Víctor Manzanilla Schaffer
|Governor of Yucatan|
1 February 1988 –14 February 1991
|Preceded by||Víctor Cervera Pacheco|
|Succeeded by||Dulce María Sauri Riancho|
|President of the Chamber of Deputies|
1 November 1977 –30 November 1977
|Preceded by||Martha Andrade de Del Rosal|
|Succeeded by||Guillermo Cosío Vidaurri|
1 September 1967 –30 September 1967
|Preceded by||Alejandro Carrillo Marcor|
|Succeeded by||Edgar Robledo Santiago|
|Born||13 November 1924|
Mexico City, Mexico
|Died||7 April 2019 94) (aged|
Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico
|Political party||Institutional Revolutionary Party|
Víctor Manzanilla Schaffer (13 November 1924 – 7 April 2019) was a Mexican politician and diplomat who served as Governor of the state of Yucatán. He was a member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI).
Yucatán, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Yucatán, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 106 municipalities, and its capital city is Mérida.
The Institutional Revolutionary Party is a Mexican political party founded in 1929 that held uninterrupted power in the country for 71 years from 1929 to 2000, first as the National Revolutionary Party, then as the Party of the Mexican Revolution, and finally renaming itself as the Institutional Revolutionary Party in 1946.
Manzanilla Schaffer was the son of a revolutionary politician in Yucatán, the founder of the Anti-Reelection Party and a congressman.He earned an undergraduate degree from the School of Law of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, a master's degree in sociology from The New School for Social Research in New York, and a doctorate in law.
The National Autonomous University of Mexico is a public research university in Mexico. It ranks highly in world rankings based on the university's extensive research and innovation. UNAM's campus is a UNESCO World Heritage site that was designed by some of Mexico's best-known architects of the 20th century. Murals in the main campus were painted by some of the most recognized artists in Mexican history, such as Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros. In 2016, it had an acceptance rate of only 8%. UNAM generates a number of strong research publications and patents in diverse areas, such as robotics, computer science, mathematics, physics, human-computer interaction, history, philosophy, among others. All Mexican Nobel laureates are either alumni or faculty of UNAM.
The New School for Social Research (NSSR) is an educational institution that is part of The New School in New York City, USA. The school's dedication to academic freedom and intellectual inquiry reaches back to the university’s founding in 1919 as a home for progressive thinkers. The New School for Social Research explores and promotes global peace and justice as more than theoretical ideals. The New School for Social Research enrolls more than 1,000 students from all regions of the United States and from more than 70 countries.
He served as a legal assistant in the United Nations division of narcotics, as Mexico's ambassador to China and its first to North Korea, and for two terms as a member of the Senate and one as a member of the Chamber of Deputies.He exerted unusual independence as a congressman, on one occasion voting against President José López Portillo's amendment of Article 27 of the Constitution. Elected to succeed Víctor Cervera Pacheco, he was governor of Yucatán from February 1988 to February 1991, when he resigned three years before his term was to have ended, it is presumed at the urging of Cervera Pacheco and of then-President Carlos Salinas de Gortari.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that was tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna and The Hague. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law. The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
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The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of the Congress of the Union, the bicameral legislature of Mexico. The other chamber is the Senate. The structure and responsibilities of both chambers of Congress are defined in Articles 50 to 70 of the current constitution.
Among other honours Manzanilla Schaffer was awarded the Medalla al Mérito Legislativo, the Knight Commander's Cross of the Grand Cross of Merit of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany,and the Jesús Reyes Heroles prize of the Agrupación Nacional de Egresados del Instituto de Capacitación Política of the PRI.
The Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany is the only federal decoration of Germany. It was created by the first President of the Federal Republic of Germany, Theodor Heuss, on 7 September 1951, and has been awarded to over 200,000 individuals in total, both Germans and foreigners. Since the 1990s the number of annual awards has declined from over 4,000, first to around 2,300–2,500 per year, and now under 2,000, with a low of 1752 in 2011. In recent years women have made up a steady 30–31% of recipients. Colloquially, the decorations of the different classes of the Order are also known as the Federal Cross of Merit (Bundesverdienstkreuz).
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According to the Political Constitution of the Free and Sovereign State of Yucatán, the exercise of the Executive Power of this Mexican state is placed in a single individual, that Constitutional Governor of the Free and Sovereign State of Yucatán who is chosen for a period of 6 years and is not eligible for reelection. The term of governor begins October 1 of the year of the election and finishes September 30 six years later.
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