl. c. 2030 BC
Predecessor Azarah
Successor Apiashal

Ushpia (Akkadian : 𒍑𒉿𒀀, romanized: Uš-pi-a) was an early Assyrian king who ruled Assyria ( fl. c. 2030 BC), as the second last within the section "kings who lived in tents” of the Assyrian King List (AKL), however; Ushpia has yet to be confirmed by contemporary artifacts. According to the Cambridge Ancient History , the conclusion of this section, "marked the end of the nomadic period of the Assyrian people," and, "visualized Ushpia as the actual founder of the Semitic city of Aššur." [1] Ushpia is alleged to have founded the temple for the god Aššur within the city-state of Aššur, [2] according to the much later inscriptions of both of these Assyrian kings: Shulmanu-asharedu I ( fl. c. 1274 BC) and Aššur-ahu-iddin ( fl. 681 BC). Ushpia is succeeded on the AKL by Apiashal. [3] Arthur Ungnad interpreted both Ushpia's and Kikkia's ( fl. c. 2000 BC) names as being that of the Hurrian language (as opposed to the Assyrian dialect of the Semitic Akkadian language), but; Arno Poebel was not convinced by this interpretation [4] and more recent research no longer holds Ungnad's thesis as tenable.

Preceded by
Azarah
Monarch of Aššūrāyu
fl. c. 2030 BC
Succeeded by
Apiashal

See also

Related Research Articles

Assyria Major Mesopotamian East Semitic kingdom

Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant that existed as a state from perhaps as early as the 25th century BC until its collapse between 612 BC and 609 BC - spanning the periods of the Early to Middle Bronze Age through to the late Iron Age. From the end of the seventh century BC to the mid-seventh century AD, it survived as a geopolitical entity, for the most part ruled by foreign powers such as the Parthian and early Sasanian Empires between the mid-second century BC and late third century AD, the final part of which period saw Mesopotamia become a major centre of Syriac Christianity and the birthplace of the Church of the East.

Shamshi-Adad I was an Amorite who had conquered lands across much of Syria, Anatolia, and Upper Mesopotamia for the Old Assyrian Empire.

Ishme-Dagan I was a monarch of the Old Assyrian Empire. The much later Assyrian King List (AKL) credits Ishme-Dagan I with a reign of forty years, however; it is now known from a limmu-list of eponyms unearthed at Kanesh in 2003 that his reign in Assur lasted eleven years. According to the AKL, Ishme-Dagan I was the son and successor of Shamshi-Adad I. Also according to the AKL, Ishme-Dagan I was succeeded by his son Mut-Ashkur.

Hayani was the twentieth Assyrian monarch of the Early Period of Aššūrāyu (Assyria) according to the Assyrian King List (AKL). Hayani is listed within a section of the AKL as the fourth out of the ten "kings whose fathers are known". This section had been written in reverse order—beginning with Aminu and ending with Apiashalaltogether ten kings who are ancestors”—and has often been interpreted as the list of ancestors of the Amorite Šamši-Adad I who had conquered the city-state of Aššur. The AKL also states that Hayani was the son and successor of Hale. Additionally, the AKL states that Hayani had been both the predecessor and father of Ilu-Mer.

Old Assyrian Empire Historical period in Assyria

The Old Assyrian Empire is the second of four periods into which the history of Assyria is divided, the other three being the Early Assyrian Period, the Middle Assyrian Empire, and the Neo-Assyrian Empire. Assyria was a major Mesopotamian East Semitic-speaking kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East. Centered on the Tigris–Euphrates river system in Upper Mesopotamia, the Assyrian people came to rule powerful empires at several times. Making up a substantial part of the "cradle of civilization", which included Sumer, the Akkadian Empire, and Babylonia, Assyria was at the height of technological, scientific and cultural achievements at its peak.

Sulili was an early ruler of Assur. The Assyrian King List lists him as the twenty-seventh ruler of Assyria. He also appears within the Assyrian King List as the first out of the six kings “(whose names were written on?) bricks whose eponyms are ". Additionally, it is stated within the Assyrian King List that he was the successor of and “son of Aminu". Aminu had himself been the son of and successor of Ila-kabkabu, and Aminu and Ila-kabkabu were among the ten kings “who are ancestors".

Adamu was an early Assyrian king, and listed as the second among the, "seventeen kings who lived in tents" within the Mesopotamian Chronicles. The Mesopotamian Chronicles state that Adamu succeeded Tudiya. The Assyriologist Georges Roux stated that Tudiya would have lived c. 2450 BCE — c. 2400 BCE. The earliest known use of the name “Adam” as a genuine name in historicity is Adamu. As in his predecessor's case, virtually nothing is otherwise known about Adamu's reign or him personally; his existence remains unconfirmed archaeologically and uncorroborated by any other source.

Puzur-Ashur I was an Assyrian who fl.c. 2000 BC. His clearly Assyrian name distinguishes him from his three immediate predecessors on the Assyrian King List, who possibly bore non-Semitic names, and from the earlier, Amorite-named, "kings who are ancestors", often interpreted as a list of Shamshi-Adad I's ancestors. He is known in the Assyrian King List and from references in the inscriptions of later kings These later kings mentioned him among the kings who had renewed the city walls of Assur begun by Kikkia.

Apiashal had been an early monarch of the Early Period of Aššūrāyu (Assyria) according to the Assyrian King List (AKL). He is listed within the section of the AKL as the last of whom, "altogether seventeen kings, tent dwellers." This section shows marked similarities to the ancestors of the First Babylonian dynasty. The AKL also states that Apiashal had been preceded by his father Ushpia Additionally, the AKL states that Apiashal had been succeeded by his son Hale

Kikkia, inscribed mKi-ik-ki-a had been the twenty-eighth ruler of Assyria to be recorded within the Assyrian King List. He was listed after Sulili and before Akiya. Kikkia's name is given as the second of a group of rulers “(named) on bricks whose eponyms are not found", suggesting that he had preceded the period in which the annually-elected limmu officials had been appointed and given their names to the years. Consequently, the length of his reign is undetermined.

Hale was the eighteenth Assyrian monarch of the Early Period of Aššūrāyu (Assyria), according to the Assyrian King List (AKL).

Samani was the nineteenth Assyrian monarch of the Early Period of Aššūrāyu (Assyria) according to the Assyrian King List (AKL). Samani is listed within a section of the AKL as the third out of the ten "kings whose fathers are known". This section had been written in reverse order—beginning with Aminu and ending with Apiashalaltogether ten kings who are ancestors”—and has often been interpreted as the list of ancestors of the Amorite Šamši-Adad I who had conquered the city-state of Aššur. The AKL also states that Samani was the son and successor of Hale. Additionally, the AKL states that Samani had been both the predecessor and father of Hayani.

Ilu-Mer was the twenty-first Assyrian monarch of the Early Period of Aššūrāyu (Assyria) according to the Assyrian King List (AKL). Ilu-Mer is listed within a section of the AKL as the fifth out of the ten "kings whose fathers are known". This section had been written in reverse order—beginning with Aminu and ending with Apiashalaltogether ten kings who are ancestors”—and has often been interpreted as the list of ancestors of the Amorite Šamši-Adad I who had conquered the city-state of Aššur. The AKL also states that Ilu-Mer was the son and successor of Hayani. Additionally, the AKL states that Ilu-Mer had been both the predecessor and father of Yakmesi.

Yakmesi had been the twenty-second Assyrian monarch of the Early Period of Aššūrāyu (Assyria) according to the Assyrian King List (AKL). Yakmesi is listed within a section of the AKL as the sixth out of the ten, "kings whose fathers are known". This section had been written in reverse order—beginning with Aminu and ending with Apiashal “altogether ten kings who are ancestors""—and has often been interpreted as the list of ancestors of the Amorite Šamši-Adad I who had conquered the city-state of Aššur. The AKL also states that Yakmesi had been both the son and successor of Ilu-Mer. Additionally, the AKL states that Yakmesi had been both the predecessor and father of Yakmeni.

Yakmeni had been the twenty-third Assyrian monarch of the Early Period of Aššūrāyu (Assyria) according to the Assyrian King List (AKL). Yakmeni is listed within a section of the AKL as the seventh out of the ten, "kings whose fathers are known." This section had been written in reverse order—beginning with Aminu and ending with Apiashalaltogether ten kings who are ancestors”—and has often been interpreted as the list of ancestors of the Amorite Šamši-Adad I who had conquered the city-state of Aššur. The AKL also states that Yakmeni had been both the son and successor of Yakmesi. Additionally, the AKL states that Yakmeni had been both the predecessor and father of Yazkur-el.

Yazkur-el had been the twenty-fourth Assyrian monarch of the Early Period of Aššūrāyu (Assyria) according to the Assyrian King List (AKL). Yazkur-el is listed within a section of the AKL as the eighth out of the ten, "kings whose fathers are known." This section had been written in reverse order—beginning with Aminu and ending with Apiashalaltogether ten kings who are ancestors”—and has often been interpreted as the list of ancestors of the Amorite Šamši-Adad I who had conquered the city-state of Aššur. The AKL also states that Yazkur-el had been both the son and successor of Yakmeni. Additionally, the AKL states that Yazkur-el had been both the predecessor and father of Ila-kabkabu.

Aminu had been the twenty-sixth Assyrian monarch of the Early Period of Aššūrāyu (Assyria) according to the Assyrian King List (AKL). Aminu is listed within a section of the AKL as the last of the, "kings whose fathers are known." This section had been written in reverse order—beginning with Aminu and ending with Apiashalaltogether ten kings who are ancestors”—and has often been interpreted as the list of ancestors of the Amorite Šamši-Adad I who had conquered the city-state of Aššur. The AKL also states that Aminu had been both the son and successor of Ila-kabkabu. Additionally, the AKL states that Yazkur-el had been both the predecessor and father of Sulili.

Akiya was an early ruler of the city-state Assur. According to the Assyrian King List (AKL), he was the twenty-ninth Assyrian monarch of the Early Period of Assyria. He is listed within a section of the AKL as the third out of the six, "kings whose eponyms are not known." The AKL states that Akiya was the successor of Kikkia, and was the predecessor of Puzur-Ashur I. Very little is otherwise known of Akiya's reign.

Early Period (Assyria)

The Early Period refers to the history of Assyrian civilization of Mesopotamia between 2500 BCE and 2025 BCE. It is the first of the four periods into which the history of the Assyrian civilisation is traditionally divided. The other periods are the Old Assyrian Empire, the Middle Assyrian Empire and the Neo-Assyrian Empire.

References

  1. Hildegard Levy, "Assyria c. 2600-1816 B.C.", Cambridge Ancient History. Volume 1, Part 2: Early History of the Middle East, 729-770, p. 745-746.)
  2. Rowton, M.B. (1970). The Cambridge Ancient History. 1.1. Cambridge University Press. pp. 202–204. ISBN   0521070511.
  3. Roux, Georges (Aug 27, 1992). Ancient Iraq . Penguin Books Limited. ISBN   978-0140125238.
  4. Poebel, Arno (1942). The Assyrian King List from Khorsabad, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 1/3, 253.